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From the collection of the



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THE



NORTH AMERICAN
REVIEW.



VOL. XXIV.



A

VOL. XV.



BOSTON,

FREDERICK T, GRAY, 74 WASHINGTON STREET.
1827.



Dinar MA u






.1



4Wt



CAMBRIDGE.

From the University Press By Milliard, Metcalf, fy Co.






CONTENTS

OF

No. LIV.

NEW SERIES, NO. XXIX.



ART. PAGE.

I. INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS 1

1. Report of the Examination which has been made
by the Board of Engineers, with a View to Internal
Improvement, &c. February 14th, 1825.

2. Report of the Board of Internal Improvement
upon the Subject of a National Road from the City of
Washington to New Orleans.

II. WINTHROP'S HISTORY OF NEW ENGLAND .... 23
The History of New England from 1630 to 1649, by
John Winthrop, first Governor of the Colony of Massa
chusetts Bay; from his Original Manuscripts. With
Notes, &LC. By Jame Savage.

III. THE WISE MEN OF GOTHAM 37

The Merry Tales of the Three Wise Men of Gotham.

IV. GROWTH OF THE MIND 56

Observations on the Growth of the Mind. By Samp
son Reed.

V. LIFE OF WILLIAM PINKNEY 68

Some Account of the Life, Writings, and Speeches
of William Pinkney. By Henry Wheaton.

VI. DIPLOMACY OF THE UNITED STATES 92

The Diplomacy of the United States ; being an Ac
count of the Foreign Relations of the Country, from the
First Treaty with France, in 1778, to the Treaty of
Ghent, in 1814, with Great Britain.
VII. WILSON'S AND BONAPARTE'S ORNITHOLOGY . . . 110

1. Supplement to the Ornithology of Alexander Wil
son; containing a Sketch of the Author's Life. By
George Ord.

2. American Ornithology ; or the Natural History of
Birds inhabiting the United States, not given by Wil
son ; with Figures from Nature. By Charles Lucian
Bonaparte. Vol. I.



CONTENTS.

VIII. PHI BETA KAPPA ORATIONS 120

1. A Discourse pronounced before the Phi Beta
Kappa Society at Cambridge. By Joseph Story.

2. An Oration pronounced at New Haven before the
Society of the Phi Beta Kappa. By James A. Hill-
house.

IX. GREEK LEXICOGRAPHY 142

The Greek Lexicon of Schrevelius translated into
English, with many Additions.

X. IMPROVEMENT OF COMMON SCHOOLS 156

Essays upon Popular Education, containing a par
ticular Examination of the Schools of Massachusetts,
and an Outline of an Institution for the Education of
Teachers. By Jarnes G. Carter.

XI. CARDOZO'S NOTES ON POLITICAL ECONOMY . . . 169
Notes on Political Economy. By J. N. Cardozo.

XII. RUSSIAN TALES 188

Russian Tales ; from the French of Count Xavier
de Maistre.

XIII. REVISION OF THE LAWS OF NEW YORK .... 193

Report from the Commissioners appointed to revise
the Statute Laws of the State of New York.

XIV. CRITICAL NOTICES.

1. Francis Berrian . . .-.'. . , f , . ,* 210

2. Bryan's Poetical Address . V . . . '. 212

3. History of New York ........ 214

4. Everett's New Ideas on Population .... 218

5. Education in Tennessee 219

6. Grimshaw's Books for Schools ...... 225

7. American Journals in France and Germany . 226

8. Atlantic Souvenir, and The Memorial . . . 228

9. The Classical Reader, and The American Class

Book 234

10. Congress of Buenos Ayres 236

11. Mason's Address on Church Music .... 244
QUARTERLY LIST OF NEW PUBLICATIONS 247



CONTENTS

OF

No. LV.



NEW SERIES, NO. XXX.



ART. PAGE.

I. NEW DOCUMENTS CONCERNING COLUMBUS .... 265

Coleccion de los Viages y Descubrimientos que hi-

cieron por Mar los Espanoles desde Fines del Siglo XV.

con varies Documentos Ineditos concernientes a la His-

toria de la Marina Castellana, &/c. Por Don Martin

Fernandez de Navarrete. Madrid. 1825.

II. TRAVELS IN LA PLATA AND CHILE 295

Rough Notes taken during some rapid Journeys
across the Pampas and among the Andes. By Captain
F. B. Head.

III. LIFE OF THEOBALD WOLFE TONE, AND THE CONDI

TION OF IRELAND 321

Life of Theobald Wolfe Tone, Founder of the United
Irish Society, and Adjutant General in the Service of
the French and Batavian Republics ; written by Him
self; with his Political Writings, Fragments of his
Diary, &c. Edited by his Son, William Theobald
Wolfe Tone.

IV. KENT'S COMMENTARIES ON AMERICAN LAW . . . 345

Commentaries on American Law. By James Kent.
V. POLICY AND PRACTICE OF THE UNITED STATES AND

GREAT BRITAIN IN THEIR TREATMENT OF INDIANS . 365

Indian Treaties, and Laws and Regulations relating

to Indian Affairs ; to which is added an Appendix,

containing the Proceedings of the Old Congress, and

other important State Papers, in relation to Indian

Affairs.

VI. MRS HEMANS'S POEMS 443

1. The League of the Alps, The Siege of Valencia,
The Vespers of Palermo, and other Poems.

2. The Forest Sanctuary, and other Poems.



CONTENTS,

VII. CRITICAL NOTICES.

1. Letter to an English Gentleman % . 464

2. Internal Improvement in Georgia 466

3. Godman's Natural History . 467

4. History of North Carolina 468

5. Marsh's Inaugural Address 469

6. Eulogy on Mr Crafts 473

7. Rail Road from Boston to Connecticut River . 475

8. Catalogue of Books in the Boston Athena3um . 477

9. Hedge's Abridgment of Brown's Philosophy . . 480

10. Mr Washburn's Agricultural Address .... 482

11. Nouvelles Idees sur la Population 484

12. Reports of the Faculty of Amherst College . . 485

13. Comstock's Mineralogy 487

QUARTERLY LIST OF NEW PUBLICATIONS 489

INDEX 505



NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW.

NO. LIT. rnn/; HT,

NEW SERIES, NO. XXIX.
JANUARY, 1827.



ART. I. 1 . Report of the Examination which has been made
by the Board of Engineers, with a view to Internal Improve
ment, <^c. February 14, 1825. Printed by Order of the
Senate.

2. Information required by a Resolution of the House of Re
presentatives of the 1 3th ult. in Relation to Expenditures in
cident or relating to Internal Improvements, for the Years
1824 and 1825. Read and laid upon the Table, April 3,
1826.

3. Report of the Board of Internal Improvement, upon the
Subject of a National Road from the City of Washington
to New Orleans. April 12, 1826.

AN Act was passed by the Congress of the United States, in
April, 1824, authorizing the President ' to cause the necessary
surveys, plans, and estimates to be made, of such roads and
canals, as he may deem of national importance in a commercial
or military point of view, or necessary to the transportation of
the public mail.' This act was not carried through without
an elaborate discussion, nor without calling forth an animat
ed opposition. Although it did not immediately involve the
often agitated question, whether Congress has the power, in
dependently of the States, to execute a system of internal im
provement, yet it had such a reference to it, as to rouse all

VOL. XXIV. NO. 54. 1



2 Internal Improvements. [Jan.

the apprehensions connected with that subject, and to justify
a course' of argument, which ranged through the whole theory
and practice of the implied powers of the constitution. It was
a rambling and desultory debate, , considering the point at is
sue ; and many were on the affirmative side at the final vote,
who would have been strenuous in the opposition, had the un
qualified power been surrendered, which formed the drift of
the arguments.

The internal improvement of our country, by means of ca
nals and permanent roads, viewed apart from the power by
which they may be constructed, can encounter no opposition
from the wise and patriotic. The results of canalling are now
involved in no uncertainty. The experiment has been in full
operation for about half a century in England, with the most
satisfactory, and even triumphant success. From good author
ity, it appears, that 13,205,117 sterling, affording at this time
an aggregate dividend of 782,257 sterling, or about 5-J per
cent, have been vested in canals in England. By this extensive
system of internal improvement, that country has become every
where' intersected with navigable waters ; her innermost regions
have become accessible to boats from almost all points of her
coast, bringing out her treasures from the very bowels of her
mountains, and pouring them into the lap of commerce with the
same facility, as if nature had cast them upon the verge of the
ocean tides. The thousand streams, which used to be running
wastefully down her mountains and hills, are now carefully
gathered up into reservoirs, and converted, from mere orna
ments of the landscape, into powerful auxiliaries of trade. The
favored inhabitants of the banks of large rivers, who were for
merly accustomed to regard the less fortunate residents in the
interior, as cut off from all the profits of commerce, now behold
artificial streams descend from all quarters and, regardless of the
laws of nature, seek out the nearest route to market, leaving
these boasted rivers to flow on in idleness and inutility.

There is scarcely a town in England now, of any consider
able population and business, which has not communications of
this kind, connecting it with the resources essential to its pros
perity and comfort, and with markets for its surplus articles of
manufacture and land produce. Her mines, from these circum
stances, all become available, and the agriculturist of the interior
has the same excitements to industry, as the agriculturist of the
'coast or the navigable rivers. These canals, joined with their



1827.] Internal Improvements. 3

auxiliary railways, and with the permanent roads, have doubtless
contributed as much to the prosperity of Britain, as her external
commerce ; and by bringing into operation a mass of enterprise
and wealth, unequalled by any other nation, have enabled her to
sustain burdens, which have been the subject of falsified prophe
cies for the last twenty or thirty years.

It is not surprising, that the United States have heretofore
turned so little of their attention to extensive internal improve
ments. Both population and wealth have been too much scat
tered for such laborious and expensive undertakings, indepen
dently of the many political causes, which have tended to dis
courage them. But we have now, in some degree, a dense
and wealthy population, and the commercial facilities of the
country bear no proportion to either its wants or its ability.
Demand and consumption are no longer confined to a maritime
border; a wide spread interior is claiming its supply. For
many years after the emigrant to the West left the Atlantic
states, he was obliged to content himself with the scanty produce
of the new country around him. He had little to ask from
abroad, because his means of payment were small. But the
wilderness is now an obsolete term with us ; and from the Atlan
tic to the Mississippi, there is a well settled and active popula
tion, whose wants, and whose competency to gratify them, are
nearly the same. The resident on the Ohio and its tributaries,
seeks the same comforts, and almost the same luxuries, as the
resident on the Hudson or the Delaware, and has nearly the
same means to acquire them.

There was something formidable in the contemplation of these
extensive works, and it was natural to distrust ourselves, not
withstanding that other countries had been so successful. But,
fortunately, we have now an experiment in our own country,
which affords every encouragement to science and to enterprise.
New York has, in the very outset, completed a canal which sur
passes, in some respects, any similar work in the oldest countries.
It is connected with a series of lakes, part only of whose
shores are at all inhabited, and runs through a country, populous
and highly cultivated, it is true, bat having many natural facilities
for transportation, considerably improved by art; and yet it
promises to be, ere many years, a source of great income to the
state which achieved it, besides being of incalculable benefit to
the country at large. The beneficial results of a work like this
are not confined to itself. It becomes, as it were, the parent



4: Internal Improvements. [Jan.

of subsidiary works, which would otherwise never have existed ;
a trunk, whence numerous branches spring, which derive from
it their origin and support.*

The first Report mentioned at the head of this article exhibits
a preliminary fulfilment of a part of the surveys, intended by
the act above cited. That our readers may have the entire
plan exhibited in that act, we are induced to make large ex
tracts from the able and comprehensive letter of Mr Calhoun,
then Secretary of War, to the President, communicated by
him to Congress at the beginning of the Session of 1824-5.
As it will probably form the basis of the system of internal im
provement, which may occupy the attention of the country for
some years to come, it may well claim such permanency of
record, as our columns may give it.

' The United States may be considered, in a geographical point
of view, as consisting of three distinct parts; of which the portion
extending along the shores of the Atlantic, and back to the Alle-
gany mountains, constitute one ; that lying on the lakes and the
St Lawrence, another ; and. that watered by the Mississippi, in-
eluding its various branches, the other. These several portions
are very distinctly marked by well defined lines, and have natu
rally but little connexion, particularly in a commercial point of
view. It is only by artificial means of communication, that this
natural separation can be overcome ; to effect which much has
already been done. The great canal of New York firmly unites
the country of the lakes with the Atlantic, through the channel
of the North river ; and the national road from Cumberland to
Wheeling, commenced under the administration of Mr Jefferson,

* The following items relating to the New York canal, are extract
ed from the report of the committee on ' Roads and Canals,' presented
to the House of Representatives just before its adjournment, May,
1826.

' The tolls on the New York canal, during the year 1824, amounted
to $340,761.07; in 1825, to $566,221.51 ; and for 1826, they are es
timated at $750,000, exceeding eight per cent, per annum, on its cost,
at the low rate of one cent per ton per mile, on all agricultural and
country produce, and three cents for merchandise ; which, with the
duty on salt and auctions, will give a surplus of $577,000 a year to dis
charge the principal, after paying the interest on the debt, and all the
expenses of repairs, collections, &c. amounting to $550,000. The
number of boats and rafts, which passed on the canal, from 9th of
April to 12th of December last, was 13,100, carrying 219,074 tons;
185,405 bound to, and 33.669 from the city of New York ; amounting
to 42 boats per day ; arid the number of passengers exceeding 40,000.'



1827.] Internal Improvements. 5

unites, but more imperfectly, the Western with the Atlantic
states.

' But the complete union of these separate parts, which geograph
ically constitute our country, can only be effected by the comple
tion of the projected canal to the Ohio and Lake Erie, by means
of which the country lying on the lakes will be firmly united to
that on the western waters, and both with the Atlantic States, and
the whole intimately connected with the centre. These consider
ations, of themselves, without taking into view others, fairly bring
this great work within the provision of the act directing the sur
veys ; but when we extend our views, and consider the Ohio and
the Mississippi, with its great branches, but as a prolongation of
the canal, it must be admitted to be not only of national import
ance, but of the very highest national importance, in a commer
cial, military, and political point of view. Thus considered, it
involves the completion of the improvements of the navigation of
both these rivers, which has been commenced under the appro
priation of the last session of Congress ; and also, canals round
the Falls of Ohio at Louisville, and Muscle Shoals on the Ten
nessee river, both of which, it is believed, can be executed at a
moderate expense. With these improvements, the projected ca
nal would not only unite the three great sections of the country
together, as has been pointed out, but would also unite, in the
most intimate manner, all of the states on the lakes and the west-
tern waters among themselves, and give complete effect to what
ever improvements may be made by those states individually.
The advantages, in fact, from the completion of this single work,
as proposed, would be so extended and ramified throughout these
great divisions of our country, already containing so large a por
tion of our population, and destined, in a few generations, to out
number the most populous states of Europe, as to leave in that
quarter no other work for the execution of the general govern
ment, excepting only the extension of the Cumberland road from
Wheeling to St Louis, which is also conceived to be of " national
importance."

' The route, which is deemed next in importance in a national
point of view, is the one extending through the entire tier of the
Atlantic states, including those on the Gulf of Mexico. By ad
verting to the division of our country, through which this route
must pass, it will be seen, that there is a striking difference in ge
ographical features, between the portions which extend south and
north of the seat of government, including the Chesapeake bay,
with its various arms, in the latter division. In the northern part
of the division, all of the great rivers terminate in deep and bold
navigable estuaries, while an opposite character distinguishes the



6 Internal Improvements. [Jan.

mouths of the rivers in the other. This difference gives greater
advantage to improvement, by canal, in the northern, and less in
the southern division. In the former, it is conceived to be of
high national importance, to unite its deep and capacious bays by
a series of canals ; and the Board was accordingly instructed to
examine the routes for canals between the Delaware and the Ra-
ritan, between Barnstable and Buzzard's bays, and Boston harbor
and Narraganset bay. The execution of the very important link
in this line of communication between the Delaware and the
Chesapeake, having been already commenced, was not compre
hended in the order.'

' In the section lying south of this, none of these advantages
for communication by canals exist. A line of inland navigation
extends, it is true, along nearly the whole line of coasts, which is
susceptible of improvement, and may be rendered highly service
able, particularly in war, and on that account may be fairly 'con
sidered of " national importance." The Dismal Swamp canal,
from the Chesapeake to Albemarle sound, which is nearly com
pleted, constitutes a very important link in this navigation. But
it is conceived, that, for the southern division of our country, the
improvement which would best effect the views of Congress,
would be a durable road, extending from the seat of government
to New Orleans, through the Atlantic states ; and the Board will
accordingly receive instructions to examine the route as soon as
the next season will permit.'

4 These three great works, then, the canal to Ohio and Lake
Erie, with the improvement of the navigation of the Ohio, Mis
sissippi, and the canal round Muscle Shoal ; the series of canals
connecting the bays north of the seat of government ; and a dur
able road, extending from the seat of government to New Orleans,
uniting the whole of the southern Atlantic states, are conceived
to be the most important objects within the provisions of the act
of the last session.'

There are other improvements of a secondary character, in
a national view, which are comprehended in the system of sur
veys ; namely, a connexion of the Atlantic with the Gulf of
Mexico, by the most eligible routes through Florida ; of the
Susquehannah with the Allegany ; of the James river with the
Kenhawa ; and of Lake Champlain with the St Lawrence.

With a view to execute the three primary objects embraced
in the foregoing plan, a Board of Internal Improvement was
formed, consisting of scientific officers of the corps of engineers,
and many civil engineers of approved talents and local informa-



1827.] Internal Improvements . 7

tion. The Report exhibits the result of their labors during the
first season.

The work first presented in the Report, is the proposed canal
communication between the tide water of the Potomac and the
Ohio river. This connexion of the central states with the great
streams of the West, appears to have engaged attention, ever
since our adventurous population began to pass the Allegany
ridge. While we were yet colonies, and the segregated inhabit
ants beyond that barrier could scarcely have assumed the char
acter of settlements, General Washington, then an undistin
guished individual, obtained an act of the Virginia legislature,
to improve the navigation of the Potomac, with a view to ex
tend a tie into those separated regions, which might bind
them by interest, as well as consanguinity, to the Atlantic shores.
The war of the Revolution only suspended these exertions ;
for in 1784, as soon as the great work of independence had
been consummated, and the leisure of retirement allowed him
to turn his attention to peaceful concerns, we find him at once
engaged in endeavors to open this important communication.
During the contest, the tide of emigration had been gradually
but constantly setting from the East, into the valleys of the West ;
and when the government of the United States went into opera
tion, instead of finding its sphere confined within the boundaries
of the Atlantic and the Allegany mountains, it was obliged to
stretch forth its arms almost to the Mississippi. Tf an easy com
munication with the West had formerly been important, when it
was almost a wilderness, the territories, which were now rising
up in its bosom, rendered such a facility doubly important.
General Washington, therefore, exerted his influence to har
monize the various interests concerned, and happily induced a
cooperation of the states of Virginia and Maryland, whose
joint exertions effected -the object intended, which was merely
to improve the navigation of the Potomac.

But this beneficial improvement, which was probably equal to
the ability, and may have answered the demands of the times,
is far behind the means, and affords but a slight accommoda
tion for the intercourse, of the present day. The Cumberland
road has greatly increased the facility of communication ; still,
however, these channels are altogether insufficient for the great
and constantly augmenting trade, which is pressing against both
sides of the Allegany rnpuntains, like contrary tides seeking to
mingle their waters. The state of Ohio, bordering on Lake



8 Internal Improvements. [Jan.

Erie, which now no longer has its only outlet through Lake On
tario and the protracted St Lawrence, but finds itself gently
conducted down the slope of intervening country into the Hud
son, naturally turns to New York, for many or most of its ex
ternal supplies. Indiana, from somewhat similar local causes,
may look to the same market. But populous and growing
states south of Ohio, and even a part of the state of Ohio it
self, naturally seek the Atlantic states through the Allegany ridge,
and must form such a connexion with them. Their trade
cannot be lured down the Mississippi, merely by the facilis
descensus, the easiness of the descent; there is a shrewd
ness in mercantile calculation, which takes into account the dif
ficulties and tediousness of the return, hoc opus, hie labor est.
Steam navigation has greatly accelerated the upward voyage ;
still, however, there are many months in the year, when the
Ohio and its tributaries are nearly innavigable, from the lowness
of their waters.

If, in estimating the importance of this central communica
tion, we extend our views beyond the season of peace, and re
gard its utility under many of the vicissitudes, to which a nation
is subjected, we shall find that there can be no work in our
country, so absolutely essential to its welfare. We have been
involved in wars, and may be involved in them again. Under
such a calamity, the commerce of the Gulf of Mexico, being the
most tangible, would probably be the first to suffer, and the sup
ply of the West, by the way of New Orleans, might be in a great
measure cut off. And if the hostility were with Great Britain,
which shares with us the dominion over Lake Erie, even the
New York chain of connexion with the West might be severed.

But the proposed canal through the Allegany ridge, running
through the heart of the country, will open a secure and almost



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