Oscar Johann Kellner.

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SCIENTIFIC FEEDING
OF ANIMALS

■ KELLNER



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THE SCIENTIFIC
FEEDING OF ANIMALS



THE

SCIENTIFIC FEEDING
OF ANIMALS

BY

PROFESSOR O. KELLNER

AUTHORISED TRANSLATION BY

WILLIAM GOODWIN, B.Sc, Ph.D.

Lecturer on Agricultural Chemistry, and Head of the Chemical

Department, South-Eastern Agricultural College

(University of London)

Wye, Kent.



NEW YORK.
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

*9*3



First Impression . . i9°9

Second Impression . . 1913

All Rights Reserved



PRINTED BY WILLIAM BRENDON AND SON, LTD.
PLYMOUTH, ENGLAND.



PREFACE TO THE ENGLISH
EDITION

THE scientific foundations upon which the
principles of animal nutrition rest are, like
all other experimentally derived data, of general
applicability and not restricted to one country alone.
It is true that climate influences the weights of
crops and the nutrients contained in them, but
the laws governing digestion, metabolism, effect of
foods in the production of flesh, fat, milk, wool, or
utilisable energy are the same whether the animals
are kept in the north or south, east or west. Any
facts therefore which are brought to light in Germany
or France are practically applicable to Great Britain,
the United States, Canada, Australia, etc., for in
temperate climates the differences of heat or cold
only influence to a very small degree the needs of an
animal for a given purpose. For this reason any-
body who is well acquainted with the general laws
which underlie the feeding of animals will always
have an advantage over one who relies upon rule-
of-thumb, and will be able to raise animals more
cheaply than a competitor who follows the practices
of his grandfather.



vi PREFACE

As there is not at the present time an English
book which gives concisely and clearfy the informa-
tion which a farmer or agricultural student ought to
possess, I have gladly agreed to the following trans-
lation being made by Dr. Goodwin. In Part I will
be found the main principles upon which the theory
of feeding is based, then follows in Part II a short
descriptive account of the different feeding-stuffs, in
which more attention has been paid to the suita-
bility and uses of the various classes than to the
percentage amounts of nutrients which they con-
tain. This second part also includes the methods
used in the conservation and preparation of feeding-
stuffs, and is followed in Part III by the conditions
which should be observed in the feeding of the
different kinds of domestic animals. The tables
needed for the calculation of rations, with a few
remarks upon the method of using them, are placed
in the Appendix.

I sincerely trust that this edition will gain as
favourable a verdict as the original has done both
from practical men and from students of agricul-
ture and veterinary science.

Dr. O. Kellner.

Agricultural Experimental Station,

mockern, near leipzig,

December •, 1908.



TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE

I HAVE made no attempt to rearrange Professor
Kellner's valuable little work so that it should
be more in accordance with English practice, for
I believe that in its original form the main points
are quite clear and that where there are differences
between German practice and our own they will
perhaps serve to suggest methods worth a trial here.
It is hoped that in this way the book will have
something of the value of a visit to a foreign
country, which is so beneficial in arousing a spirit
of critical observation with regard to the practices
in vogue there. As the author says in the Preface
which he has kindly written for this edition, the
main principles of feeding apply equally well in all
countries possessing a moderate climate.

That Professor Kellner has succeeded in giving to
the world a book which was needed is proved by
the fact that it is now appearing in seven languages,
and the original is in its second edition.

I have purposely not converted all weights, tem-
peratures, etc. into those used in this country, for
the student will prefer to have them in the original ;
where, however, it has seemed preferable to give the

vii



viii PREFACE

practical man the weights and measures to which he
is accustomed this has been done. In any case the
relation between the two systems hardly requires
a greater knowledge than that i kilogram (kg.) =
2-2 lbs. ; i litre = if pints ; I oz. = 28 grms. (g.).

W. Goodwin.

South-Eastern Agricultural College,
Wye, Kent.



CONTENTS



PART I

THE COMPOSITION, DIGESTION, AND UTILISA-
TION OF FEEDING-STUFFS .



The Composition of Feeding-Stuffs






3


i. Water ....






4


2. The proteins






5


3. Non-protein nitrogenous substances






8


4. The fats and oils






10


5. Crude fibre .






12


6. The nitrogen-free extract






14


7. Mineral substances or ash






15


CHAPTER II









The Digestion of the Food

1. Mastication .....

2. The processes of digestion

3. The determination of the digestibility of foods

4. The extent of digestion under various conditions



iS
18

21
27
3i



The Utilisation of
Animal Body

1. General considerations .

2. Methods of investigation

3. The energy metabolism



CHAPTER III
Digested Nutrients



41
4i
44
48



IX



x CONTENTS

CHAPTER IV

PACE

Metabolism . . . . . . • 5 1

i. Fasting metabolism . . . . .51

2. Insufficient feeding . . . . .55

3. Abundant food supply — formation of fat and flesh . 58

a. The effect of protein . . . -59

b. The effect of non-protein nitrogenous substances 65

c. The effect of nitrogen-free nutrients . . 69

d. The action of nitrogen-free nutrients upon the

protein and fat metabolism . . . 7 1

e. Formation of body fat from food fat . . 74

/. Formation of body fat from carbohydrates . 77

g. The utilisation of complete foods . . .82

h. The effect of mineral substances . . -93

i. The effect of water . .. . -99

CHAPTER V

The Utilisation of Food and Energy in Muscular
Work — Laws of Production of Energy . .104

1. The sources of muscular energy . . .104

a. Protein as a source of muscular energy . .104

b. The nitrogen-free nutrients (fats and carbo-

hydrates) as a source of muscular energy . 106

c. Storage of protein in consequence of muscular

work ...... 108

2. The relation between metabolism and muscular work .109



PART II

THE FEEDING - STUFFS — THEIR PROPERTIES,
CONSERVATION, PREPARATION, AND APPLIC-
ABILITY 113

CHAPTER I

The Nutrient Contents, Palatableness, and Dur-
ability of the Feeding-Stuffs . . . 115



CONTENTS



XI



CHAPTER II



Conservation of Feeding-Stuffs . .


PAGE

. 121


i. The making of hay ....


. 121


2. Sour fodder and silage ....


. 125


3. The storage of cereal grains


. 130


4. The keeping of roots and tubers


. 132


5. The artificial drying of feeding-stuffs . .


. 135


CHAPTER III




Preparation of Feeding-Stuffs .


. 137


1. Chopping and grinding


• 137


2. Moistening with cold water


. 140


3. Cooking and steaming ....


. 140


4. Roasting .....


. 142


5. Steeping in water ....


. 142


6. Heating under pressure with caustic soda


. 144


7. Heating under pressure with hydrochloric acid


. 144


8. Malting and preparation of sweet mashes


. 145


9. Artificial digestion of foods


. 146


10. Fermentation .....


. 147


11. Sour fodder .....


. 147


12. Feeding loaves .....


. 148



CHAPTER IV



Description of the Feeding-Stuffs
1 . Green fodder and hay .
Chafi and straw
Roots and tubers
Grains and seeds
By-products from flour mills
Residues from oil mills
Residues from the manufacture of starch
By-products from the manufacture of sugar
Residues from fermentation processes .
Feeding-stuffs of animal origin .



9-
10.



11. Cattle powders



150
150
169

173
180
190
195
204
20 7
213
217
224



xii CONTENTS

PART III

PAGE

THE FEEDING OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS UNDER
THE CONDITIONS USUALLY FOUND IN PRAC-
TICE . . . . . . .227

CHAPTER I

General Considerations — Experimental Trials in
Practice ....... 229

CHAPTER II
Maintenance Ration for Oxen at Rest . . 243

CHAPTER III

Maintenance Ration for Sheep — The Production of
Wool . . . . . . .247

CHAPTER IV

The Fattening of Full-grown Animals . .253

1. The fattening of grown ruminants . . .261

2. The fattening of grown pigs .... 268

CHAPTER V

The Feeding of Working Animals . . .271

1. The feeding of draught oxen .... 273

2. The feeding of horses ..... 275

CHAPTER VI

The Feeding of Growing Animals for Breeding or
Fattening ...... 283

1. The feeding of calves ..... 289

2. The feeding of lambs ..... 294

3. The feeding of growing pigs .... 296



CONTENTS xiii



CHAPTER VII

The Feeding of Milch Cattle .

i . The formation of milk ....
2. The influence of the constitution of the animal upon
the formation of milk

a. Breed and individuality .

b. The period of lactation

c. The age of the cow



The influence of other factors on the formation of milk 311



a. The frequency and manner of milking

b. Performance of work by cows

c. Other influences : treatment and care

4. Methods for ascertaining the effect of food on the

secretion of milk ....

a. The period system

b. The group system ....

5. The effect of food on the milk production

a. General considerations

b. The effect of the quantity of food on the milk

secretion .....

c. The effect of food-protein on the production

of milk .....



d. The effect of non -protein nitrogenous substances 327



e. The effect of non-nitrogenous nutrients .
/. The so-called specific effects of the food-stuffs
g. The effect of food-stuffs injurious to health
Food for milch cattle ....

APPENDIX



PAGE
306

306

308
308
3IO
311



311
314
316

317
3*7

3 IQ -
321
321

323
325



329
334
338
333



Tables for the Calculation of Rations . . 353

Method of using the Tables . . . '353

Table I — Composition, Digestibility, and Starch
Equivalents of various Feeding-Stuffs . . 360

Table II — The Digestibility of the Feeding-Stuffs
(Digestibility Coefficients) from Experiments on
Animals ....... 379

Table III — Standard Rations .... 392

Index . . . . . . .397



PART I

THE COMPOSITION, DIGESTION, AND
UTILISATION OF FEEDING-STUFFS



THE SCIENTIFIC FEEDING
OF ANIMALS

CHAPTER I

THE COMPOSITION OF FEEDING-STUFFS

THE natural products of the animal and vege-
table kingdoms which serve for the nourish-
ment of domestic animals have a very varied
composition. There is hardly one of them that
contains less than thirty to forty different com-
ponents, and to this number additions are con-
tinually being made. In order to get an insight
into this crowded department it is necessary to
group together those materials which resemble one
another in their properties, or in their nutritive
value. The chemical examination of a food-stuff
is for this reason generally confined to a determina-
tion of the quantity of (i) water, (2) protein, or
albuminoids, (3) non-protein substances, such as
amides and amino acids, (4) fat, or oil, (5) crude
fibre, (6) nitrogen-free extract substances, or carbo-
hydrates, (7) ash and sand, which it contains.



4 SCIENTIFIC FEEDING OF ANIMALS

(i) Water.

That portion of a food which disappears on
drying is called the water, or moisture. If the
percentage of water in a food-stuff, such as grass
or hay, had to be determined, it would not be suffi-
cient to dry a sample at ordinary temperatures in
the air, for in this way the whole of the water would
not be driven off. A portion would still remain,
varying from 11-20% of the total weight, and the
sample would only be " air dried." Water can only
be completely driven off by drying the finely ground
sample of food for a considerable time at ioo° C.
Usually this is continued until the weight of the
substance remains constant, and this is the method
adopted when an exact chemical analysis is being
made. Many feeding-stuffs, particularly those that
have been acted upon by bacteria or moulds,
e.g. silage, as well as the plants and seeds contain-
ing ethereal oils, lose some other substances in
addition to water when heated at ioo°. These
volatile materials, such as acetic acid, lactic acid,
butyric acid, some ethereal oils, ammonia, etc.,
necessitate special precautions being taken when
the water has to be estimated in a food in which
they are present.

That which is left after complete desiccation in
the manner described above is called the " dry
matter."



COMPOSITION OF FEEDING-STUFFS 5

The tables in the Appendix of this volume show
clearly how considerably the amount of water in
the various feeding-stuffs varies. Those which con-
tain the most water are fresh slices of beetroot,
with 93 % water ; then the roots and tubers, with
68-90%; followed by the green fodders, with
70-90%. Hay and straw contain about 12-17%,
cereal grains 11-15%, whilst oil cakes and oil cake
meals have only 9-13%. As a rule oily seeds (7-9%)
and dried by-products, such as brewers' grains
(7-12%), contain the least amount of moisture.

A knowledge of the quantity of water in a food-
stuff is of great importance, not only as an indica-
tion of its feeding value, but also in respect to its
keeping properties. Most meals and cakes easily
undergo decomposition if they contain more than
14% of water.

(2) The Proteins.

The proteins are a group of substances which vary
a good deal in their properties, but agree in contain-
ing nitrogen. White of egg (albumin), the casein
of milk, lean meat, wheat gluten, are amongst the
best-known of these substances. In spite of the
variations which they show in chemical compo-
sition there is sufficient agreement- to enable them
to be placed in one class. The proteins contain
from 50-6-55-2% of carbon, 15-0-18-4% of
nitrogen, 6-5-7-3% of hydrogen, 20-8-23-6% of



6 SCIENTIFIC FEEDING OF ANIMALS

oxygen, along with 0-3-2-3% of sulphur. In some
cases phosphorus is found, and in others a little
iron.

When the proteins are pure and dry they form
a horny substance, which melts in the flame and
then burns to a black coal-like mass. At the same
time fumes, which have the smell of burning hair,
are given off. The products of such decomposition
vary considerably in their properties, according to
the substance which is heated.

The proteins are further distinguished by the
ease or difficulty with which they dissolve in various
solvents, such as water, alcohol, salt solution,
caustic soda solution. They may be also charac-
terised by another set of properties, e.g. coagulation
on heating, precipitation from solution by metallic
salts or tannic acid, distinctive colouration when
acted upon by various reagents.

It was thought for a long time that all the nitrogen
which is found in feeding-stuffs was present in the
form of albumin. For this reason, and also on
account of the impossibility of obtaining the pro-
teins from the plant or the animal in a sufficiently
pure state to be weighed, it has been the custom
to estimate the amount of nitrogen in a food, and
then calculate from this the percentage of protein
matter. The proteins were supposed to contain on
an average 16% of nitrogen, so by multiplying the
amount of nitrogen found by 6-25 the weight of



COMPOSITION OF FEEDING-STUFFS 7

proteins was obtained. It was known that this
method was not quite correct, for nitrogenous sub-
stances of a non-protein nature had already been
found in different parts of the plant. The amount
of these non-protein materials was considered,
though, to be so small as to be negligible. The
products obtained in this way by calculation from
the nitrogen found in the food were called " crude
protein," or " nitrogenous substances."

It was not until comparatively recently (1879)
that the nitrogenous substances of a non-protein
nature were shown to be widely distributed in the
plant and animal kingdoms, and to be present in
considerable quantities in some food-stuffs. This
led to a distinction being made between " crude
protein," which expresses all the nitrogen-containing
compounds, and " pure protein," or, as it is named
in some places, "the proteids." When making
an analysis of a feeding-stuff advantage is taken of
the property which proteins possess of combining
with metallic salts or tannic acid, whereas non-
proteins do not. In this way protein can be
separated from non-protein and the quantities of
each determined. For the analysis the finely-
ground food-stuff is treated with warm water, and
the substance to be used for precipitation is added.
The proteins are in this way precipitated, and the
nitrogen can then be determined either in the solu-
tion which is left after the precipitation, or in the



8 SCIENTIFIC FEEDING OF ANIMALS

precipitate itself. By this method proteins are
isolated from non-proteins, and by using the same
factor, 6-25, the amount of either, or both, can be
got.

Dried animal residues, such as meat- or fish-meal,
or the gluten of wheat, contain the highest propor-
tion of crude protein. Next come various oil cakes,
dried brewers' grains, leguminous and oily seeds,
whilst hay made from leguminous crops, cereal
grains and their by-products follow. Hay made
from grass, dried potatoes and green fodders are
poorer in protein, whilst, as is seen in the tables
in the Appendix, straw and chaff contain least of all.

(3) Nitrogen-containing substances of non-protein
nature.

These non-protein substances, often called amides
or amino compounds, show very great differences
in their properties. They all agree, though, in
containing nitrogen, but are not of a protein or
albumin nature. In this class may be placed
ammonia, which is found in small quantities in
silage ; asparagine, which is a crystalline substance,
first found in asparagus and later in many young
shoots and quickly growing green plants ; gluta-
mine, an easily soluble substance, which can be
got from the beetroot ; and, lastly, lecithine,
which resembles fat, and consists of the nitrogenous
material combined with free fatty acid, glycerine,



COMPOSITION OF FEEDING-STUFFS 9

and phosphoric acid. In addition to the above-
mentioned there are many other similar compounds
found in animal and vegetable products. The
greater portion of the non-protein nitrogenous
compounds arise from the decomposition of protein
matter in the living plant, particularly in the parts
where rapid growth is taking place. Another por-
tion of the non-proteins are intermediate products
formed in the building up of proteins from simpler
substances, for the nitrogenous matter (nitric acid
and ammonia) taken in by the roots first forms
non-proteins, and these are further elaborated and
become proteins. Where bacteria or moulds flourish
it is found as a rule that decomposition of proteins
is taking place with the formation of non-proteins.
The chief points to be noted with regard to the
formation and distribution of non-protein sub-
stances are : —

(1) The quicker the rate of growth of a plant,
that is, the younger and tenderer it is, the richer it
tends to be in non-proteins. In young shoots,
meadow grass, germinated seeds, etc., fairly large
quantities are to be found.

(2) The nearer the plant approaches maturation
the less does the amount of non-protein nitrogen
become. Ripe grain or straw are comparatively
poor in non-protein matter.

(3) The richer the plants, or parts of plants, are
in water so much greater is the percentage of



io SCIENTIFIC FEEDING OF ANIMALS

amide nitrogen. This is well seen in root crops,
in plants of the melon order, in berries, and in
juicy fruits, where the greater part of the nitrogen
is not in the form of proteins.

(4) Feeding-stuffs which have undergone acid
fermentation, or have been acted upon by bacteria
or moulds, contain more non-protein substance
than they did in their original condition.

As already stated, crude protein includes protein
and non-protein, or amides. If the amount of
pure protein in a food be deducted from the crude
protein, then the nitrogenous compounds left are
in the non-protein or amide form.

The tables in the Appendix do not distinguish
between the protein and non-protein, but this
can easily be done by subtracting the digestible
protein from the total digestible crude protein.
As these amido compounds are all of them readily
soluble in water, and easily pass through animal
membrane, they are regarded as being perfectly
digestible.

(4) The fats and oils.

Fats and oils are compounds of glycerine with
various fatty acids, such as stearic, palmitic, and
oleic. In each fat or oil several of these acids are
present, and it depends upon the proportions of
these whether the fat is liquid, semi-solid, or solid.
If stearic or palmitic acids predominate, then a



COMPOSITION OF FEEDING-STUFFS n

solid fat, similar to tallow, is the result. If, on the
other hand, oleic acid is the chief acid present, then
the fat at ordinary temperatures has a more or less
fluid form, and is generally called an oil. In this
book the word fat will be used to denote all sub-
stances of this class, whether solid or liquid. Many
oils, e.g. linseed, hemp, sunflower seed, take up
oxygen when exposed to the air, and when spread
in a thin layer become solid. They are called on
this account drying oils. In most fats free fatty
acids are found in addition to the compounds
formed from fatty acids and glycerine. Fats
freshly extracted from the animal body, or from
new ripe seeds, contain only small amounts of these
free fatty acids. Where, however, oily seeds are
not fully ripe, or where, owing to bad weather at
the time of harvesting, they have sprouted, large
quantities of free fatty acids are to be found.

When feeding-stuffs rich in fats are stored it is
also found that the percentage of free fatty acids
rises, particularly if there is much moisture present.
Such food-stuffs soon acquire a sour taste and smell,
and in time become quite rancid, owing to the
further decomposition of the free fatty acids.

In order to determine the quantity of fat in a
feeding-stuff a finely ground sample is extracted
with some solvent that will dissolve the fat. Ether
is generally used for the extraction, and the residue
left after distilling off the ether is dried and weighed.



12 SCIENTIFIC FEEDING OF ANIMALS

By this means, unfortunately, not only the fat
but other substances — such as wax, colouring
matters, and in some cases organic acids, which
are soluble in ether — are weighed along with the
fat. The separation of these compounds from the
fat is not easy, so in order to indicate that the fat
is not pure it is customary to call it " crude fat "
or " ether extract." Oily seeds and waste animal
products, such as greaves and tallow refuse, are
amongst the food-stuffs containing the most fat.
Then come the oil cakes, oil cake meals, brewers'
grains, and other by-products from distilleries,
flour mills, and starch manufactories. The cereal
grains, such as oats and maize, and the leguminous
seeds, such as soja beans or lupines, take the next
place, whilst roots, tubers, green fodders, hay and
straw are amongst the poorest in fat.

(5) Crude fibre.

If a small quantity of finely-ground food material
be boiled successively with given quantities of
dilute sulphuric acid, water, dilute caustic potash,
and again with water, a residue is left, which, after
washing with alcohol and ether, may be dried and
weighed. This residue consists principally of crude
fibre along with a little crude protein and mineral
substances, and if these last two are estimated
separately in a portion of the residue, and their
weight deducted from the total weight, then the



COMPOSITION OF FEEDING-STUFFS 13

true quantity of crude fibre is obtained. Crude
fibre obtained in the above manner is free from
nitrogen, and consists of a mixture of cellulose
pentosans, lignin, and cutin.

Cellulose is closely related to starch in its chemical
composition, and is found in an almost pure state
in cotton-wool which has been freed from fat.
Like all the components of the crude fibre it is in-
soluble in water and dilute acids and alkalies.
Strong acids (sulphuric, hydrochloric), on the other
hand, attack it and convert it into glucose.

The pentosans have not yet been prepared in a
pure form. Their presence in crude fibre is inferred


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