Oscar Wilde.

Lady Windermere's fan, and The importance of being Earnest online

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COPYRIGHT DEPOSIT




JOHN H. WALLACE.



0..:...



THE



Horse of America



IN HIS



Derivation, History, and Development.



TRACING HIS ANCESTORS, BY THE AID OF .MUCH NEWLY DISCOVERED DATA,

THROUGH ALL THE AGES FROM THE FIRST DAWNINGS

OF HISTORY TO THE PRESENT DAY.

INCLUDING THE HORSES OF THE COLONIAL PERIOD, HITHERTO UNEXPLORED,

GIVING THEIR HISTORY, SIZE, GAITS AND CHARACTERISTICS

IN EACH OF THE AMERICAN COLONIES.

SHOWING HOW THE TROTTING HORSE IS BRED, TOGETHER WITH A HISTORY

OF THE PUBLICATIONS THROUGH WHICH THE BREED

OF TROTTERS WAS ESTABLISHED.



WITH MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS.



BY/'

JOHN H. VaLLACE,

Founder of " Wallace's American Trotting Register," " Wallace's Monthly,
"Wallace's Tear Book," etc.




NEW YORK:

PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR. ^WO COPIES RECEIVED

1897. ^^,.



Entered according to act of Congress, by

JOHN H. WALLACE,

in the year 1897, at Washington, D. C.



PREFACE.



The study of the Horse, from' the first glimmerings of history,

Bacred and profane, and tracing him from his original home through

migrations until all the peoples of the globe had received their

cial supply, may not be a new idea, but it is certainly a new

.idertaking. Horse Books without number have been written,

nostly in the century just closing, but in the history of the horse

hey are all alike — merely reproductions of what had been printed

before. So far as my knowledge goes, therefore, this volume is the

first attempt, in any language, to determine the original habitat of

the horse and to trace him, historically, in his distribution.

The facts presented touching the introduction of the horse into
Egypt, and two thousand years later into Arabia, as well as the
plebeian blood from which the English race horse has derived his
great speed, will be a shock to the nerves of the romanticists of the
•old world as well as the new. Taking the facts of history and
well-known experiences together, my readers can determine for
themselves whether the claims for the superiority of Arabian blood
is not pure fiction. For my own part I cannot recognize any blood
in all horsedom as ''royal blood" except that which is found in
the veins of the horse that " has gone out and done it," either
himself or in his progeny.

In our own country there has always remained a blank in horse
history that nobody has attempted to supply. This blank embraced
a century of racing of which we of the present generation have
been entirely ignorant. Believing that a correct knowledge of the
horse of the Colonial period, in his size, gait, qualities and capaci-
ties was absolutely essential to an intelligent comprehension of the



iv PREFACE.

phenomena presented on our trotting and running courses of the
present day, I liave not hesitated to bestow on this new feature of
the work great labor and research. In this I have felt a special
satisfaction in the fact that while the field is old in dates, tliis is
the first time it has ever been traversed and considered.

In the chapters which follow, many historical questions • are
treated at such length as their relative importance seems to demand,
embracing the different families that have contributed to the build-
ing up of the breed of trotters; and the question of how the trot-
ting horse is bred is carefully considered in the light of all past
experiences and brought down to the close of 1896. These chap-
ters will not surprise the old readers of the Wallace's Monthly, for
they will here meet with many thoughts that will not be new to
them, but they will find them more fully elaborated, in more
orderly form, and brought down to the latest experiences.

It is not the purpose of this book to furnish statistical tables
covering the great mass of trotting experiences, nor to consider the
mysteries of the trainer's art that have been so ably discussed by ex-
perienced and skillful men. But the real and only purpose is to
place upon record the results of years devoted to historical research,
at home and abroad; to dispel the illusions and humbugs that have
clustered about the horse for many centuries; and to consider with
some minuteness, which of necessity cannot be impersonal, the
great industrial revolution that has been wrought in horse-breed-
ing, and all growing out of a little unpretentious treatise written
twenty-five years ago. which contained nothing more striking than
a little bit of science and a little bit of sense intelligently com-
mingled. The battle between the principles of this treatise and
selfish prejudices and mental sterility, was long and bitter, but the
truth prevailed, and in the production of the Driving Horse the
teachings of that little paper have placed our country first among
all the nations of the earth.

JOHN H. WALLACE.

New York: 40 West 9:5d Street.
September 1, 1S97



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER I.

INTROD aCT ION.

PAGES

General View of the Field Traversed 1_23

CHAPTER n.

ORIGINAL HABITAT OF THE HORSE.

No' indications tbat tlie liorse was originally wild — The steppes of High Asia
and Arabia not tenable as his original home — Color not sufBcient evi-
dence — Impossibility of horses existing in Arabia in a wild state — Xo
horses in Arabia until 356 a.d. — Large forces of Armenian, Median
and Cappadocian cavalry employed more than one thousand seven
hundred years B.C. — A breed of white race horses — Special adaptability
of tbe Armenian country to the horse — Armenia a horse-exporting
country before the Prophet Ezekiel — Devotion of the Armenian people
to agricultural and pastoral pursuits through a period of four thousand
years — All the evidences point to ancient Armenia as the center from
which the horse was distributed 24-35

CHAPTER HI.

E.A.RLY DISTRIBUTION OF HORSES.

First evidences of horses in Egypt about 1700 B.C. — Supported by Egyp-
tian records and history — The Patriarch Job had no horses — Solo-
mon's great cavalry force organized — Arabia as described by Strabo at
the beginning of our era — No horses then in Arabia — Constantius sends
two hundred Cappadocian horses into Arabia a.d. 356 — Arabia the last
country to be supplied with horses — The ancient Phoenician merchants
and their colonies — Hannibal's cavalry forces in the Punic Wars —
Distant ramifications of Phoenician trade and colonization — Commerce
reached as far as Britain and the Baltic — Probable source of Britain's
earliest horses 36-50

CHAPTER IV.

THE ARABIAN HORSE.

The Arabian, the horse of romance — The horse naturally foreign to Arabia
— Superiority of the camel for all Arabian needs — Scarcity of horses in
Arabia in Mohammed's time — Various preposterous traditions of Arab
horsemanship — The Prophet's mythical mares — Mohammed not in any
sense a horseman — Early English Arabians — the Markham Arabian
— The alleged Royal Mares — The Darley Arabian — The Godolphin
Arabian — The Prince of Wales' Arabian race horses — Mr. Blunt's pil-
grimage to the Euphrates — His purchases of so-called Arabians — Deyr



Vi CONTENTS.

PAOEff

as a great liorse market where everything is thoroughbred — Failure of
Mr. Blunt's experiments — Various Arabian horses brought to America
— Horses sent to our Presidents — Disastrous experiments of A. Keene
Richards — Tendency of Arab romancing from Ben Hur 51-66

CHAPTER V.

THE ENGLISH RACE HORSE.

The real origin of the English race horse In confusion — Full list of the
" foundation stock" as given by Mr. Weatherby one hundred years ago
— The list complete and embraces all of any note — Admiral Rous' ex-
travaganza — Godoiphin Arabian's origin wholly unknown — Hishistory
— Successful search for his true portrait — Stubbs' picture a caricature
— The true portrait alone supplies all that is known of his origin and
blood 67-78

CHAPTER VI.

THE ENGLISH RACE HORSE (Continued).

England supplied with horses before the Chris^tian era — Bred for different
purposes — Markham on .he speed of early native horses— Duke of New-
castle on Arabians — His choice of blood to propagate — Size of early
English horses — Difficulties about pedigrees in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries — Early accumulations very trashy — The Gallo-
ways and Irish Hobbies — Discrepancies in size — The old saddle stock
— The pacers wiped out — Partial revision of the English Stud Book. .79-89'

CHAPTER VII.

THE AMERICAN RACE HORSE.

Antiquity of American racing — First race course at Hempstead Plain, 1665
— Racing in Virginia, 16'77 — Conditions of early races — Early so-called
Arabian importations — The marvelous tradition of Lindsay's " Arabian"
— English race horses first imported about 1750 — The old colonial stock
as a basis — First American turf literature — Skinner's American Turf
Register and Importing Magazine, 1829 — Cadwallader R. Colden's
Sporting Magazine, short-lived but valuable — The original Spirit of
the 7 tmes— Porter's Spirit of the Times — Wilkes' Spirit of the Times,
1859 — Edgar's Stud Book — Wallace's Stud Book — Bruce's Stud Book
— Their history, methods and value — Summing up results, showing
that success has followed breeding to individuals and families that
could run and not to individuals and families that could not run, what-
ever their blood 90-107

CHAPTER VHI.

COLONIAL HORSE HISTORY — VIRGINIA,

Hardships of the colonists — First importations of horses — Racing prevalent
in the seventeenth century — Exportations and then importations pro-
hibited — Organized horse racing commenced 1677 and became very
general — In 1704 there were many wild horses in Virginia and they
were bunted as game — The Chincoteague ponies accounted for — Jones
on life in Virginia, 1730 — Fast early pacers, Galloways and Irish
Hobbies — English race horses imported — Moreton's Traveler probably
the first — Quarter racing prevailed on the Carolina border — Average



CONTENTS. yil

PAGES

size and habits of action clearly established — The native pacer thrown
in the shade by the imported runner — An Englishman's prej-
udices 108-119

CHAPTER IX.

COLONIAL HORSE HISTORY — NEW YORK.

Settlement of New Amsterdam — Horses from Curagoa — Prices of Dutch
and English horses — Van der Donck's description and size of horses —
Horses to be branded — Stallions under fourteen hands not to run at
large — Esopus horse — Surrender to the English, 1664 — First organ-
ized racing — Dutch horses capable of improvement in speed — First
advertised Subscription Plate — First restriction, contestants must "be
bred in America" — Great racing and heavy betting — First importations
of English running horses — Half-breds to the front — True foun-
dation of American pedigrees — Half -bushel of dollars on .a side —
Resolutions of the Continental Congress against racing — Withdrawal
of Mr. James De Lancey — Pacing and trotting contests everywhere —
Rip Van Dam's horse and his cost 120-127

CHAPTER X.

COLONIAL HORSE HISTORY — NEW ENGLAND.

First importations to Boston and to Salem — Importations from Holland
brought high prices — They were not pacers and not over fourteen
hands — In 1640 horses were exported to the West Indies — First Ameri-
can newspaper and first horse advertisement — Average sizes — The
different gaits — CONNECTICUT, first plantation, 1636— Post horses
provided for by law — All horses branded — Sizes and Gaits — An Eng-
lishman's experience with pacers — Lindsay's Arabian — Rhode Island,
Founded by Roger Williams, 1636 — No direct importations ever made
— Horses largely exported to other colonies 1690 — Possibly some to
Canada — Pacing races a common amusement — Prohibited, 1749 — Size
of the Narragansetts compared with the Virginians 128-134

CHAPTER XI.

COLONIAL HORSE HISTORY — PENNSYLVANIA, NEW JERSEY, MARYLAND, CARO-
LINA.

Penn's arrival in 1682 — Horse racing prohibited — Franklin's newspaper —
Conestoga horses — Sizes and gaits — Swedish origin — Acrelius' state-
ment — New Jersey — Branding — Increase of size — Racing, Pacing
and Trotting restricted — Maryland — Racing and Pacing restricted
1747 — Stallions of under size to be shot — North Carolina — First
settler refugees — South Carolina — Size and gait in 1744 — Chal-
lenges — No running blood in the colony, 1744 — General view 135-141

CHAPTER XII.

EARLY HORSE HISTORY — CANADA.

Settlement and capture of Port Royal — Early plantations — First French
horses brought over 1665 — Possibly illicit trading — Sire of "Old
Tippoo" — His history — " Scape Goat" and his descendants — Horses of
the Maritime Provinces , 142-153



Viii CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XIII.

ANTIQUITY AND HISTORY OF THE PACING EOKSE.

PAGES
The mechanism of the different gaits — The Elgin Marbles — Britain be-
comes a Roman province — Pacers in the time of the Romans — Bronze
horses of Venice — Fitz Stephen, the Monk of Canterbury — Evidence
of the Great Seals — What Blundeville says — WbatGervaise Markham
says — What the Duke of Newcastle says — The amble and the pace
one and the same — At the close of Elizabeth's reign — The Galloways
and Hobbies — Extinction of the pacer — The original pacer probably
from the North — Polydore Virgil's evidence — Samuel Purchas' evi-
dence — The process of wiping out the pacer — King James set the
fashion — All foreign horses called " Arabians" — The foreigners larger
and handsomer — Good roads and wheeled vehicles dispensed with the
pacer — Result of prompting Mr. Euren — Mr. Youatt's blunder — Other
English gentlemen not convinced there ever were any pacers 154-171

CHAPTER XIV.

THE AMERICAN PACER AND HIS RELATIONS TO THE AMERICAN TROTTER.

Regulations against stallions at large — American pacers taken to the West
Indies — Narragansett pacers; many foolish and groundless theories
about their origin — Dr. McSparran on the speed of the pacer — Mr.
Updike's testimony — Mr. Hazard and Mr. Enoch Lewis — Exchanging
meetings with Virginia — Watson's Annals — Matlack and Acrelius —
Rip Van Dam's horse — Cooper's evidence — Cause of disappearance —
Bani.shed to the frontier — First intimation that the pace and the trot
were essentially one gait- -How it was received — Analysis of the two
gaits — Pelham, Highland Maid, Jay-Eye-See, Blue Bull — The pacer
forces himself into publicity — Higher rate of speed — Pacing races very
early — Quietly and easily developed — Comes to his speed quickly — His
present eminence not permanent — The gamblers carried him there —
Will he return to his former obscurity ? . . 173-189

CHAPTER XV.

THE AMERICAN SADDLE HORSE.

The saddle gaits come only from the pacer — Saddle gaits cultivated three
hundred years ago — Markham on the saddle gaits — The military seat
the best — The unity of the pace and trot — Gaits analyzed — Saddle
Horse Register — Saddle horse progenitors — Denmark not a thorough-
bred horse 190-195

CHAPTER XVI.

THE WILD HORSES OP AMERICA.

The romances of fifty years atro — Was the horse indigenous to this country?
— The theories of the paleontologists not satisfactory — Pedigrees of
over two millions of years too Ion — Outlines of horses on prehistoric
ruins, evidently modern — The linguistic test among the oldest tribes
of Indians fails to discover any word for " Horse" — The horses aban-
doned west of the Mississippi by the followers of De Soto about 1541
were the progenitors of the wild horses of the plains 196-204



CONTENTS. IX

CHAPTER XVII.

MESSENGER A.ND HIS ANCESTORS,

PAGES

Messenger the greatest of all trotting progenitors — Record of pedigrees in
English Stud Book — Pedigrees made from unreliable sources— Messen-
ger's right male line examined — Flying Childers' "mile in a minute"
— Blaze short of being thoroughbred — Sampson, a good race horse —
His size; short in his breeding — Engineer short also — Mambrino was
a race horse with at least two pacing crosses; distinguished as a
T^rogenitor of coach horses and fast trotters — Messenger's dam cannot
be traced nor identified — Amongall the horses claiming to be thorough-
bred he is the only one that founded a family of trotters — This fact
conceded by eminent writers in attempting to find others 205-221



CHAPTER XVIII.
HISTORY OF MESSENGER.

Messenger's racing in England — His breeder unknown — Popular uncer-
tainty about the circumstances and date of his importation — The mat-
ter settled by his first advertisement — Uncertainty as to his importer
— Description of Messenger by David W. Jones, of Long Island — Care-
ful consensus of descriptions by many who had seen Messenger — His
great and lasting popularity as a stock horse — Places and prices of his
services for twenty years — Death and burial 222-231



CHAPTER XIX.

messenger's SONS.

Bambletonian (Bishop's) pedigree not beyond doubt — Cadwallader R.
Colden's review of it — Ran successfully — Taken to Granville, N. Y. —
Some of his descendants — Mambrino, large and coarse in appearance —
Failure as a runner — Good natural trotter — His most famous sons
were Abdallah, Almack, and Mambrino Paymaster — Winthrop or
Maine Messenger and his pedigree and history — Engineer and the
tricks of his owners — Certainly a son of Messenger — Commander —
Bush Messenger, pedigree and descripion — Noted as the sire of coach
horses and trotters — Potomac — Tippoo Saib — Sir Solomon — Ogden
Messenger, dam thoroughbred — Mambrino (Grey) — Black Messenger —
Whynot, Saratoga, Nestor, Delight — Mount Holly, Plato, Dover Mes-
senger, Coriander, Fagdown, Bright Pboebus, Slasher, Shaftsbury,
Hotspur, Hutchinson Messenger and Cooper's Messenger — Abuse of
the name " Messenger." 233-254



CHAPTER XX.

messenger's DESCENDANTS.

History of Abdallah— Characteristics of his dam, Amazonia — Speculations
as to her blood — Description of Abdallah — Almack, progenitor of the
Champion line — Mambrino Paymaster, sire of Mamljrino Chief — His-
tory and pedigree — Mambrino Messenger — Harris' Hambletonian —
Judson's Hambletonian — Andrus' Hambletonian, sire of the famous
Princess, Happy Medium's dam 255-266



X CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XXI.

HAMBLETONIAN AND HIS FAMILY.

PAGES

The greatest progenitor in Horse History — Mr. Kellogg's description, and
comments thereupon — An analysis of Hambletonian, structurally con-
sidered — His carriage and action — As a three-year-old trotter — Details
of his stud ser%-ice — Statistics of the Hambletonian family — History
and ancestry of his dam, the Charles Kent Mare — Her grstodson.
Green's Bashaw, and his dam 267-283

CHAPTER XXn.

hambletokian's sons and grandsons.

Different opinions as to relative merits of Hambletonian's greater sons —
George Wilkes, his history and pedigree — His performing descend-
ants — History and description of Electioneer — His family — Alexander's
Abdallah and his two greatest sons, Almont and Belmont — Dictator —
Harold — Happy Medium and his dam — Jay Gould — Strathmore —
Egbert — Aberdeen — Masterlode— Sweepstakes — Governor Sprague,
grandson of Hambletonian 284-314

CHAPTER XXIII.

MAMBRINO CHIEF AND HIS FAMILY.

Description and history of Mambrino Chief — The pioneer trotting stallion
of Kentucky — Matched against Pilot Jr. — His best sous — Mambrino
Patchen, his opportunities and family — Woodford Mambrino, a notable
trotter and sire — Princeps — Mambrino Pilot — Clark Chief — Fisk's
Mambrino Chief Jr. — Ericsson 315-320

CHAPTER XXIV.

THE CLAYS AND BASHAWS.

The imported Barb, Grand Bashaw — Young Bashaw, an inferior individual
— His greatest son, Andrew Jackson — His dam a trotter and pacer —
His history — His noted son, Kemble Jackson — Long Island Black
Hawk — Henry Clay, founder of the Clay family — Cassius M. Clay —
The various horses named Cassius M. Clay — George M. Patchen — His
great turf career — George M. Patchen Jr. —Harry Clay — The Moor,
and his son Sultan's family 321-33T

CHAPTER XXV.

AMERICAN STAR, PILOT, CHAMPION, AND NORMAN FAMILIES.

Seely's American Star — His fictitous pedigree — Breeding really unknown
— A trotter of some merit — His stud career — His daughters noted
brood mares — Conklin's American Star — Old Pacing Pilot — History and
probable origin — Pilot Jr. — Pedigree — Training and races — Prepotency
— Family statistics summarized — Grinnell's Champion, son of Almack
— His sons and performing descendants — Alexander's Norman and his
sire, the Morse Horse — Swigert and Blackwood 338-351



CONTENTS. XL

CHAPTER XXVI.

THE BLrE BULL AND OTHER MINOR FAMILIES.

PAGES

Blue Bull, the once leading sire — His lineage and history — His family
raniv — The Cadmus family — Pocahontas — Smuggler — Tom Rolfe —
Young Rolfe and Nelson — The Tom Hal Family — The various Tom
Hals — Brown Hal — TLe Kentucky Hunters — Flora Temple — Edwin
Forrest — The Drew Horse and Lis descendants — The Hiatogas 352-365'

CHAPTER XXVH.

THE BLACK HAWK, OR MORGAN FAMILY.

Characteristics of the Morgans — History of the original Morgan — The
fabled pedigree — The true Briton theory — Justin Morgan's breeding
hopelessly unknown — Sherman Morgan — Black Hawk — His disputed
piiterniiy — His dam called a Xarragansett — Ethan Allen — His great
beauty, speed, and popularity — The Flying Morgan claim baseless —
His dam of unknown blood — His great race with Dexter — Daniel
Lambert, the only successful sire of the Black Hawk line 366-38&'

CHAPTER XXVin.

THE ORLOFF TROTTER, BELLFODNDER AND THE ENGLISH HACKNEY.

Orloffs, the only foreign trotters of merit — Count Alexis Orloff, founder of
the breed — Origin of the Orloff — Count Orloff began breeding in 1770
— Smetanka, Polkan, and Polkan's son, Barss, really the first Orloff
trotting sire — The Russian pacers — Their great speed — Imported Bell-
founder — His history and characteristics — Got little speed — His
descendants — The English Hackney — Not a breed, but a mere type —
The old Norfolk trotters — Hackney experiments in America — Supe-
riority of the trotting-bred horse demonstrated in show ring con-
tests 390-408

CHAPTER XXIX.

INVESTIGATION OF DISPUTED PEDIGREES.

Tendency to misrepresentation — The Bald Galloway and Darley Arabian —
Godolphin Arabian — Early experiences with trotting pedigrees — Mr.
Backman's honest methods — Shanghai Mary — Capt. Rynders and
Widow Machree — Woodburn Farm and its pedigree methods — Victim-
ized by " horse sharps" and pedigree makers — Alleged pedigree of
Pilot Jr. conclusively overthrown — Pedigrees of Edwin Forrest,
Norman, Bay Chief and Black Rose — Maud S. pedigree exhaustively
considered — Captain John W. Russell never owned the mare Maria
Russell — The deadly parallel columns settle it 409^431

CHAPTER XXX.

INVESTIGATION OP DISPUTED PEDIGREES (Continued).

How Belle of Wabash got her pedigree — Specimen of pedigree making in
that day and locality — Search for the dam of Thomas Jefferson — True
origin and history of Belle of Wabash — Facts about the old-time
gelding Prince — The truth about Waxy, the grandam of Sunol —
Remarkable attempts to make a pedigree out of nothing — How "Jim""



xii CONTENTS.

PAGES

EofE worked a "tenderfoot" — Pedigree of American Eclipse — Pedigree
of Boston — Tom Bowling and Aaron Pennington — Clienery's Grey
Eagle — Pedigree of George Wilkes in doubt 433-455

CHAPTER XXXI.

HOW THE TROTTING HORSE IS BRED,

Early trotting t-nd pacing races — Strains of blood in the first known trot-
ters — The lesson of Maud S. — The genesis of trotting horse literature
— The simple study of inheritance — The different forms of heredity —
The famous quagga story not sustained — Illustrations in dogs — Hered-
ity of acquired characters and instincts — Development of successive
generations necessary — Unequaled collections of statistics — Acquired
injuries and unsoundness transmitted 456-479

CHAPTER XXXII.

HOW THE TROTTING HORSE IS BRED (Continued).

Trotting speed first supposed to be an accident — Then, that it came from
the runner — William Wheelan's views— Test of powers of endurance



Online LibraryOscar WildeLady Windermere's fan, and The importance of being Earnest → online text (page 1 of 61)