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^. Letters from Mr. E. H. Palmer. Nos. III. and IV. 311, 318
(>. I.N-S4)RiPTioNs AND Masons* Marks. By Captain Warrfin. 324



7. List of Wei(;iits, &c. By Captain Warren .

8. Note on the Pool of Betiiesda ....
(». Rki'Ort of Annual Meeting of M.\y 1(5 .

10. Captain Warrf^'s Continued Letters. No. XLVII.



330
331
331



Pi-icf — To Sul'ScriUrs, ohk Copy wiU freCy and subsequeiU Copks at half ^ti' ice.
To Xon-SubscriberSy Onv Shilling,

9, Pall Mall East,
Juuc 30, 1870.



SvbscnjHiotts and Doiiutions should be niatle payable to Waller Bisaul, Esq., 9, Pall
Mall East; or to the Bankers of ilte Fund, the L'nwn Bonk of London^ J, Pall
Mall Ea$t; or Mrssrs. Coaits and Co.^ Strand.



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Quarterly Statement, No. 6.]

THE

PALESTINE EXPLORATION FOND.



STATEMENT OF PROGRESS.

The present number of the Quarf^ly completes the series of
letters written by Captain Warren from Jerusalem. He has now
returned, with the whole party of non-commissioned officers of the
Hoyal Engineers under his command, all of them, including him-
self, invalided home from the effects of hard work and climate.

This is perhaps a fitting place for a very brief expression of the
Committee's sense of Captain Warren's most valuable services.
The readers of his letters are already familiar with the work he has
done in Jerusalem. They are not, perhaps, so well acquainted
with the difficulties he has had to encounter. The prejudices and
jealousies due to religion were obstacles he had to expect. These,
however, as was shown by Captain Wilson's success in making the
Ordnance Survey, were not insurmountable, and had been gpreatly
exaggerated. The Committee have not yet been able to obtain
permission for investigations to be made beneath the surface of the
Ilaram Area ; but in examining the south, west, and east sides of
the Haram Wall, Captain Warren has not met with opposition
greater than was to be expected. But there were other dangers,
belonging to the peculiar character of the work : the shafts, like
long slender pipes, ran through a kind of shingle composed of
debris and rubbish, which when disturbed ran like water, some-
times for days together, crushing in the gallery frames and
endangering the lives of those who were at work in the shaft.
The heat, again, with the absence of ventilation, was so great in
these narrow tubes as to be sometimes insupportable. Yet Captain

V



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280 8TATEMEHT OF PB0GRX88.

Warren neyer had an accident among h is fellabln, or lost a life. In
estimating the work he has done, the anxiety he has undergone
on this account alone, in addition to the fatigue and sometimes the
disappointment of his work, must be borne in mind. There is
perhaps no city in the world which now stands on an accumulation
of ruin and rubbish of such depth and such antiquity as Jerusalem,
and consequently none where excayations are more costly, more un-
certain, and more perilous. Captain Warren contributes this
quarter, besides the usual letters, an account of his expedition to
the East of Jordan, which was undertaken more than two years ago.
The survey work alluded to in his account has for some time been in
the hands of the Committee, and will be published in a map of
Palestine now approaching completion. The statement read by
him at the Annual Meeting on May 16th will giye to most readers
information supplementary to and explanatory of many points in
his letters.

It has been found impossible, with the work on hand, to get
Captain Warren's personal supervision for the proposed engraving
of the Haram Area. This must, therefore, wait. It is hoped to
give it with the next number.

Mr. Klein's letter on the Moabite Stone supplies the information
that was wanting to complete the story of its discovery. It has
already been published in the Pall MM Oauite,

Mr. Palmer's letters on the Desert of the Tlh and the country of
Moab were written in haste, and are necessarily incomplete. They
give sufficient information, however, to show that a fiiller report of
what he has done will contain much that is entirely new as well as
deeply interesting. Mr. Palmer will probably return home in the
course of the summer.

The Committee have to express their gratitude to Mr. Tyrrwhitt
Drake for his valuable co-operation with Mr. Palmer * — and their
hope that his contributions to the knowledge of natural history
will prove valuable enough to repay him for the fatigues he has
undergone.

Arrangements have been made for the publication of a book
which will contain, as fully detailed as the space will allow, the
results up to the present time of the work of the Fund. The Com-

* Sec Mr. Grove's speech in the Report of the Annual Meeting.



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THE OBIQIKAL DISCOVERT OF THE MOABITE STOHB. i8l

mittoe hope that they will be enabled to offer this book to subsoribers
at a reduced rate. Full particulars will be announced in the next
Quarterly,

The Committee are now engaged in maturing their plans for the
next expedition to Palestine. Any suggestions, information, or
advice on the subject from their friends wUl be willingly received
and considerod. But in offering such suggestions, it is hoped that
the original prospectus of the Fund, the basis on which the Com-
mittee works, will be steadily borne in mind.

The squeezes taken by Captain Warren of the two larger frag-
ments of the Moabite Stone have been all photographed full size,
and can now be obtained. The four photographs can be had
together for £2 10s., which is about the cost of their production.
Casts of the fragments have been taken, and any subscribers wishing
to obttun them for a museum, or for themselves, may address the
Secretary on the subject

In conclusion, attention is called to the remarks made by the
speakers at the Annual Meeting, the report of which is here pub-
lished.



THE OEIGINAL DISCOVEET OF THE MOABITE STONE.

BY THE KEV. F. A. KLEIN.*

It was on the 19th of August, 1868, that in the course of a journey I
undertook to Jebl Ajloon and the Belka 1 arrived at DiUn (ancient
Dibon), about one hour to the north of the Wadi Mqjeb (Amon). For
the i»ke of my friend and protector Zaltam, the son of the fomoua
Fendi-1-Faiz, Scheioh of the Beni Sachr, who accompanied me, I was re-
ceived in a most friendly way by a tribe of the Beni-Hamideh, encamped
near Dibftn. Carpets and cushions were spread in the tent of the Scheich,
and co£fee prepared with all the ceremonial of Bedouin etiquette.
Before the operation of preparing and drinking coffee had been termi-
nated, my friend Zattam, who was always most anxious to make my
tour as pleasant and interesting as possible, had informed me that there
was among the ruins of Dibin, scarcely ten minutes from our encamp-
ment, a most interesting stone with an ancient inscnption on it which
no one had ever been able to decipher, which he would take me to see.
As sunset was drawing near I was anxious to be oflf at once, but Zattam

• Thi« letter was addressed to Mr. Grove, and appeared in the Pall llaU Gazette of
April l»th. 1870. The sketch aUaded to is in the office of the Paad. It was published aUo
in the lUutiraUd London New.



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282 THE OBIGIKAL DISCOVERT OF THE MOABTTE STONE.

was not to be persoaded to get up from his soft couch and leave off smok-
ing hie narghilee ; while I was burning with a desire to see the inscrip-
tion, which the Scheich of the Beni-Hamide also described to me as one of
the wonders of this region, which no Frank had jet seen, and which he
now had offered to show me as a mark of honour to his friend Zattam
and to me who was trayellihg under his protection. I, of course, took
this for what it was in general meant to be : a Bedouin compliment
calculated to bring out a nice bakshish. Still I afterwards ascertained
that his assertion as to no European having before me seen the stone
was perfectlj true ; none of the distinguished taravellers in those parts
had ever seen or heard of it, or they would not have shunned trouble
and expense to secure this treasure. I am sorr j to find I was also the
last European who had the privilege of seeing this monument of Hebrew
antiquity in its perfect state of preservation ; and it is for this reason
I think the few observations I am able to offer on the subject may be
welcome to those who take an interest in this important disoovei*y.
When I came to the spot where this precious relic of antiquity was
lying on the ground, I was delighted at the sight, and at the same time
greatly vexed I did not come earlier, in order to have an opportunity of
copying at least a good part of the inscription, which I might tiien
under the protection of Zattam have done without the least molestation.
I, however, had time enough to examine the stone and its inscription at
leisure, and to copy a few words from several lines at random, chiefly
with a view, on my return to Jerusalem, to ascertain the language* of
the inscription, and prevail on some friends of science to obtain either
a complete copy of the inscription, or, better, the monument itself.

The stone was lying among the ruins of Dib&n perfectly free and
exposed to view, the inscription uppermost. I got four men to turn it
round (it was a basaltic stone, exceedingly heavy) in order to ascertain
whether there was no inscription on the other side, and found that it
was perfectly smooth and without any inscription or other marks.
What time was left me before sunset I now employed in examining,
measuring, and making a correct sketch of the stone, besides endea-
vouring to collect a perfect alphabet from the inscription. What I
have I now enclose, and vouch for the perfect correctness of what I give,
having taken it down on the spot. The stone is, as appears from the
accompanying sketch, rounded on both sides, not only at the upper end.
as mentioned by Monsieur Gkumeau, who says : " La forme do la st^le
etait ceUe d'un carr6 long, termine en baut par une partie an*ondie.
Tangle in£§rieur de droite ^tait deja cass^ dcpuis fort long-temps.'*
From his sketch also of the stone he admits it not to have been rounded,
but square at the bottom ; but the fact of this being so cannot but be of
importance to him, as it will give Lim the comfortable assurance that
in the lower comer sides there are not as many words of the inscription
missing as would be the case if it were square at the bottom, as he was
wrongly informed by his authority ; for, as in the upper part so also in
the lower, in exactly the same way, the lines become smaller by degrees.



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THE ORIGINAL DISCOVERT OP THE XOABITB STONE. 283

Possibly in the length of the sereral lines there may be more letters to
supplj, as now supposed, as in this respect the information received by
M. Gkumeau is not quite correct He says of the stone : — " D'apr^ les
estampages elle aurait eu 1 m^tre de hauteur et 0.60 centimetres de
largeur, arec nne ^paisseur 6gale."

According to my correct measurement on the spot, the stone had —
1 meti*e 13 centimetres in height,

„ 70 centimetres in breadth, and
f, 35 centimetres in thickness,
and, according to my calculation, had thirty-four lines ; for the two or
three upper lines were very much obliterated. The stone itself was in
a most perfect ttate ofpreterocUion, not one single piece being broken off,
and it was only from great age and exposure to the rain and sun that
certain parts, especially the upper and lower lines, had somewhat suf-
fered.

On my return to Jerusalem I showed my sketch and parts of the
inscription to Dr. Petermann, of Berlin, who 1 knew took great interest
in archsBological researches, and he was delighted at the information,
and immediately took the necessary steps to acquire the Moabite monu-
ment for the Berlin Museum. A young clever Arab at Salt was entrusted
with the business of transacting the matter with the Bedouins at Dibftn,
but the difficulties he met and the greediness of the Arabs put an insu-
perable obstacle in his way. The services of another native were subse-
quently engaged, but also without success. The matter, being thus
necessarily entrusted to the hands of natives, of course then ceased to
be a secret, and other parties also heard of it and exerted themselves
with laudable zeal and energy to obtain, if not the stone itself, at least
a copy of it ; and one cannot too highly praise the zeal, energy, and
tact of M. Ganneau and Captain Warren, who have through their
exertions preserved to the learned world parts at least of this most
valuable monument of Hebrew antiquity, and who I sincerely trust will
ultimately succeed in obtaining and deciphering the whole inscription.

Scheich Zattam has since informed me that he had in his possession
a small idol made of brass with similar characters upon it, which I have,
however, lately been informed was sent to Nablous, and sold there.
Whether this is true or not I know not. But most assuredly a scientific
expedition to Moab is a great desideratum, and could not but greatly
enrich our knowledge of Hebrew archsDology.

I have to add that among the letters I copied from the Moabite
inscription I see several letters which are not found in the parts pub-
lished by M. Ganneau and Captain Warren. Probably these letters
are of rare^ occurrence, and found on pieces not secured. I have not
thought it necessary to give you my entire alphabet, but only those
letters I missed in the inscription published by the gentlemen re-
ferred to.

F. A. Kleix.

Jerusalem, March 23, 1870.



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284



EXPEDITION TO EAST OP JORDAN, JULY AND
AUGUST, 1867.

[Accounts qf portions of this journey are given in Letters I. and IlL,
pages 1 to 14.]

While we were making our excursion to 'Ain Jidy, in July,
1867, a messenger had brought up Ooblan from the east of Jordan,
and we found him waiting for us on our return to Jerusalem. An
arrangement was made that he should take us orer his portion of the
country, and point out the principal ruins, &c.

The illness of Corporal Birtles was now my principal anxiety. He
had been taken with a sharp attack of dysentery just before our
departure for 'Ain Jidy, and we left him in Jerusalem ; and now, on
our return, he appeared to be no better. Dr. Chaplin reij kindly
offered to take care of him during our absence ; but in this case, he
would hare to go into town after having been some months under canvas,
and this was very undesirable. Corporal Birtle's own impression was
that he should recorer if he came with us, and after getting some
medical instructions, I undertook the charge of him, but not without
some fear that he would not return with us.

We left at 3 p.m. on 17th July, 1867, and arrired at 'Ain as
SultAn at 7.30 p.m. Our party consisted of our invalid, Corporal
Birtles, the photographer. Corporal Phillips, his assistant, Edward
Hanour, and Jerius the dragoman. Our guard varied in numbers,
according to the security of our position, from five to forty men. Sheikh
Qoblan always slept dose to our tents, and never gave me any trouble
in camp. He would come into my tent once a day for orders, stand up
while he received them, and retire afterwards, apparently without ever
thinking of sitting down.

When we were travelling I did not find him so pliable ; he had got
his line of route in his head, and the sights we were to see, and the
g^ing out of the line here and there, when surveying, disturbed him
considerably.

July 18. — 'Ain as SulULn. Started at 6.30 a.m., and arrived at
en Nwaimeh ford at 8.30. It was oppressively hot ; the thermometer
only registered 98^ Fahr.

The Jordan just now was very low, and theife was little danger in
crossing ; for about thirty feet the depth was seven feet or more, and
for the remainder it was only two to four feet. We had to wait some
time for our baggage, but when it did arrive, we were only about an
hour and a half in crossing. The tents and nearly everything else
were left on the mules' backs, but the photogpraphic apparatus and box
were put on a horse's back, with a man astride behind, and several on
each side, and carried across with much shouting. When we crossed
there were two Bedouins on each side, to hold our legs and guide the



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BXPBDinON TO KA8T OF JORBAK. 285

horse, and it straek me that they did their heat to pnll us ofil Luckily
all oar horses had manes.

Photograph No. 293 shows the ford just after two horses hare carried
some things oyer the deep part of the rirer. Left the eastern hank at
10.50, and passed through tamarisk and acacia trees ; at 11.15 got up
on to the upper plain, and passed through acres of the drj shruh
ghurrah.

At noon we got into irrigated ground, and passed the only osha
plant I hare seen on the eastern side north of Dead Sea. Still
passing east, we arrired at the mound of Nimrtn at 12.30 p.m. Here
are ruins and a sheikh's tomh, with a curious figure cut on a
stone — a man on horseback with his sword hanging in the air in front
of the horse's head (see sketch). Also a capital of a column (see
sketch). Left at 3 p.m., and passed through country well cultirated by
the black Bedouins ; at 3.30 Qoblan showed us Neba, a lumpy hill oyer-
looking the northern end of Dead Sea, on east side ; at 4 p.m. arriTed
at the isolated artificial mound of Kaferein. It was excessiyely hot
here, and on the bag^g^age arriying, eighteen of the fowls in the coops
were found to haye died. Around us, on all sides, were riyulets passing
through dense masses of underwood, and carried off here and there
for irrigating purposes. The amount of yerdure on the eastern side,
in spite of the hot sun, was quite remarkable after the bumt-up aspect
of the western side of the riyer.

July 19. — ^The heat during the night had been oppressiye, but still
Corporal Birties was no worse, and there were hopes for him. Minimum
in night, 80^ Fahr. ; at 7.8 a.m., in shade, 91^. Went down at sunrise to
look for ruins, but the growth of underwood was too great to allow of
our proceeding far on either side of the paths. It is quite possible
that there may still be extensiye ruins about here, concealed by the
yerdure.

Left at 7.8 a.m., and went south ; at 7.40, Wady al Mashdideh, dose
to which is a warm spring, in a little basin concealed by rushes.
Temperature, 95^ 5' iVthr. Left at 8.30, and turned to east and
ascended Wady Hftd&d, which is the upper part of the Elaferein, 8.42.
Wady Habath& runs in on right, and there is a ruined aqueduct on
left ; at 8.56 Wady umm Adsts on right, and at 9.15 Wady Artab on
right. There is here a yery rapid stream in Wady Hftd&d. We now
turned up the hills to north, and at 9.30 took angles from point ; at
9.50 came on hill in Wady SCkr ; passed to east till, at 10.36, we stood
on the watershed separating Wady al Mab&feh from Wady Jaryah.
Left 10.40, and at 11.2 came on extensive ruins of a fortified town,
called Khirbet SOr. These buildings occupy a shallow yalley on the
hill, and a crenelated wall runs round tbem. Left at 11.20. To our
soutii-west we were told of a large caye in side of hill : at 12.15 came
to brow of ridge to east, and in fiye minutes got down to the ruins of
Arak al Emir. Thermometer in shade was here 94^ Fahr.

Photographs Nos. 295 — ^299 were taken of the ruins, and a ground*



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EXPEDITION TO EAST OP JORDAN.

plan made of ihe palace ; in the evening, obsenrations were made from
a ruin on crest of hill to west.

July 20. — Oar camp was delightfdllj placed below Arak al Emtr,
near the stream of Wadj Sei'r, and the thermometer registered a
min. of 53*" Fahr. during the night: hj 7 a.m., however, it had
mounted up again to 87^ Fahr. Took some more measurements at
the palace (see sketch), bearing of front wall 160^, and left at 8.15 a.m.
Near here the Wadies Se'ir, BaMr, N&Cir, and abu Ainem, come
together, and are called Wady Hftdid. Went up hill to east, and at 8.40
reached point. To our west was a ruin, Um al Medftris ; left at 9 a.m.
9.38 crossed Wady Beh&r, near junction of three wadies ; there is here
a great stream of water 18fb. wide and 2ft. deep, and oleanders
fringe the bank; up the sides of the brown hill are bright green
lines, showing that many streams of water are oozing out. We now
ascend the hills to south, separating the waters going to Kaferein
from those passing from Hesban to Ar Bam, and at 10.10 stood on
Jebl Jabiid. Close by was the 'ain of Nlnl on right ; at 10.45 got
to top of Jebl Jabiis ; left 11.10., and turning south down a wady,
came at noon upon Wady Hesban, and in five minutes to the 'ain of
same name.

This fountain is a delightful spot (see photograph No. 300), a great
volume of water rushing straight out of tiie side of the rock, which is
a limestone conglomerate. The wady through which the stream flows
is about fifty yards broad at bottom, and nearly flat, having once been
cultivated ; and here the cattle for miles round come to be watered,
and all through the day they are passing by.

Soon after noon we went down the wady, and in seven minutes came
on the Beniyet Sakr, a great khan belonging to the Adwan, which
they say they built when Ibrahim Pasha ordered them to live in
houses ; but it is now a ruin. Bound about are Shunet and some other
modem buildings ; on the walls are scratched several Arabic fantasia.
We made our way up Wady Biiweib on the south bank to Hesban,
which is greatly elevated, and from whence there is an extensive view
over the Belka to south. There are ruins here in great confusion. I
observed some attic bases of columns, and four columns side by side ;
the stone is soft, and appeal's to be Malaki: diameter of column,
2ft. 6in.

The Bedouins began to flock around us, and threaten us if we did
not give them backshish ; we had only two of our guard with us, and
these got frightened and said they must ga By asking the people
absurd questions about the sheep they ought to kill for us, &c., wo
diverted their attention, and got together and in order, and got away
without a row.

I think it probable that with a little search some Greek inscriptions
would be found about the ruins of Hesban; there are also caves
about, which we were told were cut into tombs and houses. It was
rather unfortunate that it should have happened just then to be in



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EXPEDITION TO EAST OP JORDAN. 287

the liaads of a hostile partj. A sketch of a sculptured stone lying
about is giren. We left at 5 p.m., and got to bottom of wadj at 6 ;
crossed over to observe with theodolite from opposite hill at sunset.

Sunday, 21. — Thermometer minimum in night, 75^ Fahr.; maximum
in shade in day, 96^. Walked up the Wady Hesban till I came on
the Belka, where I found the Bedouins shovelling grain into a hole in
the rock ; slipped down into it to examine it, and found it to be a
simple cave plastered round, quite full of grain, except 3fl. ft the top.
The Bedouins tell a story about these granaries ; they say that when the
grain is inside and the door is shut, a foul air arises from it, and no
man can enter until the stone door has been left open some days ;
consequently it is not necessary to have a guard always there, but
they send one up occasionally to see that the stone has not been
removed. If this be true, it is quite evident that a sudden raid upon
the granaries of another tribe would be of no use, as they could not
enter, and this may account for the com being put in such queer out-
of-the-way unprotected spots.

22nd. — ^Took some angles, and left 'Ain Hesban at 7.3; took our
course down the wady to west on left bank. On our way we were t<^d
that Wady Hesban joins Wady Kaferein about an hour before
reaching the Jordan. 7.45 — Shunet as Sakr, passed patches of tobacco,
melons and cucumbers, and long dry grass ; flocks of blue pigeons
whirling about over head, and some human skulls lying about on the
ground, one of which was was picked up and forwarded to London.
7.58 — Came to on left Wady Bttweib and the road leading up to
Hesban ; left 8.7, continued to west down Wady Hesban, and at
8.20 mouth of Wady Ahfdhei'l. To west of his about one hundred
yards, is a huge block of rock, scarped by nature to a height of 30 to
40 feet ; no inscription on it could be seen. We now came in sight of
the Jordan.

8.30. — A bend in wady and a large open space with ruins of mills ;
the wady becomes a foaming torrent closed in by rocky banks.

8.35. — Passed a spring at Bikwarideh, and to the left, somewhat up
the hill, a house or castle in ruins ; left 8.40 ; in five minutes came on



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