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Cut Widening Scenes
Signal Station Retired

<R|ARY 1964

Cut Widening Progress,^ Pattern

Robert J. Fleming, Jr., Governor-President
David S. Parker, Lieutenant Governor

Frank A. Baldwin
Panama Canal Information Officer

Official Panama Canal Publication

Published monthly at Balboa Heights, C.Z.

Printed at the Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z.

Distributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees.

Robert D. Kerr, Press Officer

Publications Editors
Robert D. Kerr and Julio E. Briceno

Editorial Assistants
EinJicE Richard, Tobi Bittel, and


Where Is It?


0\ OUR COVER: Progress of work on the widening of
the Canal on the final reaches througli Gaillard Cut from
300 to 500 feet is visible in the "skinned earth" area along
tlie west bank, at right as you look at tiie picture. The
aerial photo was taken from a point almost directly over
Camboa Bridge. The line indicates approximately futtire
width of the Canal after removal of about 11,200.000
cubic yards of rocky material from the west bank. Work
began last January on the tliird, final, and largest phase
of the $44 million program for widening of the cut,
a program started in 1959. Tlie current contract work is
being done primarily by 44-cubic-yard scraper units,
nearly twice the size of any power scrapers ever used
before on any Canal Zone projects.

HOW FAMILIAR are you with the
history of the Panama Canal? How
closely do you inspect your surround-
ings? And how well does the geography
of the Isthmus register on your memory?

The picture at left was printed from a
negative in official files of old glass
negatives. Can you guess what the
scene is, and about what date? If so,
drop a note to the editor of The Review,
along with the reason you think
)Our guess is correct on place and
appro.ximate date.

We'll let you know in a later issue,
along with an explanation of how it's
possible, by close inspection of the
picture, to establish place and time.

Yes, that's a French rail car, and for
the benefit of rail buffs to whom it
would mean something, it has a link
and pin coupler, not an automatic

The sand along the tracks and the
barrels under shelter at right aren't
useful as clues. Don't waste time on
them. The hills in the distance could be
clues. That's not a signal in right back-
ground, it's a pole with insulators.

.\nv ideas as to where the scene is,
and when?

If so, pitch in. There'll be no
"winner," but it could be fun. Other old
pictures will be published periodically
for similar guessing games.


Cut Widening Views 3

Planning, Control Tool 4

Major Ocean Ports , 6

Signal Station "Retired" 7

New Lockage Technique 8

Isthmus Industry 10

Canal History, Retirements 12

Anniversaries 13

Promotions and Transfers 14

Cristobal Schedule 15

Shipping 16

2 January 1964

A view of part of the Cut widening project not visible from the Canal or from Camboa
Road along the east bank. It's spoil bank No. 1, sloped toward the Mandinga River parallel
to the course of the river, and away from the Canal channel, for earth stability and to
minimize the amount of bank wash that will get back into the river and eventually into
the Canal. This reduces the amount of dredging necessary to keep the channel clear.

Bird's Eye View

Of Canal Widening Work

APPROXIMATELY 3,200,000 cubic
yards of material have been removed
from Gaillard Cut under current con-
tract work in Las Cascadas-Bas Obispo
Reaches for widening of the Canal from
300 to 500 feet.

Removal of the remaining estimated
1,800,000 cubic yards under the Zone I
(above elevation 95) contract should be
completed bv the end of April, 6 months
ahead of scheduled completion date.

The contract, with Moretti-Harrison,
Inc., of Miami, Fla., covers removal and
disposal of the non-rockv overburden
earthv material. It is based on removal
of 4V2 million cubic yards, with option
for the Panama Canal of having an
additional 675,000 yards removed at the

The Panama Canal Review 3

same unit price of 44.8 cents per yard.

Upon completion of this contract,
the work remaining in the Canal widen-
ing project will be removal of approxi-
matelv 11,200,000 cubic yards of rocky
material from the 3-mile long north end
of Gaillard Cut making up Las Cas-
cadas-Bas Obispo Reaches.

It is anticipated that most of this
material will be taken to the site of the
proposed Trinidad Dam and used in
construction of the dam. Completion of
this final phase of the widening project
is contingent upon budgetary consider-
ations, but its actual completion proba-
bl\' could be achieved in about 3 \'ears
of intensified effort. Canal engineering
officials believe.

Jutting out from the west bank of the Canal
near Camboa is Mandinga flare, which is
being cut back to approximately the line
shown, for improved visibility for pilots,
although the work is not necessary for
adequate channel width. This work is
being done by the Dredging Division
because the flare is isolated from the con-
tract work area by the Mandinga River,
and making it a separate project simplified
the contract job.

TTJT !»»'•■


1 MMA.%7,r

flcc n^i^CH-

The fine points of a PERT chart are
explained by Kerry B. Magee of the Exe-
cutive Planning Staff. Magee trained more
than 400 Panama Canal employees in the
use of the new management control tool.
This chart was part of a larger one used to
organize the move of the Panama Canal
Printing Plant from Mount Hope to La
Boca— a complex job with a deadline.


A CANAL Zone housewife who makes
plans for a formal dinner party for 20
guests will carry out in her mind,
whether she knows it or not, a type of
project planning which her engineer or
manager husband would call PERT, and
which more and more Panama Canal
management, staff, engineer, and super-
visor\' personnel are using every day in
their respective jobs.

The housewife certainh' has a project
when she must invite guests, plan an
elaborate dinner to feed 20 hungry
people, and line up extra help. She
undoubtedh' figures out a way that
the program actualh' will be accom-
plished rather tlian a way in which it
might be accompulished, whith is one
of the first steps in the use ri^PERT.

She lists the major activities'^ be

completed ■■ ' ■"■' <" < i'"-

and the food assembled and
the time necessary to comn^
acti\it\'. In her mind she willVTetermine
the expected time to make each dish,
clean the house and invite the guests
bv combining optimistic time, the most
likeK time, and pessimistic time. And
she will consider the servants and
the weather.

This may be an over-simplified exam-
ple of a new management planning and

January 1964

control tool which is being used by
business and Government organizations
in the United States, and is now being
employed more and more by the Canal

The letters P-E-R-T stand for Pro-
gram Evaluation and Review Tech-
nique, or as it has been explained by
the original advocates, a new technique
for planning any project that involves
a number of different tasks that must
be coordinated.

PERT was developed in 1958 by a
management consultant firm working
with the Naw's Special Projects Office,
whose most pressing problem was get-
ting the Polaris submarine out to sea
at the earliest possible moment. It has
since won international acclaim as a
management 'Tareakthrough" for saving
time and resources in the race for space.

"PERT has become so widely used
at present that it seems likely to outlive
Polaris for which it was designed,"
Willard Eraser, the father of the system,
said in an article on its origin.

He also described PERT as a man-
agement planning and control tool for
defining and integrating what must be
done to finish complex jobs in time to
meet a deadline.

Mrs. Frank Lerchen, whose husband is the
Panama Canal's Designing Engineer, has
been using Program Evaluation and Review
Technique unknowingly for years in her
daily duties as housewife, mother, and
hostess. Here she is putting the final
touches to a table set for a formal dinner
party— also a complex job with a deadline.

However it is described, PERT is
being used by nearly every Canal organ-
ization bureau to carry out various
projects. The name PERT crops up in
nearly every executive conference and
PERT charts appear on many office

A visitor to a management or official
planning conference who assumes a
dazed expression when he hears the
word PERT just isn't hep. PERT, he
will soon learn, is being recognized
these davs as the management system
of the century and the first ever created
to incorporate uncertainty in planning
and to measure with anv certaint\' the

Program Evaluation


Review Technique

current progress and the predicted prog-
ress for meeting not only R&D object-
ives, but also objectives of other tN-pes
of programs or projects.

Projects planned and carried out by
the PERT svstem range from the move
of the Printing Plant from Mount Hope
to La Boca, to the overhaul of a Naviga-
tion Division tug. It is being employed
now in the planning phases and will be
actually used when the time comes to
move Gorgas Hospital facilities, first
into the new hospital building in Ancon
and later, into the renovated A, B, and
O buildings.

The past vear has been a probation

period for the implementation ot Jf tn i
into the Panama Canal organizations.
However, from the results of the various
successful pilot projects, management
has been convinced that PERT is in-
deed a dynamic planning tool that can
assist managers at all levels in the
accomplishment of a particular task.

In the typical Stateside business
organization using this new system,
there always exists a hard core of dedi-
cated advocates of PERT who do the
"sales work," lay the ground rules for
their company, and set up training pro-
grams, and in general try to acquaint
both management and labor with this
planning concept. The Panama Canal
is no exception to this, as two men in
the Executive Planning Staff have done
just this sort of "pitch" work; Kerry B.
Magee and Noel C. Farnsworth. Both
men have attended PERT courses in
the States and are avid readers on the
subject of PERT. One needs to talk to
them for only a few minutes to realize
that they have a firm belief in PERT
and that it is the answer to many
managers' problems.

To accomplish this mission of intro-
ducing the basic concepts of PERT and
to give up-to-date information on this
new management technique to Panama
Canal employees, courses have been
held during this past vear for all levels
of management, including supervisory,
staflF and engineering personnel. The
most successful of these occurred in Oc-
tober when a PERT Institute was held
for first-line supervisors who received
the training enthusiastically. In all,
more than 400 men and women em-
plovees have received training in PERT.


a J or



Aerial view of the River Thames, showing the Tower Bridge and four of the five dock

systems of the Port of London.

Departure of the big P. and O. passenger liner Himalaya
from the Tilbury Landing Stage. This floating jetty, 1,142
feet long, enables the largest ships using the port to come
alongside at any state of the tide. The Himalaya has been
a Panama Canal visitor several times recently on the
England to Australia run.



the top 10 ports in the world. More than
56 million tons of cargo passed into, out
of, or through the port in 1962. This
included more than 43 million tons of
imports, over 10 million tons outward-
bound, and nearly 3 million tons on

New quay cranes, heavy lift floating
derricks and other equipment modern-
ized or being modernized speed han-
dling of cargo for a nation which relies
heavily on raw materials and products
from other lands. Britain imports all its
oil, cotton, rubber, and sulfur, virtually
all its wool, half its food and iron ore
and large quantities of paper, tobacco,
and chemicals. There also are sizeable
imports of manufactured goods made
from these basic products.

\'ia "roll-on," "roll-off" vessels at the
Port of London docks, road vehicles
enter by ramps and on reaching the
continent are driven off to proceed to
their destination, literally an interna-
tional "ferrv."

A number of the mobile cranes at
the docks are of special design. One
t\pe, for example, has a long, curved
jib to permit high piling of long lengths
of lumber.

Britain's merchant marine of approxi-
mately 20!2 million tons makes up about
50 percent of active world shipping.
British shipyards have an estimated
annual capacity of I'A million tons and
build more than a third of the world's
new shipping.

View of shipping in one of five main docks which comprise the West India
& Millwall Docks group. Trade of these docks extends to North and South
America, East, West and South Africa, India, the Mediterranean, France,
Spain, Portugal, Scandinavia, the Middle East, Far East, and Persian Gulf.

Cucaracha Signal Station, 352 feet above sea level at Contractor's Hill, served for almost half a century as an aid to navigation of ships

through the Canal.

THE PANAMA Canal's Cucaracha Sig-
nal Station, after almost half a century
of continuous service, has been inacti-
vated, a victim of progress. Widening
of Gaillard Cut from 300 to 500 feet has
done vi'hat slides in 1918 were unable
to accomplish, and operation of Cuca-
racha Signal Station was discontinued
last month.

The Cucaracha Signal Station, on
Contractor's Hill, consisted of a small
concrete structure with telephone, desk
and chair inside, and mast with cones
and balls on it outside. Before the
Cut widening, this signal station was
important as an aid to navigation. The
widening of Gaillard Cut makes further
operation of this station unnecessary.

In its nigh 50 vears of existence,
Cucaracha Signal Station has weathered
slides, rock falls, and several moves.
For the past 3 years this station has
been situated some 352 feet above sea
level at Contractor's Hill. But for many
years the station was located south of
its present site, low and close to the
water at an elevation of some 100 feet.

The historv of Panama Canal signal
stations goes back to March 5, 1913,
when Capt. Hugh Rodman, first Marine
Superintendent of the Panama Canal,
advocated six signal stations in a report

on preliminary studies of the Canal he
submitted to Colonel Goethals.

Cucaracha Signal Station, at the foot
of Contractor's Hill, went into operation
in 1914 along with its sister stations.
The buildings were white, with red
roofs, in order "to attract the eye as far



as possible to aid navigation of ships
through the Canal." One of the signal-
man's duties, outlined in his responsi-
bilities, was "to report via telephone
when land slides occurred within his
vision and knowledge."

The 1918 slides at Gaillard Cut
resulted in Cucaracha Signal Station's
first move for, said a report,"The loca-
tion at the foot of Contractor's Hill was

too dangerous with rocks constantly
breaking and rolling down, endangering
the lives of men assigned there."

The temporary signal station struc-
ture was replaced in July 1923 with the
new Cucaracha Signal Station. Little
more than a year later, on November
24, 1924, this station was threatened
during a slide. A portion of the site of
old Cucaracha Village was buried and
the vicinity of the Cucaracha Signal
Station covered vWth mud and rocks
following torrential rains.

In May 1928 concrete structures were
recommended for all Panama Canal sig-
nal stations, "which were a source of
worry and required constant watching
and repair on account of ants."

The importance of the Cucaracha
Signal Station was recognized in 1930,
when a news report termed this one of
the vital installations along the Canal.
"From his position the signalman can
see a great distance through the cut
and it is his duty to report movements
of ships north- and southbound, and
record the time of each in his log. With-
out this station (Cucaracha) located here
there would be many accidents as the
channel is narrow and winding, and the

(See p. 15)

The Panama Canal Review

Going . • •



NOT LONG AGO. the United States
flag ship MonticeUo Victory, a behe-
moth with a beam of 102 feet and a
length of 736 feet, was "flooded" on
a surge of water out of Gatun Locks
and into the Canal channel leading to
Limon Bay.

It was not an emergency measure,
nor was there anything mechanically
wrong with the Monticello Victory.

The Panama Canal Marine Bureau
was making one of the first tests of
a new method of ejecting deeply laden
vessels from the lower chambers of
certain of the Panama Canal Locks.
The Monticello Victory was carrying
4L086 long tons of fuel oil from Cali-
fornia and had a draft of more than
37 feet.

The method, worked out by Capt.
I. G. Hay and Capt. R. L. Erixon, two
alert Panama Canal pilots, is proving
highly successful and has been termed
by Gov. Robert J. Fleming, Jr., as "a
major breakthrough in one of the
Canal's tough shiphandling problems."

In simple language, it involves the
admission of water into the lower locks

chamber behind a departing supership
to create a flow of water out of the
chamber. The ship floats out into the
channel on a moving river of water.

Marine Bureau authorities believe
that the system will do much to expe-
dite the handling of very large vessels
in the locks and at the same time
eliminate damage sometimes caused
when the sides of a wide-beamed cargo
carrier rub against the lock chamber

Particular difliculty had been experi-
enced in moving the larger ships out
of the last lock chamber northbound at
Gatun and moving them out of the lock
chamber southbound at Pedro Miguel.

The technique requires that the ship
be placed well forward in the chamber.
After the water in the chamber has been
spilled to the level of Miraflores Lake,
or sea level, as the case may be, the
lower gates are opened and fully
recessed. As the ship moves forward,
aided by locomotives, water is admitted
into the end of the lock chamber behind
the ship's stern through the culverts, as
when normally flooding to lift a ship
into the chamber.

Goim. . .

M^ith towing locomotives being used
at the bow for lateral control, the ship
moves out of the chamber, sailing down
the centerline at normal unlocking
speed. During the tests, the ship leaves
the chamber without touching the walls.
The ships' engines are stopped and are
not used again until the vessel is clear
of the gates.


January 1964

The new method eliminates the
diflFerential water head encountered by
the large ships when they leave the
lock chamber and gives pilots and locks
personnel better control.

Successful tests are being made
regularly at Gatun and Pedro Miguel
with greater speed in unlocking being
achieved as the technique is improved.

The Panama Canal Review 9

With water swirling astern, the lumbering bulk carrier Nagano, filled to the brim with a
record-breaking load of 49,332 long tons of coal, moves without a wobble from Pedro
Miguel Locks. Breaking for the fourth time her own Canal cargo records, the ship was on
her way last month from Norfolk, Va., to Japan. The new hydraulic assist method of moving
big beamed customers out of certain locks chambers was used on her with decided success.
The Nagano, a 757-foot-long Liberian flag vessel, carries iron ore from Peru to Baltimore
and coal from Norfolk to Japan. She is operated by the Marine Transport Line, Inc., and
is represented at the Canal by Wilford & McKay. On her next to last trip, in November,
she brought a whopping 48,771 long tons of iron ore northbound from Peru. Her beam of
102 feet leaves little room to spare in the Panama Canal Locks.

. . . Practically Gone

The new El Faro (The Lighthouse) apart-
ment building on Manuel Josd Hurtado
Street in La Cresta, built by Constructora


Martinz* Enterprises

interlocked industrial combine that has
evolved out of Panama's growing con-
struction needs. Started in 1919 by
Louis Martinz, the concern has ex-
panded through the years, and now
comprises Compania L. Martinz, S.A.,
Concrete, S.A., Aserradero El Chagres,
S.A., Constructora Martinz, S.A., and
Beta, S.A.

These companies are engaged mainly
in the production of concrete and con-
crete fixtures, lumber, and heavy equip-
ment—all vital links in the construction

Compaiiia L. Martinz, S.A., managed
directly by Mr. Martinz, is engaged in
the rental of heavy equipment, and,
mainly, in land developing, such as the
Las Cumbres real estate development,
a mid-way residence point between
Colon and Panama. Las Cumbres is a
tract consisting of more than 2,700
acres, with all modern living con-

veniences, besides a 1 square kilometer
artificial lake, recently added.

Concreto, S.A. has three plants pro-
ducing trans-mix concrete, concrete
pipes, pre-cast concrete, and pre-
stressed members. Manager of this
company is engineer Robert Zauner.
Aserradero El Chagres, S.A., on the
Trans-Isthmian Highway, the lumber
division of the combine, sells the only
lumber in Panama treated against ter-
mites and other wood boring insects.
The process is done in special cylinders
where the air is extracted from the
lumber, which is then impregnated
with special chemicals. Managing Ase-
rradero El Chagres, S.A. is Fernando
Manfredo, Jr.

Constructora Martinz, S.A. is in the
actual construction business, has re-
cently built the El Faro Building in
La Cresta and the Chase Manhattan
Bank building. Beta, S.A. which deals
in building real estate, owns the

Aerial view of the recently completed Las Cumbres Lake, around which an attractive residential development is growing.


January 1964

chase Manhattan Bank building in
front of the Panama Hilton, and other
commercial buildings.

In Panama, Martinz' Enterprises has
been a pioneer in good relations
between workers and business. A club
was formed by Empresas Martinz many
years ago for the benefit of the workers
and their families. The club members
are the workers, its board of directors
consists of two employees from each of
the five companies, elected by their
fellow members. The clubhouse has
been totally remodeled, with Empresas
Martinz footing the bill. There was a
big reopening ceremony in October.
The plans for the club renovation were
the direct result of discussions between
employees and the enterprise. It has a
large meeting and assembly hall, an
indoor sports room, a barber shop,
library, and dining room. One of the
activities of the Club Unido de Empre-
sas Martinz (CUEM) is the savings
cooperative, for which the enterprise
gives 6 percent interest, 3 percent more
than the usual bank rates, in an effort
to teach the advantages of saving to
the workers. The Softball league is one
of the most popular of club activities,
of five teams, each one represents one
of the companies. The purpose of this
league, besides the beneficial effects
derived of active participation in sports,
is to encourage friendship and unity
among the workers.

"We're really like a family," says
Louis Martinz, Jr. "The employees are
almost totally the original ones hired
to fill the job when the different
companies started."

Originator of this enterprise, Louis
Martinz, a Panamanian citizen, was
originally from Carinthia, Austria. He
studied masonry as a young man, later
obtaining his degree as an engineer.
He arrived in Panama to establish him-
self definitely in 1914 and has been in
industry here ever since.

Wood load about to enter the impregnating cylinders for processing of treated wood at
the Aserradero EI Chagres plant.


Jorge Ledezma, president of the Workers'
Club, Louis Martinz, Jr., public relations
officer, and Manuel Vejas, Compania Mar-
tinz officer, looking over reconstruction
work on the Martinz Employees Club.

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