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UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES




Digitized by the Internet Archive

in 2010 with funding from

University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries



http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalrevie155pana




Special:

Z)he M^tta Stanch



Vol. 15, No. 5
MAY 1965



>^






Robert J. Fleming, Jr., Governor-President



David S. Parker, Lieutenant Governor

Frank A. Baldwin
Panama Canal Information Officer




Official Panama Canal Publication
Published quarterly at Balboa Heights, C.Z.

Printed at the Printing Plant, La Boca, C.Z.
Review articles may be reprinted in full or part without
further clearance. Credit to the Review will be appreciated.
Distributed free of charge to all Panama Canal Employees.



Robert D. Kerr, Press Officer

Publications Editors
Richard D. Peacock and Julio E. Briceno

Editorial Assistants
Eunice Richard, Tobi Bittel, and

TOMAS A. CUPAS



c4bout Our Cover

THE PASTORAL SCENE on the cover was taken from
the veranda of the main house atop a hill on the ranch
of the Motta brothers.

From this vista, the vast ranch spreads out in all direc-
tions. As far as one can see, the land is Motta land, and
one can see the distant
dots and clusters of brown
and red and white cattle—
13,000 altogether.

Cattle from the ranch
supply meat to the market
in Panama City, so the next
time you cut into a steak or
roast, there is a good pos-
sibiUty that it was devel-
oped on the Motta Ranch.

Raising cattle is becom-
ing more scientific each
year. It's not simply turn-
ing an animal out to graze

and packing him off to ij_ „ j:. __i_i_

market when he's grown. Dinnertime at the Motta Ranch.
To stay in business, e.vperienced management is needed.
And in the case of a huge ranch, the complexities are
multiplied. But apparently the Motta brothers have the
right touch, because the big place runs along very
smoothly. And then when problems develop, the experi-
ence of many years in ranching is called upon to solve
them.

Later in the year, The Review will carry a story on the
cattle industry in the entire Republic. But for a close
look at how a large, modem ranch in Panama operates,
turn to page 4.





Index

Twin Pilots 3

The Motta Ranch 4

Easter in Panama 7

Port of Los Angeles 8

The Boquete Orange 10

Shipping Charts 12

Notes on Shipping _^ 12

Journey Into Past 14

All About Cargo Container^ 16

Anniversaries 17

Playwright Recognized 17

The Father Cooper Story 18

Pedro Miguel Slide 19

Shipping Story, Quarterly Graph 20

Canal History 21

Oldest Stamps 22

50th Anniversary Stamps 22



SpiUway, Subdcrlptiond

Those who are not employees of the Panama Canal
organization can now subscribe to the Spillicay.

Though it's still free to all PanCanal employees,
others may receive the weekly publication under a
subscription arrangement. The cost is $2.60 a year.
This includes mailing— by regular mail— to anywhere
in the world.

Checks for subscriptions should be made to "The
Panama Canal Company" and may be sent by letter to:

Spillway Subscriptions

Box M

Balboa Heights, Canal Zone.

Be sure to include the clearly printed name and
address of the person to whom the Spillway is to
be sent.

Cash for subscriptions will be accepted during office
hours at the desk of the Property and Supply Clerk,
Administrative Services Division, Room 14, in the
basement of the Administration Building at Balboa
Heights.



May 1965



Twin Brothers Have Twin Careers
As Pilots For The Panama Canal



TWO SHIPS with the same pilot aboard
at the same time? You're right. It
can't be.

He may look like the same pilot in
tvvo diflferent places but there really are
two of them— identical twin Panama
Canal Pilots Albert L. Wilder and Arthur
T. Wilder.

"I'm the original," explains Capt.
Albert Wilder. "Arthur's the twin kid
brother. He's a half-hour younger."

Occasionally the twin Panama Canal
pilots are on the same ship, and both
are qualified for supersize ships. But
they say there's no confusion. The ship's
captain usually looks only to see if
there's a pilot aboard, according to the
Wilders.

Arthur, the half -hour younger brother,
is senior to Albert in Panama Canal
service by about a year. He was skipper
on a Farrell Line vessel when he became
interested in a Panama Canal employ-
ment application form a passenger was
working on. He borrowed a form and
sent in his application, too. He joined
the Panama Canal organization in
1951. Albert followed him to Canal
employment the next year.

They were born in Dorchester, Mass.,
and grew up in Mexico, Texas, and
Massachusetts. They attended the Mas-
sachusetts Nautical School, and while
on the school ship took pity on their
puzzled classmates and were tattooed
"for easier identification." The work was
done at Norfolk, Va., by Artist Coleman,
who is represented in the maritime
museum exhibit at Newport News. The
announcement of their tattooing was
greeted with huzzahs by their shipmates
who never knew whether they were
talking to Albert or Arthur. But the
tattooes were of no use for identifiying
the twins— Albert and Arthur had iden-
tical nautical tattooes on identical arms.

The two brothers ser\'ed as able sea-
men on the same ship, but their sub-
sequent promotions ran close together
and prevented them from later serving
together.

During World War II they were on
different ships in the same convoy.
Arthur's ship was torpedoed one day.
Albert's went down the next. One was
picked up by a rescue ship; the other
by a tanker. Both met again in a Russian
camp in the timber town of Archangel.



Since high school days they had enter-
tained with guitar, mandolin, and
acrobatic acts. Their instruments were
replaced in Russia, and some of their
songs were recorded and later rebroad-
cast over Moscow stations.

Then one day, after several wartime
months and no word from the twins,
they appeared back at their homes in
the States, mandolin and guitar in hand,
ready for a day of reminiscent music-
making together.

They take adventure in their stride.
Arthur's wedding date was postponed
by a torpedoing, his wife recalls. He
was due home in March to be married,
but his vessel was hit in the Caribbean
and went down. By one of those strange
quirks of fate, the German submarine
that had torpedoed his vessel picked
him up and put him on a raft, from
which he was rescued a few days later.
The wedding took place in April.

The wartime adventures of the twin
brothers enthralled States' magazines.
Look called upon Arthur. Some of
Albert's war experiences were related
in a feature in the September 1959 issue
of True magazine.

Both worked for the Farrell Lines for



8 \'ears, traveling between New York
and South Africa. Both served 6 years
as captain. Albert was master of the
second ship ever to dock in the port of
Monrovia, Liberia.

Captain Albert and Captain Arthur
Wilder live in Margarita, about 5 min-
utes' walk from one another.

Albert has three daughters and one
son: Alberta, Joanne, Penny, and Tom.

Arthur has two sons, Larry and David.

Albert is active in Masonic work and
is Senior Warden in the Sojourners'
Lodge, Cristobal. He plays golf, and is
a do-it-yourself man about the house.
He has ingeniously air conditioned his
home, building his own plant; he's
expert at refinishing, practically remark-
ing pieces of furniture, and the trans-
mission of his car holds no mysteries
for him. He also is manager of the Coca
Cola Little League and is owned by a
boxer dog named Cali.

Arthur is strictly a boat man, and
always seems to be building a new one.
He's built four boats since residing on
the Isthmus, and now is putting the
finishing touches on a catamaran,
which is just about ready to be put into
the water.




GUESS WHO? TATTOOS ARE NO HELP in identifying identical twin Panama Canal
Pilots Albert L. Wilder and Arthur T. Wilder. Each has the same tattoo in the same place
on the same arm. That's Capt. Albert Wilder on the left and Capt. Arthur Wilder, right.
Or is it the other way around? This is a photo of the twins when they were in Nautical School.



The Panama Canal Review



RANCHING IS BIG BUSINESS ON
TREMENDOUS MOTTA SPREAD



IN SOUTHEASTERN Chiriqui Prov-
ince, where the green hills roll gently
toward the Pacific Ocean, the vast
Motta Ranch spreads over 22,000 acres
of the best cattle land in the Republic
of Panama.

If it has to do with making good beef,
sou'll find it here. There is a breeding
herd, thousands of fat steers, a national
grand champion bull and a champion
yearling, a scientific program of expe-
rimental crossbreeding, and none of the
"scrub pasture" that manv cattle graze
upon. All the land is planted in cultivat-
ed grasses, of several varieties, and over
the landscape there are 13,000 of the
finest cattle in the Republic of Panama.

Owners of the ranch-a $2,500,000
in\estment— are the Motta brothers:
Jorge, Felipe, Roberto, Alberto, and
Arturo. They also have various other
business interests in Panama. They have
owned the ranch for 17 years, constant-
ly improving the land, equipment, build-
ings and introducing the latest features
of good management.

Running a ranch of this size isn't easy.
The movie image of cowbovs and vil-
lians, fair maidens in distress, and the
hero sitting around the campfire play-
ing a guitar in the evening may be good
entertainment, but on the modem ranch
it's pure fiction.

The work force on the Motta spread,
including about 20 cowboys, is headed
by Porfirio Saldaiia, a hardy man of
many talents. Saldaiia has a degree in
agriculture, administrati\e ability, a
knowledge of cattle, and the experience
and know-how that keeps the giant and
far flung ranch running smoothly and
efficiently. He's up early. He may go
to the airport in David, where register-
ed animals purchased from ranches in
the United States are delivered by tran-
sport plane. Or, he may climb into his
jeep at dawn, driving around to give
orders for the day's work.

And Saldafia has a lot of territorv to
cover on a ranch where you can drive
for half an hour in one direction and
still be on the ranch.

The acreage is actually divided into
four areas: Antioquia, Rosario, Santa
Lucia, and Tole, Each has a foreman,
who lives with his family at the head-
quarters house in his section. This way,
the huge operation is broken down into







A vaquero on the Tole section of the Sintta Hanch.




Grand Champion Bull at the Motta Ranch.



May 196.5




'ill:. ^ •



*• '*■-







This was an uncooperative bull. He charged about, pulling four men. But he tired, and after a few angry snorts he was penned.










T^*«(l^




!^i^





4 :i.^F.A






>■ -»;



Scenes such as this are common on the rich grassland of the Motta Ranch near Remedios.



areas that can be managed more easily.
A foreman is responsible for the cattle
assigned to his area. The Tole area—
so named because it is adjacent to the
town of Tole 17 miles from the main
ranch— is about 2,500 acres. About
l,.50O steers graze here.

The ranch employs about 60 people
full time, and another 200 for about
8 months of the year. There are me-
chanics, carpenters, tractor drivers, stable
hands, guards, general help, and, of
course, the cowboys. Assistant to Sal-
dafia is Behring Centeno, who, as sec-
ond in command, finds much to keep
him busy.

There are many things to be checked;
foremen must be seen, records must be



kept, cattle branded, sold, rounded up,
fed and accounted for. There is a car-
penter shop, and a garage where com-
plete overhaul of machinery and vehi-
cles is done. A headquarters building
has a complete store of animal med-
icines, vaccines, vitamins, and minerals
that are administered to cattle.

The ranch even has its own port— on
the Santa Lucia River 3 miles inland
from the Pacific Ocean— where 500 cat-
tle were shipped to Peru this past win-
ter. And within view of the Inter-Amer-
ican Highway a new building is under
construction. It will be a new head-
quarters for the cowboys and will also
serve as a pickup and delivery station
for the entire ranch.



The ranch grows a few acres of sugar
cane, as feed for cattle in the dry season.
Also, it has about 5,000 coconut trees.
These furnish oil, which is sold in Pan-
ama City, but on a small scale. And,
mainly for its own use, the ranch keeps
a herd of about 200 horses.

The business end of ranching is
in selling cattle. Not all are sold for
slaughter. The herd is divided about
evenly between breeding animals and
steers. The ranch sells about 3,000 head
of beef cattle a year, plus about 600
cows that are no longer usable for re-
production; and about 100 breeding
bulls are sold to other cattlemen in Pan-
ama. Some heifers and breeding bulls

(See p. 6)



The Panama Canal Review




Bulls are washed and brushed in preparation for a field day at the ranch




Repairing a truck at the garage on the Motta ranch.



The Motta
Ranch at
Remedios



(Continued from p. 5)
have been sold to cattlemen in Vene-
zuela. The Motta Ranch belongs to the
American Brahma Breeders Association.
This means that the stock is inspected
annually and approved by the associa-
tion. Most of the herd is Brahma, with
some Santa Gertrudis.

Through the artificial insemination
program, the ranch is producing some
Charolais and Red Angus. About 500
animals are now involved in this new
program, under the direction of Rolan-
do Miranda, who was trained in the
United States especially for this work.
The purpose of the breeding program
is to develop a bigger, heavier animal
of good quality beef, an animal that
will mature to a market weight faster,
that takes the climate well and pre-
sents a minimum disease problem. The
program is in its first vear and the re-
sults, hopefulh', will point the way to
an improved breed of cattle for Panama.

Nearly surrounding the town of Re-
medios, the ranch actually resembles
a small town in its operation. Many
people are dependent upon it for a live-
hood, so it is an important economic
factor in the area. Truck loads of Motta
cattle roll into Panama Citv each week,
helping to suppK' the great population
center of the Republic with meat.

.■\nd quite aside from its economics,
the ranch is a \ery beautiful place.
The Spanish-style, red-roofed houses
that cluster at the top of the hill near
the main entrance seem right for the
hill and \alle\ countrw The distant hills
are tinged with pastel pink and blue
mists in the late afternoon. And rolling
away from every rise are verdant pas-
tures of Indiana. Para, Jiijuca and Pan-
gola grass. From the nearb\' Pacific,
a breeze sweeps through the grasses.
Cattle graze contentedly.

There is every reason they should.
Because today this is the finest home in
the Republic for cattle, a ranch match-
ed by few others in its ad\anced oper-
ation and aspirations for impro\ement
in the future.



6



May 1965



HOW PANAMA
CELEBRATES
HOLY WEEK



HOLY WEEK, observed in Panama
with deep religious devotion and absti-
nence, is also characterized by an ex-
odus of the residents of Panama Cit\^
to the towns in the interior. Thus, Holy
Week is interwoven with memories of
childhood days since each one heads for
the town of his birth.

The ceremony of washing of the feet
takes place on Maundy Thursday after-
noon, when the village priest washes the
feet of 12 poor people in solemn re-
enactment of the ceremony when Jesus
washed the feet of the 12 Apostles
before the Last Supper.

During the night, the Holy Sacrament
remains on an altar that is artistically
decorated. This altar is known as the
Monument and each town endeavors to
have the best one. Special mention
should be made of Penonome, where
the cibary— the place where the con-
secrated host is kept— is in the form of
a large pelican of hammered silver, and
Nata, whose cibary is in the form of a
great palm tree of pure silver that dates
back to colonial times. The people, dur-
ing this night, visit the monuments in
the churches of the nearby towns.

There are many people who seriously
believe that those who bathe on Good
Friday will turn into fish. Others stone
anyone who ventures to mount a horse.

In Pese, Herrera Province, on Good
Friday morning the farm people begin
to arrive from the nearby mountains,
laden with white and purple wild
flowers to adorn the village churches.
Humble folk, they contribute the only
gift they have: the wild flowers.

At mid-day, in the Church, the priest
gives the Sermon of the Seven Words.
The sermon ends at 3 p.m., the hour
that Jesus died.

A solemn procession, at night, known
in some areas as the procession "of the
Holy Sepulchre" ( the most famous takes
place in the Villa de Los Santos) and
in others as the procession "of Silence"
because all participants must maintain
deep silence, is participated in solely
by men, although some women rep-
resent those who accompanied Jesus on
the road to Calvary.

Saturday is devoted to paying rever-
ence to the Mother of Jesus in her hours







Scenes like this in Panama City can be seen throughout the Republic during Holy Week.
Catholics carry an image of Christ bearing the cross.




Worshippers follow the Sacred Sepulchre during an Easter procession in Anton.



of solitude after the death of her Son.
The procession on this day is only for
women. All the women of the town par-
ticipate, leaving the church at 9 p.m.
Each woman carries a lighted candle,
and as the procession passes one hears
the sound of house doors being closed
by the men so that no one may see them.
The sorrow and abstinence of Hoi)
Week ends at midnight Saturday, when
midnight mass is held and church bells
ring happily, announcing the Resurrec-
tion of Christ. With the sound of the
church bells, dances .start in all the



towns and even in the little farmhouses
scattered in the countryside. This cele-
bration continues until dawn Easter
Monday when the farm people, tired
after the celebration, start on their home-
ward trek up the mountain roads to
their farms to resume their agricultural
labors for another year.

Panama City is practically deserted
during Holy Week. The first sign that
Holy Week has ended is noted after
Easter Sunday noon, when the first
cars of an enormous caravan herald the
return from the interior of Panama.



The Panama Canal Review




The new Vincent Thomas Bridge connecting the San Pedro mainland with the Terminal Island District is seen in this airview of a

portion of the Port of Los Angeles' Inner Harbor. The proposed $30 million Los Angeles World Trade Center and the $5 million

U.S. Customhouse will be located near the bridge approach. In the center foreground is the new Consolidated Marine Terminal.



Woxld Ports



Los Angeles: Big, and Growing!



The port of Los Angeles, serving an
increasingly vital role in world trade,
currently is experiencing the most dv-
namic period of growth in its historv.

The port has been dredged, molded,
expanded, and reshaped through man's
efforts and bears little resemblance to
the area discovered 42.3 \ears ago b\'
Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo and named
San Pedro Bay. Work at the port of Los
Angeles has added new land area, new
terminals, and wider and deeper water-
ways. It has produced for the people
of Los .\ngeles a municipallv o\vned
and operated facility worth nearly
$200 million. For world commerce, it
provides a modem and strategic gate-
way to the vast American market.



A 5-year, $40 million expansion pro-
gram was begun b\' the port of Los An-
geles in 1960 to keep abreast of the
demands of growing world trade.

Completed facilities include a $16
million combination passengier-cargo
terminal on a .50-acre site on the har-
bor's main channel, and two clear-span
cargo sheds— one in the outer harbor
and the other in the west basin— rep-
resenting a total investment of more
than $10 million.

West basin dredging opened the
entire water area to oceangoing vessels
and allowed commercial development,
and al.so pro\'idcd fill material for
90 acres of new land on the south side
of Terminal Island, which will be the



site of a dozen new shipping terminals.
Other dredging in the outer harbor in-
creased the depth of the supertanker
fairwa\' from 46 to 51 feet, providing
free and unrestricted movement of these
huge vessels to their special off-loading
fadlity.

The Vincent Thomas Bridge, a $22
million State highway department pro-
ject to which the harbor department
contributed $1 million in cash and
$2,500,000 worth of right-of-way, pro-
vides a direct route across the harbor's
main channel from the San Pedro main-
land to Terminal Island, and easy ac-
cess to the area for hundreds of dock
and cannery workers. The graceful
span opened the way to full-scale



8



May 1965





This S5 million cargo shed is another new addition at the Port of Los
Angeles. Shipping lines using the terminal will link Los Angeles with Japan,
Hong Kong, Northern Europe, Mexico, Central and South America.



development of Terminal Island, the
harbor's "last frontier."

Additional impetus has been given
harbor de\elopment by a substantial
increase in shipping activity. Already
under\va\" is work on a 3,550-foot-long
wharf near the Vincent Thomas Bridge
on the Terminal Island side of the
harbor's main channel. The wharf will
serve as a new international shipping
terminal, an $8 million complex of two
clear-span cargo sheds, a warehouse,
and a million feet of paved open area.

Major projects to further improve
shipping services at Los Angeles Harbor
include a $4,.500,000 bulk-loading fa-
cility, which will handle at least 1 mil-
lion long tons of iron ore and iron ore
pellets each year, as well as potash,
phosphate, coke, and other dry bulk
cargo; Cabrillo Beach Marina, a 86 mil-
lion development with about 1,800 slips
for small craft; and new Catalina Ter-
minal, a 8600,000 facility which will
combine seaplane, water taxi, and
SS Catalina steamship service.

An administration building, compris-
ed of two buildings at the site of the
present ferry building on the San Pedro
mainland, represents an investment of
82,900,000 in harbor facilities.

Another new facility will be a 32,000-
square-foot freezer-storage building for
incoming cargoes of frozen meats.

The port of Los Angeles, which one
day will be larger b\' 6.50 new acres of
land, \alued at 8250 million and with
an increased cargo-handling capacity of
150 percent is a vibrant business.



Push-botton cargo-handling came to the Port of Los

Angeles with the installation of this container-handling

crane. .\ single operator (above) loads sealed containers,

each weighing up to 26 tons, aboard a freighter.




Los Angeles Harbor's new S16 million combination passenger-cargo terminal occupies
a 50-acre site on the harbor's main channel. The combination building (foreground) has
cargo facilities on the first floor and passenger accommodations on the second level, reached
by ramps, elevators, stairways and escalators. A second major structure (background) is a
cargo shed, whose capacity is ,35,000 tons of cargo. Five ships can be worked at once.



The Panama Canal RE\aEW



The Boquete Orange:
How It All Began



THE STORY OF the Bociuctc orange and its journey to
Boquete by way of Brazil, Washington, D.C., and California
in tho last years of the 19th century is one of the interesting
accounts in the history of Panama.

A careful job of research b\' Julius Grigore, Jr., Assistant
Chief of the Panama Canal Industrial Division, has turned up
some interesting information on the origin and development
of this delicious fruit.

The first trees were ordered from California by J. R. Thomas,
who liad come to the Boquete area to manage one of the
first coffee plantations, now the Sandberg coffee finca near
Boquete. Julia H. Monniche, of Austin, Tex., and foiTnerly
a Canal Zone and Boquete resident, relates the story, which
is supported in a joint statement by A. O. Sandberg, Jr., and
Da\icl T. Sasse, both of Boquete.

Although the trees were ordered by Thomas, it was Frank
Tedman who was responsible for their survival. Travel was
difficult in 1896 and delivery of the trees required some time.
Thomas threw them out in disgust, for they all appeared to
be dead. Tedman, a neighbor, was present and inspected the
trees. He thought two might live, so Thomas told him to take
them, Mrs. Monniche relates. Tedman kept them alive, and
from this stock— Mrs. Monniche isn't sure whether one or both


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