Spynie died in 1672, eleven years before the Booh of Record
*^ The Laird of Aldharr. Page 20.
James Lyon of Aldbarr was the second son of Patrick, first
Earl of Kinghorne, by his wife. Lady Anne Murray, daughter of
John, first Earl of Tullibardine. He was therefore the younger
brother of Lord Strathmore's father, the second Earl of Kin-
ghorne. The lands of Aldbarr, which had been granted to the
famous Sir Thomas Lyon, Master of Glamis, had returned to
the head of the family, on the death of John Lyon, son of Sir
Thomas, without issue, and they had been granted to James
Lyon by his father previous to 1615. James Lyon was Member
of Parliament for Forfarshire from 1630 until his death in
1641. Douglas is in error in his account of the Strathmore
family (Peerage, vol. ii. ^^h), when he refers to James Lyon of
Aldbarr as being dead before 1617, although he corrects him-
self on the succeeding page, when he points out that John,
Earl of Kinghorne, was served heir of his immediate younger
brother, James Lyon of Aldbarr, on 6th May 1642. The
character of James Lyon of Aldbarr is sufficiently indicated in
elseif (getClientWidth() > 430)
the text, pp. 20-22.
48 Earl ofMarr. Page 21.
John, seventh Earl of Mar, was the son of the Regent Mar,
and of Annabella, daughter of Sir William Murray of TuUi-
bardine. His name figures prominently in the history of Scot-
land towards the later portion of the reign of James vi. It was
to him that the King intrusted the guardianship of his son.
Prince Henry, and the Earl accompanied the King to England
in 1603, when he went south to assume the crown of the
United Kingdom. He enjoyed the favour of King James
whilst at the English Court, and was made Lord High Trea-
surer of Scotland in 1615, holding that office for the suc-
ceeding fifteen years. He died at Stirling on 14th December
1634. His daughter referred to in the text was Lady Mar-
garet Erskine, one of the children by his second wife. Lady
Mary Stewart, daughter of Esme, Duke of Lennox. She was
the first wife of John, second Earl of Kinghorne, but left no
children. Her death took place on 7th November 1639, and
is thus referred to by Sir James Balfour : —
' The 7 of November, this same yeire, deyed at Edinbrughe,
Lady Margaret Arskyne, 3d daughter to Jhone, Earle of Mar,
Lord Thesaurer of Scotland, Countesse of Kingorne, wyffe to
Jhone Lyone, 2d Earle of Kingorne, by quhom shoe had issew
diversse childrene, but all of them deyed befor herselue ; her
corpes were enbalmed, and solemley interred in the comon
sepulture of that familey, at the churche of Glamis in the
mounthe of Februarij 1640."'
*^ Earl of Southesque. Page 25.
David Carnegie, first Earl of Southesk, was the eldest son of
David Carnegie of Panbride, and of his second wife Euphame,
daughter of Sir John Wemyss of Wemyss. He was bom in
1575 and died in 1658. It was thus his lot to witness the
Union of the Crowns under James vi., the succession and exe-
cution of Charles i., the supremacy of the Parliamentarians,
and to terminate his career very shortly before the Stuarts
were restored to the throne. He was raised to the peerage on
14th April 1616, by the title of Lord Carnegie of Kinnaird,
146 GLAMIS PAPERS
and in the succeeding year he took his seat as an Extraordi-
nary Lord of Session. He entertained King James at Kinnaird
Castle when that monarch re-visited Scotland in 1617, and he
was created Earl of Southesk when Charles i. was crowned at
Holyrood in 1633. His faithful adherence to the Royalists
caused him to be fined d£'3000 sterling by Cromwell in 1654,
and he died at an advanced age in February 1658. As his life
is fully related in Sir William Eraser's ' Carnegies of Southesk,"*
it is not necessary to detail it here. The incident recorded in
the text represents the Earl of Southesk in rather a different
character from that usually ascribed to him.
5^ Duke of Lenox. Page 27.
James Stewart, fourth Duke of Lennox, was the son of
Esme, third Duke of Lennox, and of Catherine, daughter of
Jervase, Lord Clifton of Leigh ton Bromeswold. He was born
in 1612, and succeeded his father in 1624. As he was nearly
related to James vi. the King took him under his special
charge and he was educated at Cambridge, and travelled for
some time on the Continent. On 8th August 1641 he was
created Duke of Richmond, and during the civil wars in the
reign of Charles i. he was actively employed in his service. His
power in Scotland was very great, as he held the two offices of
Great Admiral and Lord High Chamberlain, together with
many minor posts. It is said that ' the Duke had the sincerest
affection for the King, and was one of the noblemen who offered
to suffer in his stead ; and the whole tenour of his behaviour to
that prince and his extreme regret for his death, show that he
was in earnest in offering to be a vicarious victim for him."* He
died on 30th March 1655.
^^ Sir William Bruce. Page 28.
Sir William Bruce of Balcaskie was the second son of Robert
Bruce of Blairhall, and of Jean, daughter of Sir John Preston
of Valleyfield. The exact date of his birth is not recorded,
but it probably took place about 1630. He was trained in
Royalist principles and was very active in attempts for the
restoration of Charles ii. He is credited with having suggested
to General Monck the expediency of calling back King Charles
to the throne, and is said to have been the first to communi-
cate the likelihood of his restoration to the exiled monarch.
As a reward for his service he was appointed Clerk to the Bills
in 1660. Having acquired the lands of Balcaskie in Fifeshire
in 1668, he was created a baronet of Nova Scotia, with the title
of Sir William Bruce of Balcaskie, the royal patent being
dated 21st April 1668. It is evident, from the remarks made
by Lord Strathmore in the text, that he had a very low opinion
of Sir William Bruce's character. He describes him as ' a
contentious and teuch lawer,' and animadverts upon the
means whereby he acquired the lands of Kinross from the im-
poverished Earl of Morton. These lands were burdened with
a right of regress to the reversion which apparently the Earl
of Morton had given to Lord Strathmore^s father when he
became his cautioner, and Lord Strathmore anticipated that he
would not be able to establish his rights to Kinross against so
experienced a litigant as Sir William Bruce. There is now in
the charter-room at Glamis Castle a document written after
the death of Lord Strathmore by Sir William Bruce, in which
he protests that the new Earl of Strathmore had no right of
regress to the lands of Kinross. Having acquired the barony
of Kinross, he chose thereafter to be designated by the title
derived from it. He gained great repute as an architect, and
Kinross House (now the property of Sir Graham Graham Mont-
gomery) was designed by him, and though tenantless for many
years past, is still a splendid palatial mansion. It was occu-
pied by the Duke of York (afterwards James ii.) when he
came to Scotland as Lord High Commissioner. Still more re-
markable were the designs which Sir William Bruce made for
the restoration and completion of Holyrood Palace. It is said
that Sir William devised a plan for connecting Edinburgh with
what is now the New Town by means of a bridge that was to
occupy the site of the present North Bridge, although the
scheme was not carried out for many years after his death. Sir
William was Member of Parliament for Fifeshire in 1669-74,
and for Kinross-shire from 1681 till 1686. He was married to
Mary, daughter of Sir James Halkett of Pitfirrane, Bart., and
had a son and daughter ; the first of these, Sir John, died
148 GLAMIS PAPERS
without issue, and the second, Anne Bruce, was married to Sir
Thomas Hope of Craighall, Bart., and carried the estates
into that family. Sir WiUiam died in 1710, having reached a
very advanced age.
^^ Minister of Loiigforgan. Page 29.
Magister Alexander Mylne was the son of Bailie Alexander
Mylne, of Dundee, and was born in that burgh in 1618. He
received his education at the University of St. Andrews, and
took his degree there on Sd May 1639. He was admitted
minister of the church of Longf organ in August 1649, and
remained in that charge till 1661. In the latter year he was
translated to the Second Charge or South Church of Dundee,
in which place he continued till his death in August 1665.
From him descended the Mylnes of Mylnefield, who were
related by marriage to the Wedderburns of Kingennie. By
his wife, Agnes Fletcher, he had four sons and one daughter.
Two interesting monuments still exist in the HowfF of Dundee
— which was the orchard of the Franciscan Monastery there,
and was gifted to the town as a burying-ground by Queen
Mary in 1567. These were erected by Alexander Mylne, in
memory of his father and his brother, who are supposed to
have both fallen during the siege of Dundee in 1651. The
inscriptions upon these stones are as follows : —
' Patri Optimo, Alexandro Milne, scepius in hac urhe proetura
cum laude, defuncto tandem anno cetatis sua; 68 Ann. Dom.
1651. Vita functo, monum^ntum hoc Magister Alexander
Milne, Jilius, erigendum curavit.
Relligio, nivei mores, prudentia, candor,^
In Milno radiis enituere suis :
Consule quo,Jelix respuhlica ; judice,Jelix
Curia ^ oedili res sacra semper erit.''
' Chariss.Jratri TTiomce Milne in urhe hac propugnabat vita cum
decor e functo. Ann. Dom. 1651, ostat. sua; 22. Monumentum
hoc posuit Magister Alex Milne, Pastor Forgonefisis.
Longam^ama dabit vitam quamfata
Negabant, nee moriter cvi contigit appetere.""
* Referring to the motto of Dundee— Prudeniza et Candore.
^^ Lady Northesque. Page 29.
Lady Jean Maule, eldest daughter of Patrick, first Earl of
Panmure, was the sister of Lord Strathmore'^s mother. She
was married to David, second Earl of Northesk, who died 12th
^* Lord Gray. Page 33.
Patrick, seventh Lord Gray, was the son of Patrick, sixth
Lord Gray, and of Barbara, fourth daughter of William, Lord
Ruthven. He is known in history by his early title of the
Master of Gray, and has earned unenviable notoriety from his
duplicity when acting as Ambassador from James vi. to plead
the cause of Mary, Queen of Scots, at the Court of Queen
Elizabeth. His first wife was Elizabeth, second daughter of
John, Lord Glamis, who was Lord High Chancellor, and the
purchase of the lands referred to in the text was probably
made during her lifetime. As his father survived till 1609,
and he himself died in 1612, his enjoyment of the title of
Lord Gray was very brief, hence his survival in history as the
Master of Gray.
^^ Lord Kinnaird. Page 36.
Sir George Kinnaird, of Inchture, was the son of Patrick
Kinnaird. He supported the cause of Charles ii. during the
Commonwealth, and after the Restoration was rewarded by
receiving the order of knighthood from the King's own hand.
He represented Perthshire in the Parliament of 1661-63, and
took his seat as Sir George Patrick Kinnaird of Rossie, knight,
and was sworn a Privy Councillor. His services seem to have
awakened even the dormant generosity of Charles ii., for in
1682 he was created Baron Kinnaird of Inchture, with remainder
to the heirs-male of his body. Hence Lord Strathmore,
writing in 1683, refers to him as ' the new Lord Kinnaird."'
He died on 29th December 1689. The present Lord Kinnaird
is his lineal representative.
150 GLAMIS PAPERS
^6 Mr. Sletcher. Page 42.
John Slezer, the draughtsman of the Theatrum Scotice, is
well known by name to every Scottish antiquary, although no
complete biography of him has been issued. The following
notes are founded upon documents in the Advocates' Library,
Edinburgh, on papers in the possession of Charles S. Home-
Drummond-Moray, Esq., of Blair-Drummond, and on the
account contained in the editor's book entitled, EoU of Emi-
nent Burgesses of Dundee.
Slezer was a Dutchman, attached in a military capacity
during his early years to the House of Orange. He came to
Scotland in 1669, and became acquainted with several of the
nobility in consequence of his skill as a draughtsman. Through
their influence he obtained a commission as Lieutenant of
Artillery, and was intrusted especially with the practical super-
intendence of the ordnance. He was made a Burgess of Dun-
dee on 19th April 1678, and the entry of his name on the
Burgess Roll of Dundee is of interest, as being the earliest
notice yet found of him in any document. It was about this
period that he visited Glamis Castle, upon the invitation of
the Earl of Strathmore, and made the interesting sketch of the
Castle which appears in the Theatrum Scotioe. It is to this
visit that Earl Patrick refers in the text, and as Slezer's work
was not published till 1693, this shows that Slezer had con-
templated its production many years before its publication.
The progress of the work was temporarily interrupted. In
1680, John Drummond of Lundin, brother of the Earl of
Perth, was Master of the Ordnance, and he was directed by
Charles ii. to send Slezer to Holland for the purpose of having
new guns cast for Scotland, and also that he might bring
experienced gunners or 'fireworkers,' as they were called, to
this country. Many interesting letters written by Slezer to
John Drummond whilst employed on this mission are preserved
at Blair-Drummond, and afford much information as to this
branch of the military service. In one of the notes he hopes
that his claim on the Treasury for his expenses had been paid,
' for I suspect,' he adds, ' my wife will be as scairce of siller as
myself.' This shows that his marriage had taken place before
1680, and as his wife's name was Jean Straiton, a local name
in Dundee, she probably belonged to that burgh.
The favour with which Charles ii. and his brother, the Duke
of York, regarded Slezer's projected volume, induced him to
proceed with it upon his return, though the expenses which he
thus incurred must have weighed heavily upon him. His
former attachment to the family of the Prince of Orange
enabled him to procure a commission from William iii., in
1690, as ' Captain of the Artillery Company and Surveyor of
His Majestie's Magazines in Scotland,' which office he retained
till 1705. He had not passed through the critical time of the
Revolution without some difficulty. In March 1689, he was
appointed by Parliament to ' draw together the canoniers and
the artillery ,"* and had received the command of the Earl of
Leven's regiment of 800 foot soldiers at that date ; but as he
at first refused to take the oath to support the Committee of
Estates, he was ordered into confinement, and forbidden to
return to the Castle until he had shown his fidelity. With
this command he must have complied before his commission
as captain was issued.
The first volume of his Theatrum Scotice was published by
royal authority in 1693, and it contained fifty-seven views of
palaces, abbeys, and castles of the nobility. Though the book
was rightly regarded as a national work, he could not sell
enough to repay the vast expense of its production, and there-
fore, in 1695, he showed a specimen of it to the Scottish Par-
liament, petitioning them to aid him in completing it by the
issue of other two volumes, the sketches for which were then
ready. A very peculiar method was adopted by Parliament to
remunerate him for his expenditure. A special Act was passed
imposing a tax of 16s., Scots money, upon every ton of goods
imported by foreign ships trading to Scotland, and of 4s. Scots
per ton upon every Scottish ship above twelve tons burthen
exporting merchandise, the tax to be for five years (Acta Par-
Uamentorum^ vol. ix. page 355). During the currency of the
Act he received, by his own account, £5^0 sterling, but when
it fell to be renewed in 1698 there were serious limitations put
upon it. The first portion of the tax was to be devoted to the
support of ' His Majesty's frigates ;' handsome salaries were
152 GLAMIS PAPERS
provided for the officials who had to administer it, and Slezer
and John Adair, the hydrographer, were both to be paid ' out
of the superplus.' To encourage the exporting of coals, foreign
ships who carried that mineral were to pay half the usual dues,
whilst those carrying other cargoes were assessed at 24s. Scots
This new arrangement did little towards assisting Slezer,
and the arrears both of his claims and of his military pay soon
amounted to a very considerable sum. In 1705 he again peti-
tioned Parliament, stating that he was then £650 sterling out
of pocket ; but his case had not been examined three years
afterwards. He then declared that though he should have
obtained d^l,130 from the Tonnage Tax, he ' had never re-
ceaved the value of a single sixpence." His whole claim then
amounted to <^2,347 sterling, but it is only too probable that
it was never settled. The later years of his life were spent in
Edinburgh, and on more than one occasion he was forced to
take refuge from his creditors in the sanctuary of Holyrood.
His death took place on 24th June 1714, and his widow and
second son, Charles Slezer, obtained a portion of his claim up
till 1723, but the greater part was absorbed in clearing off* the
debts which he had incurred during the production of his book.
From some of the papers in the Advocates' Library, it appears
that James Anderson, the celebrated author of Diplomata
Scotice, was in the habit of advancing small sums of money to
him, and he also suff'ered from the penuriousness of the Parlia-
ment, and from the dishonesty of its officials.
The letterpress which accompanied the first edition of the
Theatrum Scotiw was written in Latin by Sir Robert Sibbald,
but Slezer, without Sir Robert's .knowledge, had the articles
translated into English. Four editions of this wonderful work
have appeared — one in 1693, two in 1718, and one in 1719 ;
and Sijhcsimile reproduction was put forth in 1874.
L(yrd Craigie Wallace. Page 43.
Sir Thomas Wallace of Craigie was the son of William
Wallace of Failford, and was admitted an advocate before the
Restoration. In 1661, when the Court, after the lapse of
several years, was reconstituted, Wallace was again admitted
as advocate on 4th July of that year. On 8th March 1669
he was created a baronet, and two years afterwards was ap-
pointed an Ordinary Lord of Session in place of Sir James
Dalrymple of Stair, who was made President. On 9th July
1675, he succeeded Sir James Lockhart of Lee as Lord Justice-
Clerk. The incident related in the text affords a glimpse of
the method by which justice was administered even in the
highest court of judicature in the land. Personal and family
influence was brought to bear upon the judges in a manner
little calculated to encourage the administration of strict
justice, and accusations of bribery and corruption were freely
circulated, and in many cases must have been well founded.
The instance noted in the Book of Record shows how remote
family influence could afffect the relationship between judge
and prisoner. The Lord Justice-Clerk belonged to Ayrshire
by birth, and the Earl of Glencairn, who was a Cuninghame,
extended his protection even to this disreputable incendiary,
because he bore the same name as himself. It is not stated
what judge tried the criminal, so that the exertions of Lord
Glencairn had to pass through the channel of the Lord Justice-
Clerk to be communicated to the acting administrator of so-
called justice. This incident confirms the statement made by
Mr. James Maidment, that ' no country possessing any preten-
sions to civilisation ever exhibited such disgraceful instances of
judicial depravity as Scotland did, whilst an independent king-
dom. The Union contributed mainly to the subsequent purity
of the Bench, and the right of appeal to a controlling tribunal,
where local prejudices, private feelings, and family influence
could have little operation, eftectually destroyed the old system
of corruption."* In the year when Sir Thomas Wallace became
Lord Justice-Clerk, an important dispute betwixt Bench and
Bar arose. The point debated was whether the sentences pro-
nounced by the Lords of Session could be appealed to the Par-
liament. The judge maintained that they could not, whilst
the advocates asserted that the decisions of the Court of
Session were liable to review by the Parliament as representa-
tive of the nation. So bitter was the controversy that the
Lords ordered some of the refractory advocates to leave Edin-
154 GLAMIS PAPERS.
burgh, and several of them, under the leadership of Sir George
Lockhart, took up their residence in Haddington. Several
ballads were circulated at the time, one of them being a parody
on Dryden's song, ' Farewell, Fair Armida," and is addressed
to the Lord Justice- Clerk. It begins thus : —
' Farewell, Craigie Wallace, the cause of my grief.
In vain have I loved you, but found no relief.
An answer purporting to be written by the Lord Justice-Clerk
throws the blame of the dispute upon Lord President Stair,
and there can be little doubt that no such action would have
been taken by Craigie Wallace without the sanction of his
superior. Several poems on this subject are printed in Maid-
mentis Booh of Scotish Pasquils. The Lord Justice-Clerk died
at his house of Newton of Ayr, on 26th March 1680.
^^ Lord Glencairne. Page 43.
John Cuninghame, eleventh Earl of Glencairn, was the
fourth son of William, ninth Earl of Glencairn, and succeeded
his brother Alexander, tenth Earl, on 26th May 1670. He
was distinguished for his adverse attitude towards the measures
whereby James ii. sought to introduce Papist customs to Scot-
land, and his active opposition to the abrogation of the penal
laws against Papists brought him into serious monetary loss.
At the Revolution of 1688 he declared strongly in favour of
the Prince of Orange, and as a Member of the Estates
summoned by William, he signed the Act declaring the legality
of its proceedings. He raised a regiment of 600 foot soldiers,
and was appointed colonel thereof, and he signed the associa-
tion for the defence of King William in 1696. He was married
in 1673 to Lady Jean Erskine, second daughter of John, ninth
Earl of Mar, and had one son, William, who succeeded as
twelfth Earl of Glencairn.
Robert ffotheringhame of LawhiU. Page 46.
Robert Fotheringham of LawhiU is described as brother to
Fotheringham of Balindean, and as formerly heritor of Easter
Denoon, in the parish of Glamis. Fotheringham of Balindean
has already been referred to (see Note 29, p. 125). Robert
Fotheringham was married to Agnes, second daughter of Sir
John Carstairs of Kilconquhar, the second husband of Anne
Bruce, heiress of Sir William Bruce of Kinross (see Note 51,
p. 146). The connection betwixt the family of Robert Fother-
ingham and the Strathmore family is curiously shown by a
deed now in the Charter-room of Dundee, whereby Dr. Robert
Fotheringham, of that burgh, committed his son James to the
curatorship of John, ninth Earl of Strathmore, in 1767.
^^ Mr. Silvester Lammie. Page 46.
The Silvester Lammie referred to here was probably Silvester
Lammie, Jun., son of the minister of Glamis, and brother of
John Lammie of Dunkennie. He studied at St. Salvator^s
College, and took his degree on 27th July 1661. On 22d
September 1665 he was introduced as minister of Eassie, but
was deprived by the Privy Council, on 5th December 1695, as
a non-juror. Being excluded from the church, he conducted
services in the manse till 1701, but after the introduction of
another minister to the parish he seems to have desisted. His
death took place about 28th June 1713.
^^ Mr. James Small. Page 49.
James Small, minister of Cortachy, took his degree as Master
of Arts at the University of St. Andrews on 26th July 1670,
and was admitted as minister of Cortachy in 1679. He was
translated to Forfar in 1687, and remained there until 1716,
when he was extruded ' without so much as a shadow of a
sentence against him,"* and a successor was appointed in the
following year. He was living at the close of 1729, though
the date of his death is not recorded.
^^ Andrew Wright. Page 53.
Andrew Wright, who did the most of the wright-work both
at Glamis and Castle Lyon, was long on intimate terms with
the Earl of Strathmore, who seems to have had much confi-
dence in his judgment and skill. The timber-work of Glamis
156 GLAMIS PAPERS
Castle had been committed to the charge of James Bain, who
was at that time Master- Wright to His Majesty, and who was