Patrick Lyon Strathmore.

The book of record, a diary written by Patrick first earl of Strathmore and other documents relating to Glamis castle, 1684-1689 online

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wanted roofs and all the rest behooved to have new roofs and


the removing of the whole to a back court apart as they now
stand was of more import and advantage to the place then the
difference of charge was of value, but at the same time | when>^- ss-
I was in the mouths of all the commons so condemning me I
made an observe w^^ is verie true, for tho. I have not left
of the litle planting w'^^ was here a standing tree but on w'^^
was on of the dooll trees where they played of old att the
foot ball upon the green att the burne syde, yet there was not
a word of censure for the destroying of the planting w^^ in
effect proceeds from a generall humor in commons who have a
naturall aversione to all maner of planting and when young
timber is sett be sure they doe not faill in the night time to
cut even att the root the prettiest and straightest trees for
stav''s or plough goads, and many on they have destroyd to
my selfe albeit if they stood not in great awe and fear they
would have yet done greater harme to my young plantines. I
have sometimes discovered by bribs fellows who have cutt ofl^*
my trees whom I have punished so severly that it greatly
terrified others who perhaps would have done the like but for
fear of punishment.

Thus then having projected all that I have done att this
place I have prosecut my designe every yeare doeing something
these thirteene years past and after five or six years being here
that I gott all the old house glassed of new and the most parte
of the roums plenished on way or other I did in the yeare of
God 1676 with the lessening something of the number of my
constant workmen here and adding a good many att Castle
Lyon make the alterat"^^ within the house there as I have before
descryved in three yeares time, but to returne to Glammis.
tho. it be ane old house and consequentlie was the | more diffi->^- 54-
cult to reduce the place to eny uniformity, yet I did covet
extremely to order my building so as the frontispiece might
have a resemblance on both syds, and my great hall w^^ is a
rowme that I ever loved haveing no following was also a great
inducement to me for reering up that quarter upon the west syde
w^^ now is, so having first founded it I built my walls according
to my draught and formed my entrie w^*^ I behooved to draw a
litle about from the west else it had run directly thorrow the
great victual house att the barns w^^ my father built and I was


verrie loath to destroy it ; verie few will discover the throw
in my entrie w^^ I made as unsensible as possiblie I could.
Othrs more observing have challenged me for it but were
satisfied when I told them the cause, others perhaps more
reserved take notice of it and doe not tell me and conclude it
to be an error of ignorance but they are mistaken. I confess I
am to blame that designing so great a matter as those reform'^^^
putt all together comes to, I did not call such as in this age
were known and reput to be the best judges and contrivers, for
I never bestowed neither gold nor mony upon this head, and I
look upon advyce as verie necessarie to the most part of under-
takers, aud the not seeking and taking counsell is commonly
the cause why things are found amiss in the most parte of
designs that way, nor have I the vanity to consider my owne
judgement as another cannot better, yet being resolved to per-
forme what I have done with litle noice and by degrees, and
more to pleas and divert my selfe then out of any ostenta"®, for
I thank God I am as litle envious as any man and am verie
foi. 55. glad to behold things j weell ordered and contrived att other
mens dwellings and never Judged anything of my owne small
endeavours worthie to make so much noice as to call for or
invit to either of my houses sk^ publick Architecturs My work
and projects lykways being complexed things and hardly on
man being to be found fitt to give advyce in all I never Judged
it worth the trouble of a convoc^^® of the severall artists such as
masones who's tallent commonly lyes within the four walls of
a house, wrights, for the right ordering of a roofe and the
finishing the timber work within, gairdners for gardens, orchards
&c. I have indeed been att the charge to imploy on who is to
make a book of the figure of the draughts and frontispiece in
Talyduce^ of all the Kings Castles, Pallaces, towns, and other
notable places in the Kingdome belonging to privat subjects
who's desyre it was att first to me, and who himselfe passing by
deemed this place worthie of the taking notice of. And to
this man (M"" Sletcher ^^ by name) I gave liberall money because
I was Loath tliat he should doe it att his owne charge and that
I knew the cuts and ingraving would stand him mony.

The old house stands now in the midle with two wings whereof

^ TazV/iJfl?!?^^^, the French term for etching on copper. — Ed.


that upon east syde coast me a new roof the other on the west
syde was founded and furnished by my selfe. all my office houses
are placed of either syde of these two wings w^'^ with some
other toofall on the north maks up the back closs. | My stables >^. 56.
after they were fully finished and done new by the malice of a
cursed fellow who as Cook after the terme when he was put
away upon ane implacable hatred w^*^ he took up against
another servant who lay above the stables burnt all downe by
his throwing in fire over a partition wall in the night time
when everybody was abed into that roume immediately above
the watch house w*^^ greatly surprysed my whole family. The
flame whereof being a most violent fire, had not by divin
providence the East great round been heighted some six or
seven feet when I putt a new roof therein, had certainly saised
that pairte of the roof of the great house whereby the whole
would have been in danger, such crimes being of ane occult
nature and allways perpetrat in a most secret way there was
great difficultie to make any probatione but I persued the Reskal
crimenaly and showed before the Court his guilt by undenyable
circumstances and had it not been the ignorance of the Jury
who tho. they were no favourers of him yet by a mistake in the
wording of y^ verdict brought him in guilty of the presump-
tione contained in the lyble but directly of the crime itselfe.
The Judge by the influence then of the Justice Clerk The
Lord Craigie Wallace ^^ being a west cuntrie man and the
Reskal Cuningham a west cuntrie man he demured to pro-
nounce the sentence of death w^^ he most justlie deserved and
refused to inclose the Jury againe but he theireafter being still
detained prisoner conscious of his owne guilt petitioned for the>''- si-
sentence of banishement | and enacted himselfe never to returne
to the Kingdome under the pain of death and accordingly was
sent away in a ship bound for the planta'^^, but being wrekM
by the way he with some few more saved there lives by swim-
ming, and he being a bold and impudent reskel returned and
by chance being seen in Eden I caused again apprehend him
and sent him away by the first ship being prevailed up by My
Lord Glencairne^^ and others of the name of Cuninghame
not to insist against him for his life since w^^ time it is not
known if ever he returned to Scotland. These stables I restored


to their former conditione w^^^ was not all my loss having
burnt to me besyds a coatch w*'^ was litle worse y" new and
three rich sadles with great difficulty of saving my horses. I
lost lykways above fourteen or fifteen pair of pistols some of w^^^
were verie fine and divers good swords for all these were keeped
in the nixt roome by him whom the Cook designed to burne.

There be now an entrie from the four severall airths and
my house invyroned with a regular planting, the ground on
both syds being of a like bigness and the figure the same with
a way upon either syd of the utter court to the back court
where the offices are att the north gate the gardners house is
apon the on syde and the washing and bleatching house on
the other with a fair green lying thereto to bleatch upon and
a walk there is planted w^^ goes round the whole intake,
wherein when you are walking youl behold the water runing
>/. 58. in both syds of the planting. | And upon the west syd where
the river is to make the way accessible from the west I have
built a bridge and have cutt downe a litle hill of sand w^^
I caused carrie to such places as were weat and marish. The
utter Court is a spacious green and forenent the midle thereof
is the principal entrie to the south with a gate and a gate
house besyde two rounds on upon each corner, the on is
appointed for a Dayrie house and the other for a Still house,
and the gate house consists of on roume to the gardine and
another to the bouling green, the walls are lined, the roof
plaistered, the floor lay'd with black and whyt stone and are
verie convenient and refreshful roumes to goe in to from the
gardine and Bouling green Ther is in the gardin a fine dyal
erected and howsoon the walk and green plots are layed there
will be statu's put into it, and there is a designe for a fountain
in the Bouling green and on great gate from the gardine and
another from the bouling green to the utter court att the
Southend of w^^ directlie forenent the gate of the inner court,
there is another great gate adorned with two gladiators, from
w'^^ the avenue goes with an enclosure on each syd holdne with
a planta"® of fir trees w^^ is ane entrie of a considerable bread
and lenth leading straight up to the barns and offices there,
w^^ offices stand yet un reform*^ as they were, but if it pleas
God that I live I intend to make them better, there are two


stak yards there, the on opposite to the other, betwixt w^^
there is a wall cross to the avenue and a great gate placed
therein verie pleasant to behold, what I have of further design e
not yet done, time will produce the knowledge of, only upon
the west syd there is a park but a great part of the wall
thereof is ruinous tho. latlie but done, by reasone of the bos-
ness of the stone w'^^ mulders into sand and dust and was gott
upon the river syd a litle below the stone bridge, they were
sought for there because of the great convenience and nearness
of them but all that's done is lost labour. | and paralel to this>/. 59.
another park is designed upon the east syd of the principal
entrie and so be time other two parks w^^ should invyron the
whole house and would be a circumference betwixt three and
four miles about, and planting secured by an inner wall, for
if^s better being hem'd after the maner that is don betwixt the
girnal house and the warens. This if it were done, and the
planting any thing growne to a hight wou''d make the seat of
the house verie glorious as invironed with a w^ood of no less
bounds, but this is a work of a great time and what I shall
not be able to accomplish I hope may be done in the succeed-
ing age, and this park might have four gates, on answering to
each of the four severall entries to the house.

Att the church I have made a loft for my owne use, and
built a litle addition to my burial place both w^^ contribute
extremelie to the adornment of the church, besyds three other
lofts that I made therein, yet the church stands uncompleit
for the time by reasone of the Laird of Claveres interest in the
paroch who does not contribut his help for makeing other two
lofts betwixt the pillars on the southsyd as weell as it 's done
upon the north. And if I can be able to overtake it I designe
to build a tolebooth both for a prison house and for a roume
to hold my courts in w^^ is a shame should be wanting and
verie inconvenient and having the privilege of a weeklie mercat
tho. it be not in use yet if there were a cross built w*^^ I
designe in the mid of the croft of land att the back of the
malt house, and a square made there for a mercat place I
doubt not but in a short time a weeklie mercat | might he/o/.6o.
recovered to be holdene there w*^*^ would tend extreamlie to
the advantage of the inhabitants.


I purpose lykways to lenthen the avenue with a double row
of trees on each syd from the uttmost gate att the barns
thorow the land betwixt the barns and the toune straight to
the open att West hill and perhaps further. After the for-
going account the doeing of w*^^ things was a yearlie charge
and no less trouble I shall likeways hereafter sett downe a
particular account of the severall rentalls of my lands and
what parte thereof I found in the hands of wedsetters as also
what is of new purchase having before told what lands I have
alienat and disponed.
Giammiss the First the rentall of this about Glammiss w'^^ I reserve out of
my factors charge into my owne hands consists of the Mains
itselfe with the parts and pendicles thereof, the Church toune
Balnamoon, Westhill, Welflet, myretoune and bridgend and
Litle Cossens. The rentall of w^^ is litle up or downe of two
hunder and sixtie bolls of bear, a hunder and sixtie bolls of
meall, a thosand on hunder and sixtie pond money, besyds the
custom's, but the most pairt of all this I found wedsett. The
Mains itselfe to W"^ Gray of Graystone, Sheriff-clerk of
fforfare, the toune of Glammiss to James Crightone portioner
in Cupargrange, whose sowme is yet unpayed, but with consent
I obtained the possessione and pays him his yearlie @ rent.
I purchased Westhill and redeemed the Welflet from Mr.
Patrick ffithie and his wyfe Katheren Lyon as lykways that
house and land in the toune possessed be Agnes Wightone q^'^
Katheren Lyon had the right thereof in life-rent as the relict
of Edward Peettie, a servant of my father's who's sone it's lyk,
an she were dead, may pretend a right thereto but might be
opposed, for his clame is unjust. Myretoune and bridgend
was also wedsett but redeemed from Robert ffotheringhame ^^
now of Lawhill a brother to ffotheringhame of Balindean who
att that time was heretor of Easter Denoon in this paroch.
Balnamoon was all wedsett to Mr. Silvester Lammie ^^ minister,
so by this account the halfe lands of the Newtoune and Litle
Cossens was only free w''^ is a verie smal part of the rental and
so long as those wedsetters continued I had small reasone of
foi. 6i. contentment to be much att this place but | those were the
first w''^ I redeemed they being nearest adjacent to my house.

The sowme of the nixt rentall w^^^ make up the charge com-


mitted to David Lyon is litle up or doune of eiffht hundred Rentall within

♦^ , . , ... II- David Lyon his

bolls of meall Two thousand six hunder sixtie six pond thir- commission.
taine shilling four penies mony besyde the customes whereof
Drumgley a considerable toune was wedsett to John Smith of
Gleswall and disponed by him to the Laird of Aldblair from
whom I redeemed the same, I mean the two part lands thereof,
the third part lands was a part of M^. Silvester Lammie''s
wedsett with that of Balnamoon. I purchased the lands of
IFofartie from William Gray of Grayston as lykways the lands
of Graystone and blackhill. The same now had the toune of
Arnafoul with the Mains thereof in wedsett w*'*^ I redeemed
from him. I bought also the lands of thorntoune with its per-
tinents. I found the milne of Arnafoul and Knockbenie
possessed by ffrederick Lyon be way of pensione, w*'^^ I know he
and his father brook'd all my father's lifetime free, nay did not
so much as pay the publick dues but in the time of my
curators his possession was challenged for w*'^ he could produce
no right or title so wisely submitting himselfe I became his
freind and suffers him yet to possess both for the halfe q^^ a
tenent would pay, but John Lyon of Rochelliiil in the same
case w* him, without a title, by reasone of his continued pos-
sessione avowed the same to be his owne, but because of his
obstinacie I dispossessed him after w^^ time he lived in a
miserable condition for some years so pitieing him I gave | him foi. 62,
cloaths and entertainment att my owne table so long as he
lived, and a church to on of his sons Another of them pur-
chased a good way of living to himselfe at Edenburgh, the rest
of his children were litle worth. I found Wester Denoon
wedsett to John Violent from whom I redeemed it, and have
latelie sold this land to John Burn for the pay* of fourtie
pond and ten wadders of feu dutie yearlie. I acquired
also the superiority of Easter Denoon which pays me ten
ounces of silver plate yearlie. I purchased also the lands of
Smattone and Bagownie and pertinents thereof for Donald
Thorntoune, and Melgime. The newtoune of Glammiss and
the accompt thereof is wrong placed upon the foot of ye
60 page for it ought to be here, the roume of Clipethills lies
been this long time unluckie by ill tenents never haveing
payed the duty. The Mains of Cossens and pertinents thereof


I justlie possess having payed more of that poor man's debt
then that and other pairts of his land w^^ I have is worth.
The lands of Balmuketie were all wedsett to George Lyon
of Wester Ogil w^^ I redeemed. Those lands hold waird of
the Marquis of Douglas, and it cost me right deer my com-
positione I purchased a litle pendicle hard by there called
Balbegno. As lykways the toune and lands of Reedie in the
paroch of Airlie. All the rest of the touns and lands of that
paroch were a pairt of my mother''s joynture w*^^ I entered
inteer to after her death save Cardean and the third pairt
lands of Lenros, w^^ the Earl of Lithgow gott in wedsett for
the twentie two thousand merks that was payed to him for his
claime after her death, he brooked these lands about two
years. I sold the Ids. of Bekie, Drumdairne and Carlenwell to
M*". Tho^ Wilsone for the payment of a considerable feu duty.
foi 63. But he has never payed the same. And being year and day
att the home I have bestowed the gift of his escheat to M^.
John Lyon Sherriff Clerk of ffbrfare, for this Wilsone is a base
unwordie man and deserves to be no better used, but have so
accorded with ye Sherriff Clerk for this gift that Drumdairne
and Carlenwell and the rent thereof returns to myselfe.
Rentaii of Tan- The rentall committed to the care of Robert Ogilvy is litle
pfaces^ad^acent. ^P ^^ doun of two hundred fiftie three bolls bear, three
hundred and ninetie four bolls meall, two thousand two
hunder and fourtie pond money and som yearn and poultrie
these lands lyeing att a greater distance being all converted in
money. Marquis and Murehillock still wedsett to ffindowry
and unredeemed is not included in the rentall, neither is the
rentall of Auchnedy in regard its wedsett and unredeemed
from M"". David Lindsay. And in lykmaner the rentall of
the lands of Killhill and oy" is not here comprehended in
regard they are wedsett to Mitchell Gray of Turbeg.
These two last are wedsetts of the old Sherrif Clerks, with
the burden of w^^ I accepted of the dispositione of these

Now as to the barone of Tannadyce to make a long tale
short I found it att my entrie intyrlie in the hands of wed-
setters whom I did redeem since w<^^ time I have sold the lands
of Muirtone and Nether Bogill to M^ James Cramond, the


lands of Litle Bogillo to Patrick Lyon for payment of a certain
few dutie yearlie conforme to the table rentall.

I have also acquyred the lands of Quilke and Kintyrie from
Cossens by rights of apprysings and debts exceeding the value.

As lykweyes all the rest of the lands contained in this
rentall are now purchased since w^^ time I have fewed New-
milne to M^ James Small^^ minister | att Cortachie. foi. 64.

The Rentall of the lands of Litle Blair and others committed Rentall of
to the care of James Couper on of my fewars being twentie ^"^^ ^^^*
bolls bear, fourtie four bolls meall, sixtaine bolls of oats and
two firlots, seven hundred and eightie four pond eightaine
shillings money besyds customs. All this litle rentall is of my
owne purchase.

The Rentall of Auchterhouse and lands in the paroche of Rentall of
Lundie and Tellen is in and about a hunder and twentie seven Auchterhous.
bolls bear, a hunder and sixtie on bolls meall, three thousand
five hunder sixtie nyn pond seventaine shilling four pennies
money besyd customs. The haill forenamed lands of this last
table rentall is all new purchase.

The lands of Castle Lyon according to the rentall is in and Rentall of the
about two hunder seven tie six bolls wheat, two hunder twentie l°q^^^'P °^
five bolls bear, sixtie two bolls oats, two hunder and thirtie
bolls meall, thirtie six bolls of peas, on thousand two hunder
pond money besyd customs, here too I have acquyred the
superiority of the lands of Knap, Lawriestone and Bulien and
tuo parte lands of Dron. What I have fewed out is men-
tioned before.

Rentall of Kinghorne is a hunder and seventie six bolls three Rentall of
firlots bear, seven bolls meall, fifteen bolls oats, four hunder ^"^ °^"^'
and three pond thirteen hunder shillings two pennies money.

In this and the other four preceeding pages there is much
comprysed in litle bounds w^^ I am not able to sett down par-
ticularlie by the speciall transaction nor to assigne the time
when they were done, not having keep'd any Minute book for
it as I am now to doe being alwayes satisfied and assured in
the time that things was exactly and right done.

I remember besyde many other particular debts w^^ were
never settled upon wedsett rights. There were two cardinal
debts, I call them so because I reckoned y"^ to be great even so


much as I was not owing the lyke to any on persone. Besyde
foi. 65. The soume of twentie | thousand pond w^^ My sister who was
married to the Earle of Aboyn had left to her by my father,
she had lykewayes a right to twentie thousand merks w^^ was
resting to my father by the Earle of Seaforth, yet she had not
all this att first but it fell in to her and was so provyded by
the death of her elder sister Joan. Soon after the marriage to
w°^ I was verie averse but could not prevaill nor hinder it, she
being at her owne disposal, the E. of Aboyn behooved to have
the money of his toucher w^^ I payed him att two terms. The
other great debt was just the lyke soume that was resting to a
rich man in Dundee called Provost Watson, who had a right
of @ rent upon the husband pleughs of the toune of Longfor-
gand w*'^ att last I lykways payed.

And it is not to be imagined that I could possiblie pay
these and many other debts, redeem the wedsetts and make
the purchase of lands before mentioned, build and support the
necessary charges thereof, make three several journeys to
London besyd the first before mentioned, make two severall
expeditions to the west cuntrie which I did by public order,
furnish both my houses in the way they are when I found only
bare walls, make a considerable collection of silver plate, main-
taine a great familly, support my law suits, and my owne
necessary travelling staying att Eden. — many times more then
the on half of the yeare, maintaining my eldest son abroad
tho. I cannot say but that allwayes he hes been so stayed and
moderat as to keep himselfe within bounds, without being in a
considerable debt w°^ debts I have enumerate in a preceding
pairt of this book, yet it is not the halfe by what it was first
when I entered upon the stage, besyds that I have payed many
joi. 66. woeful cautionries | of my father of w^^ I never had nor never
will get releife.

I have lykwayes had as no man can be so forseeing as to
delyver himselfe from such contingencies considerable loss by
sundrie merchants who hes broke with mon^ and the effects of
bargens of victuall that I have sold and other people who have
been unfaithfull to me in the return of their accompts whereof
I can never be repaired, such as William Couper and fFrancis
Areskin two base and unfamous cheats. Besyds great losses


w*'^ I have sustained by depauperat tenents and great soumes
owen me att this day by such who are not yet brok, but are
not able to pay me without casting my ground waist. There
are some considerable debts owen to me w'^^ I need not here
sett down because they will be mentioned hereafter as they
occurr in transactions so that I shall now return to the dayly
account and jornal of my business and continue the same as
close as I can from the day on w^^ I left.

I have lykways att this day pairtly att Castle Lyon upon 27 day.
my Mains there, and pairtly att Glammiss and att the New-
toune a verie considerable stock of corn and cattel w^^ would
aryse to a great soume of money.

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