Paul Haupt.

The book of Canticles; a new rhythmical translation online

. (page 2 of 8)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

University Circulars; — JXOS — Journal of the American Oriental Society ; — JQR = Jewish
Quarterly iJevieio; — KB = E. Schrader's KeilinschriftUche Bibliothek; — l. = line; — 11.=
lines; — LXX = Septuagint ; — M = W. Max Miiller, Die Liebespoesie der alien Agypter (Leip-
zig, 1899) ; — M = Masoretic Text ; — N = North ; — n. = note ; — nn. = notes ; — NT = New Testa-
ment ; — N W = Northwest ; — OT = Old Testament ; — RV = Eevised Version ; — EVM = Eevised
Version, margin ; — S = South ; — § = Peshita ; — &H = Syro-Hexaplar ; — 2 = Symmachos ; —
SBOT = The Sacred Books of the Old Testament, in Hebrew, edited by Paul Haupt ; — SE =
Southeast; — SW = Southwest; — v. = verse ; — vv. = verses ; — 7iA = Zeitschrift filr Assyriolo-
gie ; — ZAT = Zeitschrift fur die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft, edited by B. Stade ; — ZDMG
= Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenldndischen Gesellschaft ; — W = West.

tSee my paper on Difficult Passages in the Song of Songs in the Journal of Biblical
Literature, vol. 21, p. 51.

$See my paper on the Book of Ecclesiastes in Oriental Studies (Boston, 1894), pp. 244
and 250.

II Cf. D 28, 2 ; 109 ; 188, n. 3 ; 324.

§ See Hugo Winckler, Altorientalische Forschungen, first series, p. 295. Cf. M 9, n. 3.

** Cf. n. 5 on No. 7, n. 15 on No. 8, and especially n. 18 on No. 9.



18 Hebraica

between the two collections of songs may be explained as due to their
having been composed at the same period * under similar conditions of
environment. t There are just as many parallels in ancient Egyptian
erotic poetry; e. g., the Egyptian lover addressed his sweetheart as 'my
sister,' t just as we find this term of endearment in Nos. 8 and 9, where
it is invariably followed by the explanatory gloss kail a 'bride' (c/.
n. 27 on No. 8).

The bride in Cant, is not a personification of wisdom which Solomon
is trying to win ; nor do Solomon and the Shulamite represent Christ
and the Church, || or the love of Jhvh to His people ; still less can we
adopt the traditional Jewish view which considers Cant, to be an alle-
gorical sketch of the history of Israel from the Exodus § to the coming
of the future Messiah. Cant, is neither allegorical, nor typical, nor
dramatic; it is simply a collection of popular love-ditties, and these
erotic songs are not all complete {cf. Nos. 3 and 5), neither are they
given in their proper order.

Goethe says, in the notes to his Westostlicher Divan,** that Cant,
is 'the most tender and inimitable expression of passionate yet graceful
love that has come down to us.*t Unfortunately, says Goethe, the
poems cannot be fully enjoyed since they are fragmentary, telescoped,
or driven into one another, and mixed up ; but it is delightful to divine
the conditions under which the poets lived. The mild air of the most
charming district of Canaan breathes through the poem, cosy rustic
conditions, vineyards, gardens, beds of spices, some urban limitations,*^
and a royal court in the background.*!! But the principal theme is an
ardent longing of youthful hearts, seeking, finding, repulsing,*^ attract-
ing, under various most simple conditions. We thought repeatedly of
selecting and arranging something out of this charming confusion, but
this enigmatic and inextricable condition invests those few leaves with
a peculiar charm. Many a time well-meaning methodical minds have

* For Greek loanwords in Cant. cf. n. 17 on No. 1.

tSee, however, n. 18 on No. 9.

t Cf. Maspero, £tude8 igyptiennes, 1,258, and W. Max Mailer, Die Liebespoesie der alien
Agypter (Leipzig, 1899), p. .5, 1. 1 ; p. 8, 11. 2. 4. 11 ; p. 46 (ad p. 9). I cite Mailer's work as M.

II Cf. the headings in AV.

8 Cant, is thoroforo read in the synagogues on the eighth day of Passover.

** Ooelhe'a Werke, herunsgegeben im Auftrnge der GrossherzogUi Sophie von Sachsen,
vol. 7. Weimar, 1888, p. 8. Cf. P. Holzhausen, Goethe und seine Vbersetzung dea Hohenliedea
in Deuttrhe Revue, March 1896, pp. ;nO-.372. This paper is not accessible to me at present.
Nor have 1 soon Joseph Hal6vy, LeB chants nuptiaux des Cantiques, in Rexme simitique, 9,
pp. 97-116. 193-219. 289-296.

*tThiH will strike many as an exaggeration.

•t This is not correct ; ' watchmen ' in Nos. 6 and 12 represents a subsequent addition.

•II There are only allusions to the hangings in Solomon's palace and to Solomon's harem
(cf. n. 11 on No. 3 and n. 11 on No. 4). In tho other i)assagos in which Solomon is mentioned,
this name rojirosonts a scribal expansion, while 'King' (cf. No. 1, n. 11) refers to the King
of the Wedding Festival, i. e., the bridegroom. Cf. also ' Pharaoh's chariots,' 1,9.

*S In No. 6 (5.6) tlio lover does not reject the maiden. Only the second stanza of No. 11
might, perhaps, bo said to imply a rejection.



i



The Book of Canticles 19

been tempted to find or establish an intelligible connection, but a sub-
sequent student must do the work all over again.'

Cheyne, too, in his article on Cant, in the Encyclopedia Bihlica,
col. 685, speaks of 'the impossibility of recovering the original songs (if
songs they were) and of retracing the plan (if plan he had) of the hypo-
thetical collector.'

While I admit that it may be impossible to recover the original
songs and to retrace the plan of the collector, I believe that the tradi-
tional arrangement may be very much improved, and the Received Text
freed from a great many subsequent additions and superfluous repeti-
tions which have crept into the text. In this re-arrangement the songs
certainly become much more intelligible than they are in their traditional
'charming confusion.' It makes very little difference in what order the
various songs follow each other. The object of the present study is not
the restoration of the sequence of the songs in the original collection,
but the restoration of the individual songs. Whether No. 2 is placed
before No. 8 or vice versa, is immaterial. It seems, however, that No. 9
is the sequel of No. 8. No. 11 might be inserted after No. 5, but this is
of minor importance.

The 'charming confusion' of the Received Text may, to a certain
extent, be due to the desire to make certain objectionable passages less
obvious. If 4,16^ is followed by 5,1, the erotic imagery is not plain;
but if the stanzas 7,12-14 and 6,11 are inserted between 4,16^ and 5,1,
and if 5,1 is followed by 6,2, the erotic allusions can hardly be mis-
understood. In the same way the last verse of the Book becomes clear
as soon as it is combined with 2,17. Certain words are entirely unobjec-
tionable as long as there is no special association of ideas ; but if they
are combined, it is a different matter.

I do not claim to have restored the original order of the Book.
The arrangement may have varied at an early date ; it may even have
been injudicious and inappropriate from the beginning. We have in
Cant, not a divan collected by the poet himself, but a collection of
popular songs by various authors, made by a later compiler. Conse-
quently the main task of the Biblical critic is not to restore the
sequence of the various poems in the original collection, but to restore
the original text of the individual poems.

This cannot be accomplished without due regard to the metrical
form of the poems. The love- songs in Cant, are generally composed in
stanzas of two meshalim* or double-lines; each double-line consists
of two hemistichs, and each hemistich has three beats (c/. D xxiii, last
paragraph). Hemistichs with two beats (e. g. in the first and the last
stanza of No. 10 ; in the last stanza of No. 8 ; or in the illustrative quota-
tion (c/. n. 6 on No. 1) to 1,6, viz. 2,15, No. 3, 8) are exceptional.!
Songs consisting of stanzas of four hemistichs are still the most

* See my remarks in the critical notes on Proverbs, in The Polychrome Bible, p. 33, 1. 3.
t Also in ancient Egyptian poetry hemistichs with two beats are comparatively rare ;
cf. M 12, 1. 19.



20 Hebraica

common form of popular urban poems as well as of the songs accom-
panying dances among the Palestinian Fellahs and Bedouins (D xvii).*
For songs with only two beats in the hemistichs cf. D xx, Nos. 15. 16,
and xxiii, second paragraph. Between the beats we find one, or two, or
three, or even four unstressed syllables, and occasionally there is no
unstressed syllable at all between two beats. f The last word of a hemi-
stich may be accented either on the ultima or on the penult, just as in
the modern Palestinian songs (D xxiii).

The rhythm of my translation has been very much improved by the
kind assistance of the distinguished co-editor of The Polychrome Bible,
Horace Howard Furness. The object of our translation is not to enable
a beginner to spell out the words of the Heb. text, but to render the
sense as faithfully as possible, imitating the poetic form of the original
as far as this is feasible in English without departing too much from
the Hebrew.

My translation and explanation of Cant, was completed before I
began to study Gustaf H. Dalman's Palastinischer Dhvan (Leipzig,
1901). I have not found it necessary to make any changes in my render-
ing,l but I have added some references to passages in the songs col-
lected by Dalman, which afford parallels to the songs in Cant. I cite
Dalman's book as D. The number after D indicates the page of
Dalman's book, the next figure, separated by a comma, refers to the
number of the poem on that particular page, unless the second number
is preceded by 1. or n., referring to the lines, or to the notes at the
bottom of the page, respectively; e. g. D 205, 7 refers to the poem No. 7
on p. 205 of Dalman's book ; D 205, 1. 7 to page 205, line 7 ; and D 205,
n. 2 to page 205, footnote 2. It is a pity that D has not numbered the
lines of his pages and provided his book with an alphabetical index.
He should also have numbered the stanzas of the poems. Finally, he
might have added an index of the passages in Cant, illustrated by the
songs of his collection. The only reference to Cant, which D gives is
on p. 226, n. 1. The study of his Palestinian Divan would be much
easier if D had given the original text not only in transliteration but
also in Arabic characters. A transliterated Arabic text is just as difficult
to uudf-rstand as a plionetically spelled English text or a Greek text in
Roman transliteration. However, D is a most welcome publication,
altliough it does not, perhaps, throw any more new light on Cant, than do
other Mohammedan love-songs. || His corrections of certain statements
made by Wetzstein are especially valuable (e. g. D xxxii, n. 1 ; 267,
n. 2 ; 295, n. 3 ; 296).

•In tho snnin way nuciont ERyptian lovo-dittios are Konerally composed in stanzas of
four homisticliM witli tliroo boats in each lioraistich ; cf. M 11, 11. 8. 23.

t M l*i, nd p. 10, says that in anciont Esryptian pootry tboro aro always some unstressed
syllablps botwonn two beats, oithor one, or two, or tliroo, but not four.

t Excopt in No. 8, where I had translated i;Tl3Zlb, in 4,9, by 'thou hast stolen my
heart' instead of 'thou hast deprived mo of my reason' (cf. a. 26 on No. 8) ; and in No. 2,
where I liavo subslitutod, in 7.2, 'cliopinos' for 'sandals' after having read D '257, n. 2.
Cf. H. n. 68.

1 Cf. e. g. E. W. Lane. Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians, vol, 2, pp. 76-8.S;
A. Socin and H. Stumme, Diwan aits Centrnlarabien (Leipzig, 1900).



No. 1 The Book of Canticles 21

Notes on No. 1.

(1) This seems to be a later addition ; cf. n. 11.

(2) This is not the procession of the bridegroom (Siegfried); nor does
it refer to the procession of the groomsmen carrying the threshing-board
(iij«lvjJ! jJ Itiah ed-diras) from the barn ((^^..yOo matban) to

the threshing-floor of the village, where it is put on a platform and cov-
ered with cushions embroidered in gold, &c., serving as a mock throne
(aLoyX martabe) for the King [cf. n. 11) and Queen, i. e., the newly
married couple (Budde); but this song describes the solemn procession
((jw.jlJI «ij zaffat el 'artis)* of the bride from the house of her

parents to the house of the bridegroom. Wetzstein states (on p. 170
of Delitzsch's commentary) that, if the bride lives in another village,
she is escorted to the village of the bridegroom by a mounted and
armed escort (see n. 15) composed of the groomsmen, the 'youths
of the bridegroom ' ((j^^Jtii (_>La-w sabab el-'aris; c/. D 210, Nos. 1.
2). Martial games are performed by them before the bride and the
bridesmaids ; \ cf. n. 15. The groomsmen act as vv/x<^aya)yoi or 7rapavv/x-
^tot {cf. the term viol tov vvfx<f}u)vo? 'the sons of the bridal chamber;'
Matt. 9,15; Mark 2,19; Luke 5,34; also D 187,4 and 191).

Wetzstein's remarks on the Syrian threshing-board in connection
with the nuptial ceremonies refer chiefly to the neighborhood of Damas-
cus and a part of the Hauran, and must not be applied to Palestine
(cf. D vii, n. 1 and p. xii). The threshing-board plays no part in the
Palestinian wedding festivals ; nor is there any reference to the thresh-
ing-board in Cant. The terms King and Queen are, however, still
applied to the bridegroom and the bride in certain districts west of the
Jordan (cf. n. 11). J But Wetzstein's observations must not be generalized.
D X states that a Bedouin song may occasionally not be fully understood
in a village of the immediate vicinity. Sometimes the person who com-
municates a song may be unable to understand all the passages of the
poems which he collected.

(3) The village of the bridegroom was probably situated on a hill so
that the procession came up from the meadows between the two villages.
Cf. e. g. the pictures of Qaryet el-'Ineb on p. 90 of the translation of
Judges, in The Polychrome Bible, or the pictures of Beth-el, op. cit.,
Joshua, p. 64 (see ibid., p. 65, 1. 5) or Upper Beth-horon, p. 71 (see ibid.,
p. 72, 1. 4).

(4) The pasture-land.

(5) It was customary to carry at the head of a caravan, in a cresset
mounted upon a long pole, a beacon-fire the blaze of which served as a

* According to Wetzstein, 5\>vLfiJ! el-faride. This may mean 'separation, leave-



taking, send-ofiE.'
t According 1
J The Jews in Eussia and Palestine, I am told, still call the bridegroom ' King.'



t According to Wetzstein, ^^lt>!vAJI el-farradat.



22 Hebraica No. 1

guiding-light at night, while the smoke signaled the direction during
the day. This is the origin of the legend that Jhvh went before the
Israelites in the wilderness, by day in a pillar of a cloud to show them
the way, and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light, so that they
could travel by day and by night (Exod. 13,21 ; cf. 14,19; Num. 14,14;
Deut. 1,33; see also Is. 4,5; Neh. 9,12. 19; Ps. 78,14. According to
the Priestly Code the cloud was over the Tent of Meeting by day, and
by night fire beaconed there (c/. Exod. 40,38; Num. 9,15). Curtius
(V, 2,7) states in his history of the exploits of Alexander the Great that,
when the Macedonian conqueror marched through Babylonia and
Susiana, a long pole, which was widely visible, was over the royal
tent, and a signal, which could be seen everywhere, beaconed from it,
fire by night and smoke by day (perticam, quae undique conspici posset,
supra praetorium statuit, ex qua signuvi eminebat, pariter omnibus
conspicuum, observabatur ignis noctu, funius interdiu).

(6) That is, the bridegroom. This seems to be a misplaced variant
(cf. nn. 14. 20) to the opening double-line, just as 6,12 is a misplaced
illustrative quotation to v. 10 (see n. 21), or 8,5t> an illustrative quota-
tion to 2,7h (see No. 7, u. 39). Cf. n. 29 on No. 2 and nn. 6. 15. 18 on
No. 3.

(7) The bride is perfumed so much that the sweet smell may be
noticed at a distance. In Prov. 7,17 the bed of the adulteress is per-
fumed with myrrh, aloes, and cinnamon (see nn. 43. 48 on No. 8). In
Ps. 45,9 the garments of the bridegroom (i. e., King Alexander Balas of
Syria at his wedding with the Egyptian princess Cleopatra, the daughter
of King Ptolemy VI. Philometor, which was celebrated at Ptolemais in
150 B. c, with the Maccabee Jonathan present as an honored guest ; cf.
1 Mace. 10,58) are fragrant with myrrh, aloes, and cassia.*

D 277, 1. 5 we read : 'The fragrance of her mouth is like a box of the
dealer in spices ;' D 286 the brown ones and the white ones (see n. 7 on
No. 3) are addressed as ' boxes of civet which the merchant brought from
below Bagdad.' D 7, b a maiden is addressed as a 'fragrant bunch;'
D 181, 1. 3 the hair of the bride is said to be perfumed with powdered
cloves and civet (a pomade consisting of cooking butter and powdered
cloves and civet); D 245, 1. 21 the hair over the forehead of a maiden is
said to be bathed in musk and ambergris. Cf. M 45, u. 9.

(8) The gummy resinous exudation from Commiphora Myrrha, a
spiny shrub in Arabia and Eastern Africa, which was used for incense,
perfumery, &c. {cf. n. 19 on No. 6). Frankincense, also called olibanum
or gum thus, was an aromatic gum-resin obtained from balsamic plants
of the genus Boswellia (especially BoswelUa Carteri) in Arabia and
Eastern Africa. Cf. n. 46 on No. 8.

(9) Powdered perfumes.

(10) This word means not only a dealer in spices but a spicer in the
widest sense of the term {cf. French Spicier, German Spezereihdndler), a

• Cf. Dr. Albert Hai;oD, Die aexuelle Oaphreaiologie (Berlin, 1901), pp. 221. 230. 232, also
pp. 57. 139. 181.



No. 1 The Book of Canticles 23

grocer, which meant originally a wholesale dealer (c/. French en gros,
German Grosshandler, Grossist). The original meaning of the Heb.
term bSII was peddler, hawker.

(11) That is the bridegroom (cf. No. 7, stanzas iv and vii). Solomon
seems to be a subsequent insertion (see p. 18, n. *||, and cf. the two
glosses € and k). Kmg is merely a name for the King of the Wedding
Feast, i. e., the bridegroom, just as they speak in England of the May-lord
and the May-queen, or as a lady may be referred to on the Continent as
the Queen of the Feast or Queen of the Ball (German Ballkonigin).
The first seven days after a wedding {cf. Gen. 29,27; Jud. 14,12; Tob.
11,19) were called in the neighborhood of Damascus the King's Week;
during this time the young pair play king and queen ; the best man is
styled the vizier of the king. The names King and Queen are applied
to the bridegroom and bride also in certain districts west of the Jordan
(D xii) ; cf. n. 2, The idea that Cant, was intended for use on the seven
days of the marriage festival* was suggested by Bossuet (1627-1704)
as well as by Bishop Lowth (1710-1787); cf. Cheyne-Black's Encycl,
Bibl, 689.

(12) This is the name given to the royal body-guard of David ; cf.
2S 10,7; 23,8; IK 1,8.

(13) The meter shows this to be an explanatory gloss.

(14) This is a variant to the following double-line. Cf. nn. 6 and
20, also No. 8, n. 49.

(15) In former times an armed escort may have been necessary;
afterwards it was a mere ceremony. Even in the Syrian cities no
wedding of any importance is celebrated without some warlike display
(D 144). In Aleppo the bridegroom is sometimes preceded by nearly
a hundred warriors armed with swords and shields, some also with
helmets and coats of mail (D 193, 7 ; see also D 205, n. 2). D 210, 1 the
groomsmen {cf. u. 2) number 160, in D 210, 2 there are several hundred.
Warlike songs are often sung at Bedouin weddings (D 144).

(16) Cf. the Parable of the Ten Virgins where the bridegroom arrives
at midnight (Matt. 25,6). Even in Matt. 25 the wedding is not cele-
brated in the home of the bride, but at the house of the bridegroom {cf.
D 193, 7 ; 206, 8).

(17) The word used in the Hebrew text (appiryon) is a Greek
loanword, a corruption of the Greek term cjyopelov employed in the
Septuagintal rendering of this passage. In the Mishnah (Sot a 9,14)
the same word "iV^lSi^ appiryon (Syr. ^a-.^as , j_»9a^) is used for the
bridal litter : in the last war (the Hadrianic) it was decreed that the
bride should not proceed through the city in an appiryon (j^blT T\Tj,
"I'^yn "linn "iV"l3i<3 nblDn b^^n) ; afterwards it was permitted again
by the rabbis. This is the only Greek loanword found in Cant. Cf. nn.
13. 17 on No. 8.

(18) Cedar and cypress ; cf 1 K 5, 22 (Eng. 8). Even the threshing-
board {cf. n. 2) is generally made of hard wood, walnut or oak, at least

* In Egypt the celebration seems to have been confined to a single day ; cf. M 4, 1. 14.



24 Hebraica No. 1

in the neighborhood of Damascus; cf. Wetzstein in Delitzsch's com-
mentary, p. 162.

(19) The columns supporting the top {cf. n. 22) of the portable
couch ; it is not necessary to refer the term to the feet of the frame of
the litter, although we read in Athen. 5,13 that the philosopher and
tyrant Athenian appeared ctt' dpyvpoTrdSos <f)opeLov kol -n-opfffvpwv crTpco/AoiTwv.
Ibid. 5,;") it is stated that in a procession of Antiochus Epiphaues there
were 200 women sprinkling perfumes {cf. n. 7) from golden urns, while
80 women sat on <popda with golden feet, and 500 women were carried
on litters with silver feet.

(20) This double-line seems to be a variant or expansion of the
two hemistichs following. Cf. n. 6.

(21) This passage, which is generally considered to be beyond
emendation, may be an illustrative quotation {cf. n. 6) from some other

poem describing the procession of the bride in a carriage (iLo»jiJU ,* cf.

D 256 below and irapoxo'i = ■n-apdvvfjLcjio<;) escorted by the kinsmen of the

bridegroom who is an >-?l5^l ^^\ ibn-el-akabir 'a son of the nobles'

(D 260, 1. 7 ; cf. n. 10 on No. 2). The desire of my heart (lit. soul), says
the bride, is fulfilled {cf. Prov. 13,12. 19; also Job 6,8); I am to be
married to him whom I love, and this has placed me on the carriage (or
litter) of the kinsmen of a noble man, the magnificent conveyance which
the groomsmen have brought to escort me from my home to the house
of the bridegroom.

The phrase I do not know at the beginning of this verse is unintel-
ligible, unless it be the confession of a scribe stating that he is unable
to read the beginning of the line which I have conjecturally {cf. n. 8 on
No. 4) restored above : Fulfilled is the desire of. In the cuneiform texts
we find occasionally the corresponding Assyrian phrase ul Idl (3/""'|f^ bl}<)
'I do not know' used in the same way; cf. my Akkadische Sprache
(Berlin, 1883), n. 22, p. 32, 1. 3.

(22) The litter was provided with a hood, or top, and curtains lined
with red purple cloth.

(23) Women are addressed ; the Hebrew uses the 2 pers. fem. plur

(24) In the Mishnah (Taanlth 4,8) it is stated that before the
destruction of the Temple passages from Cant, were sung at certain
popular yearly festivals. We are told that on the Wood Festival
{^v\o<f>6pLa) on the 15*^'i of Ab, and at the close of the Day of Atonement
it was customary for the Jerusalem maidens to go out and dance in the
vineyards, and whosoever had no wife went there also. There was
alternate singing, and the youths were wont to quote the last stanza of
the present poem, Come forth, and gaze on the king there, &c. See
Cheyne-Black, Encycl. Bibl., 683. 689 and Lazarus Goldschmidt, Der
babyl Talmud, vol. 3 (Berlin, 1899), pp. 509. 527.

•A hyfiinn of &Jv£ .
J



No. 2 The Book of Canticles 25

(25) Not only the bride wore a bridal crown (see n. 19 on No. 3) but
also the bridegroom {cf. Is. 61,10). According to Sot a 9,14 this custom
was abandoned after the disastrous war with Vespasian. It is said,
however, that at certain Jewish weddings the bridegroom is still
crowned.

(26) Arab. ^j^.ySi^\ jli umm el-'aris; cf. D 210, 3; 298, 2.

Notes on No. 2.

(1) Just as there is no Syrian or Palestinian wedding of any impor-
tance without some warlike display {cf. n. 15 on No. 1), so there is no
wedding without dancing. Wetzstein (in Delitzsch's commentary, p. 171 ;
cf. ibid., p. 163, n. 1 and ZDMG 22,106) states that in the neighborhood
of Damascus the bride dances, on the evening of the wedding day, the

sword-dance in a ring (jij^ howesh) one half of which is formed by

the men, and one half by the women. The bride is therefore called yA

yiijj^l abu-'l-howesh, the one in the ring. Her dark hair hangs

loose over her shoulders {cf. u. 6 on No. 8), her feet are bare; in her
right hand she brandishes a naked sword, while she holds a handkerchief
in her left. Fires are lighted, illuminating the scene which forms the
climax of the wedding festivities in the country east of the Jordan-
D 196, however, it is stated that the bystanders do not form a ring, as
a rule, but are usually lined up opposite the dancer. D 272 we have a


2 4 5 6 7 8