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assistance. Cf. D 244 : Take away all roses, one little garden {cf. n. 2
on No. 9) is enough for me.

(7) My bride ; cf. n. 1.

(8) The missing second hemistich has been conjecturally restored
from Ps. 73,25 {cf. n. 21 on No. 1 ; n. 1 on No. 6, and n. 1 on No. 10).
If a similar statement stood in the original text, we can easily under-
stand why it may have been suppressed in this connection : an orthodox

* Contrast Cheyne-Black's Encyclopaedia Biblica, 402.



34 . Hebraica No. 4

Jew would have considered the application of this passage to a bride a
blasphemy. Cf. D 281, 1. 12 : dULto ^ Lo ^»LxJ| J, , There is no
one in the world like thee.

(9) This may mean either 1000 shekels or 1000 women.

(10) The keepers of this large vineyard probably consume one fifth
of the annual income, and it is not impossible that the inmates of a
large harem may bestow one fifth of their favors on the keepers,* even if
they are eunuchs many of whom retain the potentia coeundi (especially
those whose testicles have merely been crushed).! I prefer to have my
bride exclusively for myself and to allow no percentage whatever to an
'assistant.'

(11) In 8,11 this name must be omitted (cf. n. 2), but here it must be
inserted. It was probably suppressed in the present passage owing to
the discrepancy between the number of Solomon's queens and concu-
bines here (60 + 80) and the number given in 1 K 11,3 (cf. n. 1). For
the same reason the gloss 'and other young women without number'
seems to have been added.

(12) Cf. 5,2 (No. 6); 2,14 (No. 10). Also in modern Palestinian
songs girls are called doves ; c/. D 6, 5 ; 72, 23. See also M 24.

(13) Lit., my perfect one (Vulgate, immaculata mea) ; cf. 5,2 (No. 6)
and n. 7 (last paragraph) on No. 2; also D 72, 22; 87, 16.

(14) Lit., from her mother; cf. the phrase 'from her mother's womb'
(Ps. 22,11; 58,4; Jer. 1,5; 20,17; Job 3, 11; Is. 46,3). The traditional
rendering. She is the only one of her mother, is out of place in this con-
nection. The point to be emphasized is that she is the only one of the
bridegroom.

(15) Cf D 107, 1. 9 where a Bedouin maiden says, no wolf {cf. n. 15
on No. 3) ever howled for me except my own Wolf (the name of her lover),
and D 80, 1. 3 : I fancied that my gazelle {cf. n. 33 on No. 7) was for me
alone, but, lo, thou hast three or four friends.

(16) Accord the prize of beauty to her.

Notes on No. 5.

(1) With me thou art safe everywhere, on the brinks of the preci-
pices, on the tops of the highest mountains, in the haunts of lions and
leopards; I will guard thee and protect thee. Mendelssohn's well-
known chorus Entflieh mit mir unci set niein Weib, which Budde
suggests, affords no parallel, but cf. D 231, 1. 16 and D 344, 1. 4 of the
poem.

(2) Cf. 'i^^f- L) D 256, 1. 13.

(3) A peak of the range of Antilibanus,]; probably the J6bel-ez-
Zebedftni, below which is the source of the river Amana, Greek

* In Egypt keepers of the harems were often married; cf. M 5, n. 12. See also Dillmann
on Gen. 39,1.

\Cf. "(ITS mTQ Lov. 21,20 and flAaStos, eXaviai, 9At^ta9, also niriDl Tl3?'a Lev.
22.24 ; contrast HDETlJ PIID Doiit. 23,2.

I T

X Cf. Wincklor, Altttstamentliche Untersuchungen (Leipzig, 1892), p. 131, n. 1



No. 5 The Book of Canticles 35

Chrysorrhoas, i. e. the present Nahr Barada, which flows through
Damascus. In the story of Naaman (2 K 5, 12) the name of this river is
spelled with h (ZA 2,268, 2). In the cuneiform historical inscriptions
the name of this mountain appears as A m m a n a (n a).

(4) According to Deut. 3,9 Shenir was the Amorite name of Mt.
Hermon, but in 1 Chr. 5,23 Mt. Shenir seems to be distinguished from
Mt. Hermon,* just as in the present passage. Arabic geographers use
this name Senir (cuneiform Saniru) for the part of the (Hermon, or
rather) Antilibanus ( JswwJI J^a^*) N of Damascus, between Baalbec
and Homg; cf. Reiuaud, G^ographie d' AhoulfMd, II, 1, 89. Abul-
feda says of the ^p-^^ d^^^ '• — (^^-'^^^ v.LsLs. Jl^xiJt ^f tX-^J j^j

-A-i**/ cN^ L^^U-w ^ jLo I ji ^♦A^o. . The top of Shenir in our

passage may refer especially to the Tal'at Musa, in the central
mass of Antilibanus, which is 8755 feet high.

(5) The present ^>-ucJl S->^ J6bel el-Shekh, i. e., the Mountain

of the (white-haired) Old Man, or ^-LiJl iS->^ J6bel eth-Thalj (the

Mountain of Snow), the highest peak of Antilibanus. It has three
craggy summits which rise out of a plateau. It is 9166 feet above the
level of the sea and widely visible in Palestine, nearly as far south as
Jericho. The snow hardly ever disappears from it. Cf. the full-page
illustration facing p. 146 of the translation of the Psalms in The Poly-
chrome Bible.

Lebanon in our passage stands for Antilibanus. The poet mentions
first the Amana near Damascus (NW) ; then the Shenir, a high peak of
the Antilibanus between Baalbec and Homg, N of Damascus ; and
finally, the highest peak of the Antilibanus, Mt. Hermon, SW of
Damascus. Cf. also n. 27 on No. 2.

(6) Cf. ^\jti\ ^y*} usud el-rab, D 227, 1. 2. Lions were numer-
ous in Palestine in ancient times but have entirely disappeared since
the 12*^1 century.

(7) Leopards are still found occasionally in Lebanon. Along the
Litani (the upper course of the Nahr el-Qasimiye, N of Tyre,
which forms the northern boundary of Palestine) and in the Antilibanus
they are not so rare.

Notes on No. 6.

(1) Two hemistichs seem to have been lost at the beginning of the
first stanza. They are here conjecturally restored {cf. n. 8 on No. 4)
from the beginning of No. 12 (3, 1) ; but, of course, the same idea may
have been expressed differently, e. g., 'my dear one' was probably used
instead of 'him whom I love' (lit., whom my soul loves). The preceding

*It is, however, possible that Mt. Hermon in 1 Chr. 5,23 is simply an explanatory gloss
to the preceding name Shenir.



36 Hebraica No. 6

first verse of c. 5 in the Keceived Text has no connection with the fol-
lowing verses but belongs to the last two hemistichs of c. 4 (see No. 9).

(2) That is, my mind was alert (c/. n. 26 on No. 8) ; he was never
out of her mind {cf. ^Jii ^ ^o Lo k^Lw , D 234, below ; 76,36).

She slept, but lightly, so that she awoke at once when her lover knocked
at the door. The whole incident may be imaginative but it is not a
dream. The story is a poetic device* to introduce the description of
the beauty of the lover in vv, 10-16. When the maiden opens the
door and finds her lover gone, she asks the maidens of her native town
( L^Juo J>^ >^^ , D 308, 5) to help her find her lover, whereupon they
ask. What distinguishes him from other youths ? This gives the poet
an opportunity to make the maiden describe the beauty of her lover.
Songs describing the beauty of the lover are comparatively rare ; as a
rule, only the charms of the maiden are praised (c/. Nos. 2 and 8). D
242 (c/. ibid., p. xii, 1. 5) gives but a single poem celebrating the beauty
of a young man.

(3) C/. No. 10(2,8).

(4) Supply, My dearest began to speak and said to me ; cf. No.

10, /8.

(5) Cf. above, p. 18, n. I and n. 27 on No. 8.

(6) Cf. n. 12 on No. 4. (7) Cf. n. 13 on No. 4.

(8) During the Palestinian rainless season {cf. n. 53 on No. 10) the
sky is cloudless ; but, except in the desert, there is often a profuse pre-
cipitation of dew, or rather mist, at night, which may saturate a fleece
of wool so that Gideon was able to wring from it a whole bowlful of
water (Jud. 6,38). A great deal of this so-called dew is moisture
brought by westerly winds from the Mediterranean, and the vapor
becomes condensed in the air before it is precipitated. It can therefore
hardly be called dew ; it corresponds rather to the heavy and wetting
Scotch mist which is common in the highland of western Scotland. On
Mt. Hermon {cf. n. 5 on No. 5) this night-mist is so profuse that the
tents of travelers are often completely drenched during a summer night,
as though a heavy rain had fallen (EB 2023).

(9) Supply, I replied to my lover.

(10) It was customary to sleep entirely undressed, without a night-
gown or under-garment, the upper garment being used as a covering
(Exod. 22,26; Deut. 24,13; cf. also Gen. 9,23 and Job 22,6). The
garments of the ancient Israelites were probably not very different
from the clothing worn by the modern Fellahs and Bedouins, which
consists of a tunic, or short shirt, confined at the waist by a belt, and an
upper garment, a large oblong piece of woolen stuff wrapped around
the body. This tunic is called in Arabic ^y^s thob, Heb. kuttoneth,
Greek chiton, Latin tunica. Chiton and tunic are derived from the
Semitic name for under-garment, Heb. kuttoneth, tunic being a

♦ Cf. my remarks ia the translation of Ezokiol, in The Polychrome Bible, p. 177, 1. .37.



No. 6 The Book of Canticles 37

transposition of cut in (the final -eth in Heb. kuttoneth is merely
the feminine ending). The modern Arabic name of the upper garment

is iol-*^ 'abaye, Heb. simla, or, with transposition, sal ma, Greek

himation, Latin toga.

(11) The ancient Hebrews wore sandals which protected only the
soles of the feet so that it was necessary to wash the feet after a walk
or before retiring at night (Gen. 18, i; 19,2; Luke 7,44). Water is
more precious and scarce in the East than it is in our modern cities.
The Bedouins look upon the use of water for washing as an unpardon-
able luxury ; they rub their bodies with the fine sand of the desert. It
is unnecessary to suppose that the maiden walked about barefoot
(Budde); the shoes referred to in 7,2 were chopines; see n. 9 on No. 2.

(12) The meter requires the insertion of the clause in the door.

(13) The hole is not the aperture of the window (c/. n. 52 on No. 10)
in the front-wall (Siegfried); nor is it a peep-hole in the front-door
(Budde); but it is the key-hole of the front-door. Doors in Eastern
villages are fastened with wooden locks, and wooden keys (D 19, 1. 7)
are used, often of an enormous size, large enough for a stout club. The
key of an ordinary street-door is commonly 13 or 14 inches long, and the
key-holes are correspondingly large. Cf. the cuts on p. 160 of the trans-
lation of Isaiah in The Polychrome Bible, representing an Oriental key
and a merchant of Cairo carrying his keys on his shoulder (Is. 22,22).

The lock was what is commonly known in England as the Egyptian
lock ; cf. the cuts on p. 60 of the translation of Judges in The Poly-
chrome Bible and Moore's commentary on Judges, p. 99.

The lover could put his hand through the keyhole but could not
open the door without the key. His sweetheart, however, could open
the door from inside without a key. The door-bolt had special handles
for this purpose corresponding to the door-knobs on the inside of our
front doors.

(14) Lit., my soul went out when he spoke. This does not mean,
my soul failed when he spoke (so AV) or, Mir entivich die Seele, als er
redete (Budde), which I presume is intended to mean, I fainted when he
spoke ; nor can it mean, I was beside myself when he spoke (Siegfried,
Ich ivar ganz ausser niir, als er sprach), but it means, I was inwardly
moved toward him in love, just as we say, her heart went out towards

him. C/. also D 234, 1. 14: jli 1^ ^ ^^JjJ.

(15) This hemistich, which appears in the Received Text after the
second hemistich of v. 6, must be inserted before the last hemistich
of V. 4.

(16) Lit., my intestines made a noise within me (AV, my bowels were
moved for him ; RV, my heart was moved for him).

(17) Lit., upon the handles of the bar, i. e., by the handles. In the
Received Text this hemistich stands at the end of the verse.

(18) The lover had put his hand in the keyhole {cf. n. 13) and
poured out a flask of precious myrrh {cf. n. 8 on No. 1) which dropped



38 Hebraiga No. 6

from the keyhole to the handles of the bar on the inside of the door, so
that the hands of the maiden were perfumed with myrrh when she
touched the handles of the bar to open the door. This pouring out of
myrrh was a token of love, showing that he had been at the door, just
as a modern lover might throw a bunch of flowers through an open
window, or through the transom of a door. Lucretius says in his didactic
poem De reruni natura (4,1171) that the lover often stands, with tears in
his eyes, at the closed door; he decks it with flowers and wreaths,
anoints the proud door-posts with sweet marjoram oil (aniator pastes
superbos ungit amaracino), and covers them with kisses.

(19) Lit., oozing, spontaneously exuding, myrrh, i. e., myrrha stacte
(from cTTa^etv ' to ooze, to trickle ') which exudes without incisions being
made in the bark of the tree; cf. Pliny 12,35; 13,3 (sudmit sponte
priusquam incidantur stacte dicta cut nulla prefertur). See also Exod.
30,23 and n. 8 on No. 1.

(20) Not the veil, which is called gamma (RV, behind thy veil;
AV, within thy locks) in 4,3 (No. 8) and 4,1 ; 6,7 (No. 8, (i and 77), but
a gauzy outer wrap (Is. 3,23; cf. also D 212, n. 2) which she left in the
hands of the men, just as Joseph left his garment in the hands of his
master's wife (Gen. 39,13), or as the young man who was following
Jesus, at the time he was betrayed by Judas, left his linen tunic, and
fled naked (Mark 14,51). The maiden was deprived only of her wrap;
she kept her tunic and perhaps also her upper garment (cf. n. 10).

(21) V. 7a is a scribal expansion derived from 3,3^ (No. 12); the words
printed in Italics represent tertiary glosses (cf. n. 18 on No. 2). In the
present poem the maiden does not encounter any men, but appeals only
to the maidens of her native town (cf. n. 2) asking them to help her to find
her lover. The LXX inserts a repetition of the last hemistich of v. 6
after 3,1, and the last hemistich of that verse is merely an erroneous
repetition of the last hemistich of 3,2; cf. n. 1 on No. 12.

(22) Supply, I said to the maidens (cf. n. 8 on No. 3) whom I met.

(23) Supply, the maidens answered. For the following question.

Whither is gone thy lover? cf. D 247, c: L j^^ r>^ •

(24) Lit., that I am sick with love ; cf. D 70, 16 ; 227, below, and n.
10 on No. 7, also M 18, vi.

(25) Lit., that we may seek him with thee. This stanza appears in
ths Received Text as the first verse of the following chapter, after the
last verse of the present poem, but it must evidently be inserted between
vv. 8 and 9.

(26) Lit., What thy lover from a lover, i. e., in what way is thy lover
diffenmt from another lover?

(27) This does not mean, He looks like Milch und Blut (Budde), i. e.,
white and rosy ; even the maiden was sunburnt and tanned (cf. nn. 4.
12 on No. 3); it means that the skin of her lover was white wherever it
was covered by his garments, but bronzed (cf. nn. 28. 37. 41) wherever
it was exposed to the sun.



No. 6 The Book of Canticles 39

(28) His face and his neck are bronzed by exposure to the sun. The
gold alluded to is red, not yellow; cf. Shakespeare's 'golden blood'
(Macbeth ii, 3) and Horace's pudor flavus; also ^av^i^cj 'to brown a
roast.' D 86,12 speaks of 'golden lips and silvery teeth.' Cf. nn. 37. 41.

(29) ' His eyes are like doves ' does not mean only that he is dove-eyed,
having eyes expressive of gentleness and affection, but also that his eyes
are dove-colored, i. e., that the color of the iris is a warm gray or light
bluish. Cf. No. 7, a (1,15) and No. 8 (4,1).

(30) His large liquid eyes are clear and transparent like the water of
a reservoir (cf. n. 25 on No. 2) and shine like the luster of an expanse of
water reflecting the light of the sun. In Arabic a lustrous pearl is called

a wet pearl {^^fJ^\ ^y lu'lu' ratib); c/. our phrase ' a diamond of the
first water.' Ovid, Ars am. 2,722 says that if the lover touches his sweet-
heart, he will see oculos tremulo fulgore micantes ut sol a liquida saepe
refulget aqua. In a letter received by Mrs. Kate Soffel (who aided
Edward and Jack Biddle to escape from the Pittsburgh Jail) the writer,
who signs herself as Julia, and who is said to be rich and prominent in
society, says of Edward Biddle that 'his soulful orbs swam in a flood of
their own natural moisture' (Baltimore 'Sun,' March 4 '02).

It is evident that this hemistich does not contain a reference to the
eye-water, i. e., the vitreous humor (a glassy fluid filling the rear com-
partment of the eyeball, behind the lens) and the aqueous humor (in
front of the lens, filling the space between the lens and the cornea).
Although the iris divides this anterior space into an anterior and a poste-
rior chamber, it cannot be compared to a dove sitting by a pool that is
brimful. Nor can this hemistich allude to the fact that the vitreous humor
fills about four fifths of the eyeball. For the medical knowledge of the
later Hebrew poets, cf. my paper on Ecclesiastes (quoted above, p. 17,
n. X), p. 244, n. 60.

In the Received Text this hemistich stands at the end of the stanza,
but it seems to be the second hemistich, while the second hemistich of
the Received Text is probably nothing but an explanatory gloss. The
original last hemistich appears to have been lost; it may have been
something like 'fringed with dark purple lilies' (cf. No. 2, n. 33), i. e.,
in this case, the eyelashes ; cf. n. 36.

(31) The white of the eye, the opaque milk-white sclerotic of the
eyeball.

(32) Cf. n. 33 on No. 2 and n. 18 on No. 9.

(33) Not his cheeks. Arab, i^^ lihye (plur. lihaQ or luhan)
denotes the beard on the cheeks and on the chin. Contrast D 223, 5 :

t>j* x»-;i> jLs-l , her cheek is a bunch of roses ; see also D 243, 1. 3.

(34) As sweet -smelling ; cf. Dr. Hagen's book (cited in n. 7 on
No. 1), p. 71.

(35) Lit., raising, rearing all sorts of aromatics.

(36) Not the lips but the mustaches, Arab, ^^^y^ sawarib (in
Egypt, «i>Ly-Ci senebat); Heb. QS^U safam. Lev. 13,45; Mic. 3,7;
Ezek. 24,17". 22; 2 S 19,25; cf. D 305, 2; 319, 3; 333, last stanza.



40 Hebraica No. 6

(37) That is, bronzed ; cf. n. 28 and D 101, 1. 5 : her arms are sticks
of pure silver {i. e., white ; cf. the end of n. 28), and her fingers pointed
styles of gold {i. e., her hands are bronzed).

(38) That is, his bronzed (n. 37) arms are covered with ornamental
patterns tattooed in vermilion (the brilliant red pigment formerly made
by grinding selected pieces of cinnabar*), while his white (n. 39) body is
tattooed in ultramarine (the beautiful blue pigment formerly obtained
from lapis lazuli; see n. 40). The usual explanation that the hemistich
studded ivith tarshish \ refers to the finger-nails is not satisfactory.

The precious stone of Tarshish seems to have been finely crystal-
lized cinnabar J found in the famous mines of Almaden (^jcXJi-t-M) N of
Cordova ; cf. Pliny 33, 118. 121. 114 ; 37, 126. These crystals of cinnabar
may be termed rubies just as we use the term ruby for several different
gems ; e. g., the rich ruby-red garnets from South Africa are known as
Cape rubies, and even the pale-red topaz from Brazil is sometimes called
Brazilian ruby.

Tarshish |! is a Phenician word meaning 'mining.' It is an infinitive §
of the intensive stem of ITIT"! ? ' to strike with a pick,** to pound, crush,
stamp' (ores, &c.). The names Turdetania and Tartessus, &c., are
modifications of the Semitic Tarshish, not vice versa. This name must
be discussed in a special paper.

Tattooing is still practiced by the modern Palestinians and Syrians,
especially by the Bedouins; cf D 6, 4; 25, 2; 36, 1. 4; 44, b; 68, 9; 85,
10; 135, b; 171, a; 217,2; 267, n. 1 ; 277, below. It must have been
common among the Semites from the earliest times ; cf. the translation
of Levit. 19,28 in The Polychrome Bible, You shall not make any inci-
sions in your skin for the dead, nor shall you tattoo any marks upon you,
Rashi (1040-1105 A. D.) remarks in his commentary on this passage,
that it refers to indelible marks made by puncturing the skin with a
needle and introducing some dark pigment into the punctures. *t The
LXX translates, ypajx^iara (TTiKTo. ov TTOLrja-eTe iv Vfxiv. Srt'^co is the term
which Herodotus and Xenophon use in describing the tattooing prac-
ticed by the Thracians and the Mocto-vvolkol (i. e., the inhabitants of
wooden towers ; cf. Anab. 5, 4, 24) in Pontus near the coast of the Black
Sea. Herodotus (5, 6) says of the Thracians that they think it a sign of

♦(/innabar is often used for tattooing ; also henna (see n. 18 on No. 7) and indipo (or
Indian blue).

tC/.Exod. 28,20; 39,13; Ezok. 1,16; 10,9; 28,13; Dan. 10,6. Id Ezek. 10,9 LXX has
anthrax, that is, cinnabar (Vitr. 7, 8, 1), for tarshish.

t There is a fine specimen from Almaden in the mineralogical collection of Columbia
Uniyersity, New York.

II Cf. the copper mines of Tharsis, N of Huelva in southwestern Spain.

%Cf. Haupt, in vol. 1 of this Journal, p. 179; BeitrSge zur assyr. Lautlehre (GOttin-
Ken, 1853) p. 93, n. 2 ; Praetorius in Dolitzsch and Haupt's Beitr&ge zur Assyriologie, 1, 38, n. *
(LeipziR, 1889).

** Cf. German Hduer (hewer) = miner.

•jman lyprp-aii: abnrb pnia: ".rxTU npwi np^nia arz rprp nnrDi *t



No. 6 The Book of Canticles 41

noble birth to have all sorts of tattooed figures in the skin ; he who has
none is not considered well-born (to fiev ia-TLxOai cvyevh KeVptrat, to Se
dariKTov dyevve's. Xenophon (Anab. 5, 4, 32) relates that the Mossynoeci
exhibited to their Greek friends and allies children whose backs were
painted in colors, and who were also covered with tattooed arabesques in
front {iTreoeiKvvcrav avTot<i TraToas .... ttolklXov; 8k to. vwra /cai Tot (.fxirpocr-
Otv iravTa forty/AeVous avBiyiia). The mark which Jhvh appointed to Cain
was according to W. Robertson Smith* a tattooed tribal mark (Gen. 4,
16; cf. Is. 44,5 ;t 49,16; Ezek. 9,4; also Exod. 13,9. 16; and, in NT,
Revel. 13,17; 14,1.9; Gal. 6,17). I have discussed tattooing among
the Semites in a special paper.J

(39) Cf. n. 31 on No. 2.

(40) This refers to tattooed marks (see n. 38) in blue (so AoF 1, 293);
cf. D 40, 1. 11 ; 77, 1. 2 ; 112, 1. 14 ; 123, 11. 8. 9 ; 240, below ; see also D 7,
nn. 3. 4. Sapphire does not denote the transparent blue variety of
corundum but lapis lazuli, or azure stone, which the Assyrians called
uknti.|| It has usually a rich ultramarine-blue color, with small
golden specks of iron pyrites scattered through it,§ and the native or
real ultramarine pigment was obtained from this mineral before the
preparation of artificial ultramarine was discovered about 1830. The
lapis lazuli of the ancients seems to have come from the famous Badakh-
shan mines in northeastern Afghanistan, near Mazar-i-Ilakh, 1500 feet
above the bed of the Kokcha, a tributary to the Oxus.** For the artificial
lapis lazuli of the Babylonians see ZA 8, 189.

(41) The sandaled feet are bronzed, while the legs, which are not so
much exposed to the sun, are white ; cf. nn. 27. 28 and D 134, below
(her legs are like round columns of choice marble) ; D 77, 38 (her feet are
white silver; cf. D 86, 12: her teeth are like silver, quoted in n. 28
and n. 8 on No. 8 ; and Lat. lilium argenteum, Prop. 4, 4, 25).

(42) Towering as Lebanon.

(43) As majestic as the noble cedars of Lebanon, some of which are
100 feet high. Cf. the translation of Ezekiel, in The Polychrome Bible,
p. 160.

*See his Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia (Cambridge, 1885), p. 215, and his
Religion of the Semites'^ (1894), p. 334; cf. Stade, ZAT 14 (1894), pp. 250-318, reprinted in his
Ausgewahlte akademische Reden und Abhandlungen (Giessen, 1899), pp. 229-273 (especially
pp. 230. 260. 266-268. 272) ; see also Benzinger, Heb. ArchceoL, pp. 111. 426, below.

tmn^b mi by anD^.

i Read at the meeting of the American Oriental Society at Hartford, April 15, 1898 ; cf.
JAGS 19, 166.

II Cf . Johns Hopkins University Circulars, July, 1894, p. Ill, and Journal of the American
Oriental Society, 18, 145, n. 1.

§C/. Job 28, 6: lb IPIT 711127. Pliny 37, 119 says of the bluestone {cyanus) : Inest
ei aliquando et aureus pulvis qualis sappiris; in lis enini aurum, punctis conlucet.

** See .John Wood, A Journey to the Source of the River Oxus (London, 1872) , and Johns
Hopkins University Circulars, July, 1894, p. 112. The Assyrians called this mountainous
region Bikn, that is, the northeastern flank of the Hindu Kush (Paropamisus), not Mt.
Demavend, S of the Caspian Sea (against Winckler).



42 Hebraica No. 7

(44) This seems to be a gloss which afterwards displaced the original
addir 'majestic' {cf. Ezek. 17,23) in the text. Cf. n. 24 on No. 8.

(45) Lit., palate.

(46) Cf. the conclusion of the song D 112 (^.Jt oLo^l StXiO).

(47) Cf. n. 8 on No. 3. '^

Notes on No. 7.

(1) For this poem cf. my remarks in my paper cited above, p. 17,


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