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n. f . I cite this paper in the following notes as H.

(2) This is a scribal expansion derived from 4, 1 (No. 8) ; it is the
ieminine j^endant to the first double-line of No. 7, just as 2,2 (No. 3, 7)
is a feminine pendayii to 2,3 (stanza II of the present poem); cf. n. 6
on No. 3.

(3) That is, our union will be full of life and vigor, it will afford us
fresh pleasure for a long time to come ; cf. n. 38 on No. 8 and H, n. 23.

(4) Their humble cottage seems to them like a magnificent palace
(H, n. 24). In D 37, 2 the maiden is said to sleep under velvet covers on
ostrich feathers ; in D 271, 2 they sleep on silk and brocade.

(5) The apple is an erotic symbol (H, nn. 19. 21) ; cf. nn. 9, 37 and
n. 19 on No. 8, also Theocritus, 2, 120 ; 3, 110 ; 5, 88 ; 10, 34 ; 11, 10. It
is not impossible that the term 'apple' (Heb. tappu^h) denotes the
golden ai^ples of the mandrake ; cf. No. 9, n. 10.

(6) Cf. D 279, below.

(7) Lit., the house of wine, i. e., the bridal chamber; cf. 1,4; 4,10;
5,landD238, 1. 7(H, n. 25).

(8) Lit., its banner over it was Love, i. e., a symbolical representation
of Love was the tavern-sign.

(9) He kissed and caressed me (H, n. 26) ; cf D 277, 1. 12 ; 106, 2 (If
thou art hungry I promise thee thy supper, i. e., If thou longest for me
I will regale thee with my love to-night) ; cf. also D 43, 4.

(10) This is a scribal expansion derived from 5,8 (H, n. 27) ; cf. n. 24
on No. 6.

(11) Cf D 32, 1. 15. (12) Cf. n. 11 on No. 1.

(13) Lit., in his accubation, on his dining couch, i. e., the bridal bed
(H, n. 14); cf nn. 7. 25.

(14) This does not mean, I reciprocated his love in the most enthu-
siastic manner, but, My dearest seemed to me the sweetest thing on
earth ; cf. n. 21. For spikenard, cf. H, n. 15 ; cf. also No. 8, p.

(15) Cf. n. 8 on No. 1.

(16) In the lament over a j'outh (D 318) he is addressed Ja£ o ya

'atr 'O perfume ;' D 331, 2 a deceased dear one is called O my ambergris,
O fragrant musk !

(17) Lit., that spends the night between my breasts, i. e., He was as
close to me as the sachet placed l>etween the l)reasts (D 85, n.3; 91, 1. 4)
at night to perfuino the bosom (D 260, 1. 15), and he was so sweet that I
needed no other perfume (H, n. 30). Cf. M 16, iii.

(18) The Flower of Paradise (H, n. 31). Cf. n. 6 on No. 9.



No. 7 The Book of Canticles -tS

(19) Cf. H, n. 32. (20) Cf. 4,10 (No. 8, viii) ; H, n. 8.

(21) That is, thy name is to me the sweetest thing on earth {cf. the
Shakespearian 'Love's thrice-repured nectar'); see also nn. 14. 16. Lit.,
oil that has been decanted (H, n. 33). Cf. D 214, 6: |.fyi^ JU-w-l
ijLoJi «-*-Uu v^aS'^cXJI, Thy name is a golden nose-ring in the case

of the goldsmith (see the translation of Ezekiel, in The Polychrome
Bible, p. 126, n. 10).

(22) This seems to be an illustrative quotation {cf. n. 6 on No. 1)
describing a symposium v^^ith hetaerae.*

(23) Cf. n. 1 on No. 3. (24) Cf. H, n. 12.

(25) Lit,, Accumb (recline at the meal ; cf. n. 13), O my dearest, and
be {i. e., leap, cf. H, n. 13, and below, n. 30 ; contrast n. 50 on No. 10) like
a male gazelle or like a male fawn of the (fallow) deer. In the Hebrew
text this imperative Feast ! (or Regale !)f forms the conclusion of the
preceding stanza.

(26) Cf. D 261, 1. 13 (Play like a gazelle! (j^SviJi ^ ^^)\

271, 2. For this 'playing' cf. pn^ Gen. 26,8; 39,14. 17; also bb^nn
Jud. 19,25 and TraT^e for o;(eve in n. 12 of my paper cited on p. 17, n. J.
Cf. below, n. 33.

(27) That is, a buck of the fallow-deer (German Damhirsch) in his
second year, not a young hart or a roebuck. Cf. n. 34.

(28) That is, the pudendum ("iH = mons Veneris, '^TQ, = rima
mulieris) ; cf. H, n. 36 ; n. 39 on No. 8, and n. 13 on No. 9. The trans-
lation mountains of malabathron {cf. H, p. 53) seems to me improbable.

(29) Mountains of myrrh and hillocks of incense, or mountains of
spices {6), are all hyperbolical expressions for the sweet body of the
bride ; cf. nn. 14r-18, n. 7 on No. 1, and n. 17 on No. 9.

(30) This has a double meaning, like "ibT in Eccl. 12,1; see my
paper cited on p. 17, n. J, p. 261. It means not only 'to go off like a
bolt, to spring away suddenly,' but it has also an erotic meaning {cf. our
term 'male screw,' &c.); it may be taken as a denominative verb derived
from fr^2 'door-bolt, bar;' cf. Ex. 36,33 (AV, shoot through); or as a
denominative from Aram. !j^ri"i3 'he-goat, buck' {cf. rpayL^w). See also
n. 4 on No. 11 and M 19, vii cited at the end of n. 1 on No. 3.

(31) The last two hemistichs of this stanza may be restored on the
basis of the variant in 4,6 {cf. n. 20 on No. 8); or we may keep 'on the
cloven mountains' (n. 28) in the text and add 'on the mountains of
spices ' {6) as fourth hemistich.

* Cf. J. D. Michaelis' remarks on this passage (he seems to think of a lupanar) in his
Neue orientalische und exegetische Bibliothek, part 4 (GOttingen. 1787), p. 91 (review of J. C.
Velthusen, Das Hohelied, Braunschweig, 1786). On pp. 82. 83 of this review Michaelis says
of the Song of Solomon, ' Ich denke, es ist eine alte Sammlung von Idylleu, die man, woil oft
von Salomon die Rede ist, mit Recht oder Unrecht Salomon zuschrieb .... Ahnlichkoit
und manches Gleiche finde ich freilich in den verschiedenen Gesangen von Liobe, aber mir
zerfallen sie doch immer in mehrere nicht zusammenhangendo Lieder von Liebe.' See also
Michaelis' remarks on the metrical problems in part 3 of his Bibliothek (review of Velthuson's
Catena cantilenarum, in Salomonem, Helmstad, 1786), pp. 145-1.55.

f Cf. Spanish regular which means not only 'to regale' but also 'to caress,' &c.



44 Hebraica No. 8

(32) Cf. n. 8 on No. 3.

(33) The gazelle was the symbol of Astarte, just as the dove {cf.
No. 4, n. 12) was sacred to the Goddess of Love; see W. Robertson
Smith, Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia, pp. 195. 298 ; cf. M 24,
n. 11. Girls are often compared to gazelles ; cf. D 25, 7 ; 45, n. 2 ; 70,
14; 80,1.3; 99, n. 1 ; 131, n. 3; 170,3; 236, below ; 259, below ; 261,1.12;
279; cf. also 321, last stanza, and n. 19 on No. 8.

(34) More accurately, females of the fallow-deer {Cervus dama or
Dama plafyceros), 'pricket's sisters;' cf. n. 27; Prov. 5,19.

(35) Lit., field, i. e., country, rural parts. Cf. D 91, n. 1 ( -Jl J'v^)-

(36) Cf. H, n. 20. / ' >

(37) Under the caresses of the bridegroom ; cf. n. 5 and H, n. 19.

(38) This hemistich seems to be a variant or gloss explaining the
following hemistich. Her mother conceived her ' under the apple,' i. e.,
under the caresses of her husband, but she will not be allowed to enjoy
her connubial bliss.

(39) This seems to be an illustrative quotation (cf. n. 22) from a
poem in w^hich a revengeful enemy threatens the bride that he will
startle her 'under the apple,' while she is in the wedding-bed. Cf. H,
p. 55.

(40) Cf. n. 31 on No. 3.

Notes on No. 8.

(1) This description is more moderate (c/., however, n.39) than No. 2.
Budde, following Wetzstein, believes that the present poem was sung
on the first day of the King's Week {cf. n. 11 on No. 1), i. e., on the day
following the wedding, but it may correspond to the songs sung by the
women while the bride is dressed in the house of her parents {cf. D 214,
C ; 185, 2) or while she parades in her nuptial array {cf. n. 1 on No. 2).

(2) Cf. n. 2 on No. 7. (3) Cf. n. 29 on No. 6.

(4) This is an erroneous repetition from the end of v. 3. Cf. n. 1 on
No. 12.

(5) Cf. n. 9 on No. 3.

(6) Lit., waving, or wavering, /. e., moving up and down or to and
fro. The? hair of the bride is not plaited during the wedding festival
(n. 1 on No. 2), but hangs loose over the back and in front. Cf. D 260,
1. 12 (Thy black hair hangs down).

(7) That is, the region E of the Jordan, between the rivers Yarmfik
(near the southern end of the Sea of Galilee) and Arnon,* divided into
two halves by the river Jabbok,* where the tribes of Reuben and Gad
settled. The naine is, however, used also (Deut. 34,1 ; 1 Mace. 5,20 flF.)
for the entire region E of the Jordan, between the river Arnon* and Mt.
Hermon (n. 5 on No. 5). From the mountains of Western Palestine
Gilead appears like a great mountain range, the top of which is, as a
rule, uniformly level and does not rise into peaks. The beautiful hills

* See the cuts on p. 78 of the translation of Judges in The Polychrome Bible and cf. ibid.,
p. 79, n. 11.



No. 8 The Book of Canticles 45

and dales of Gilead afford splendid pasture grounds for herds and flocks
(Num. 32, 1). Flocks of goats still feed there.

(8) Lit., Thy teeth are like the flock of shorn ones (fern.) which have
come up from the washing. The word ewes is omitted in the present
passage, but we find it in the variant 6, 6 (gloss v) ; cf. n. 24. The
meaning is, of course, thy hair is black, and thy teeth are white. ' White
as wool' is a common comparison in Hebrew; cf. Is. 1,18; Ps. 147,16;
Dan. 7,9. For sheep = white, and goat = black, c/. D 34, nn. 1. 2. In
modern Palestinian poetry the teeth are said to be like pellets of hail
(D 100, below; 112, 1. 10; 253, 1. 4), or like pearls (D 112,1.9; 261,
below), or like silver (D 86, 12 ; cf. n. 41 on No. 6), or like the finest gold
with corals between them (D 292, 1. 4).

(9) Her teeth are so perfectly shaped that each upper tooth and the
corresponding lower tooth look like twins.

(10) There is no gap anywhere, not a single tooth is wanting. If a
tooth was lost, it was not 'barren,' but was replaced by another one.
The comparison is not carried through quite consistently, and the
details must not be pressed. The chief object of the poet is to impress
on his rustic hearers that it was a very fine flock of sheep.

(11) According to Wetzstein the poet refers, not to a slice of pome-
granate, but to a rift in a ripe pomegranate that bursts on the tree
(Lg.>o| ^J>£. 'ala ummiha 'on her mother,' as the Arabs say) so that
the seeds enclosed in the reddish pulp become visible. Cf. D 261, 1. 3 :
Over thy cheeks are pomegranate blossoms, and n. 30 on No. 3, also
the last hemistichs of ii and iv of No. 9, and M 38, n. 2.

(12) This must have been a well-known bulwark ; cf. n. 14 and No.
2, n. 24.

(13) AV, for an armory; KVM, with turrets; Vulg., cum propugna-
culis; the LXX ets ®a\TTLw9 keeps the Hebrew word le-thalpiyoth.
Gratz thought that Heb. talpiyoth represented the plural of a Greek
T-qXwTTia, 'far-reaching view,' connected with tt^Awttos, fem. ri^AwTrts, 'far-
seeing;' but this explanation is very improbable. If talpiyoth had
been a Greek word the Septuagintal translators would probably have
recognized it. Cf. n. 17 and No. 1, n. 17.

(14) The well-known thousand shields ; cf. n. 12. In the description
of the commerce of Tyre, Ezek. 27,11, we read: The people of Arvad
were on thy walls round about, and the people of Gammad were in thy
towers ; they hung their shields upon thy walls round about ; and in
1 Mace. 4,57 it is stated that after the dedication of the altar and the
offering of burnt-offerings (Dec. 165 B. C.) the front of the Temple was
decked with crowns (or wreaths) of gold and with shields (ornamental
circular plates) — Koi KaTCKoa-ix-qcrav to Kara TrpocrwjTOV tov vaov OTfc^avots
Xpvo-ots Kal dcTTrtSto-Kais. According to 1 K 10,16 Solomon had 200 large
shields and 300 small ones, of beaten gold, for the decoration of the
House of the Forest of Lebanon. They were carried away by Shoshenq
of Egypt in the fifth year of Rehoboam, i. e., about 928 b. c. (1 K 14,26)
The shields of King David in the Temple are referred to in 2 K 11,10
Cf. p. 175 of the translation of Ezekiel in The Polychrome Bible.



46 ' Hebraica No. 8

The thousand targes probably allude to coins on the necklace of the
bride {cf. u. 19 on No. 3).

(15) Theocritus says in Helena's Bridal Song (18, 30) that Helena is
like a Thessalian steed before a chariot ; Anacreon addresses a maiden
as TToiAe ®prjKir] 'Thracian filly;' and Horace (Od. iii, 11, 19) says of
Lyde that she frisks on the fields like a three year old filly :

Die modos, Lyde quibus obstinatas
Adplicet auris,

Quae velut latis equa trima campis
Ludit exsultim metuitque tangi,
Nuptiarum expers et adhuc protervo
Cruda niarito.

D 319, 4: a wife is called a iU.^^ kehele 'a thoroughbred mare,' and
in D 327, 4 a girl is addressed as 'a four year old filly' (Sy^ muhre).

(16) The same term of endearment ("^n'^yi, lit., my friend) is used as
in 4, 1(1); c/. 6,4(vii).

(17) Probably gold coins (cf. nn. 19. 20 on No. 3). Heb. torlm may
be a masculine plural of t6rah = vo/Atcr/xa 'coin.' The LXX has in
1,11 (No. 3, e) OjU-otw/AttTa ;(/3uo-tbv for Heb. tore zahab and o/xotw/Aara
'likenesses' may refer to medallic portraits (io«JL)| aiqone = ctKwv, cf.
Jiyb D 121, 1. 3); cf. D 292, n. 3 (She put on gold medals, large gold
coins, hanging over the temples).

(18) Beads, or little shells, or pearls, or other gems (ui>Kvi>-). The

translation 'bandlets of corals' (Siegfried; cf. Q"^j"'33 Lam. 4,7) is
unwarranted ; see, however, D 15, 1. 16 ; 244, 1. 24.

(19) As graceful and of as delicate form as a gazelle and as sym-
metrical as twins (cf n. 9). The gazelle is celebrated in Arabian poetry
for its beauty (cf. n. 33 on No. 7). In modern Palestinian poetry the
breasts are compared to apples (D 253, 1. 10 ; cf. n. 5 on No. 7) or to

pomegranates (D 101, 1. 3; 214, 6; 231, 1. 7: J>cX-o ^Lo. ; cf. u. 40
and No. 2, n. 17, also M 38, n. 3. ^

(20) This is a misplaced variant (cf. n. 23) to 2, 16. 17 (No. 7, viii. ix),
or it must be explained like the gloss /3 in No. 2. Cf. n. 31 on No. 7.

(21) The residence of the rulers of the Northern Kingdom from
Jeroboam (930) to Omri (880) who founded the city of Samaria. The
name probably means 'Pleasure' (LXX ws eiSoKta). For the beauty of
Jerusalem cf. Lam. 2,15; Ps. 48,3. See, however, n. 8 on No. 3. The
name Samaria would proljably have suggested to the Jews of the Greek
period the idea of schism and apostasy ; it would have been ill-omened ;
cf. Karl J. Griinm, Euphemistic Liturgical Appendixes in the Old
Testament (Baltimore, 1901), p. 4 (Johns Hopkins dissertation).

(22) This is a scribal expansion derived from the first stanza of No. 2
{cf. n. 3 on No. 2).

(2.3) Verses 5''-7 are a scribal expansion derived from 4, 1''. 2. 3^ in
the first three stanzas of this poem. We find some variants just as in
8 {cf n. 20).



No. 8' The Book of Canticles 47

(24) In 4, 2 (stanza ii) we have 'shorn ones' (fem.) instead of 'ewes.'
Eives is simply an explanatory gloss which has superseded the original
'shorn ones.' Cf. n. 44 on No. 6.

(25) The first two hemistichs of the third stanza are here acciden-
tally omitted ; cf. n. 31 on No. 3.

(26) Lit., thou hast disheartened me, but this does not mean in
Hebrew, thou hast discouraged me, or, thou hast stolen my heart, but
thou hast deprived me of my reason, deranged my intellect, thou hast
crazed my wits; cf. n. 2 on No. 6 and D 124, 1. 3; 217, 2; 224, 1. 7 ; 234,
n. 2; 240, 7; 241, 10; 245, 1. 19; 257, 1. 10.

It is not impossible that 6, 5 is merely a variant to 4, 9, and 6, 4 a
variant to 4,7 ; cf. n. 14 on No. 9.

(27) The glossator was probably afraid that the term 'my sister' (cf.
above, p. 18, n. J) might be understood literally (cf. Lev. 18,9). If
bride were not an explanatory gloss, we should expect my bride. In
modern Palestinian poetry the beloved maiden is often addressed as
'my brother,' i. e., my sister (e. g., D 28, 1. 8 ; cf.D xiii).

(28) Cf. 1, 4 (No. 7, vii).

(29) Cf. D 32, 2 (honeyed lips); 134, 1. 9 (honeycombs in the
mouth) ; 253, 1. 5 (her lips are nectar) ; 223, 5 (^^Lbv , i. e., luscious,
fresh, ripe dates drop from thy lips).

(30) The Heb. deb as 'honey' denotes also, like the corresponding
Arabic dibs (D 29, n. 4), a syrup made of grapes or dates. The word
is different from the term for 'virgin honey' (Heb. nofeth). Deb&s
is the word used in the phrase ' flowing with milk and honey ' (Pi jT Y'"'!}^
12;2"1 nbn) Exod. 3, 8, &c.), milk representing cattle-raising, and
debash (=dibs) agriculture. The addition of deb as in our line
was probably suggested by that proverbial phrase. Cf. EB 2104.

(31) D 125, 1. 7 we read, her spittle is sweeter than sugar ; D 349,
1. 1 a poetic message is said to be like sugar mixed with honey, better
than the most precious ambergris ; D 309, 8 the beloved is addressed as
candied fruit and a box of sugar.

(32) Lit., the fragrance of thy oils is above all spices (cf. No. 7, 5).
In the Received Text this hemistich stands at the end of the preceding
stanza. The prefixed 'the fragrance of is due to scribal expansion ; so,
too, in the followingjiemistich (gloss v).

(33) This refers to the cedars and aromatic herbs of Mt. Lebanon ;
cf. Hos. 14,7 (6); also Gen. 27,27.

(34) Cf. n. 15 on No. 3, n. 1 on No. 4, and nn. 2. 12 on No. 9.

(35) This gloss shows that v. 15 followed originally v. 12. For the
'closely sealed fountain,' cf. n. 35 on No. 2.

(36) We find the same metaphor for bride and young wife in Prov.
5,15-17, where the allegorical language is explained in the following
vv. 18-20 (cf. the Critical Notes on Proverbs, in SBOT, p. 38, 1. 18). The
meaning of the exhortation in Proverbs is. Avoid illicit intercourse and
observe conjugal fidelity! Cf. also Eccl. 12,1: Remember thy well
(i. e., thy wife) in the days of thy youth, &c., and my remarks in the



48 Hebraica No. 8

paper cited above, p. 17, n. J, pp. 261 and 276, u. 63 {cf. n. 30 on No,
7). In a Talmudic passage we read, One does not drink out of a cup
before examining it, i. e., one does not marry a woman before one is sure
that she is without blemish ; another passage says, Do not cook in a
vessel in which thy neighbor has cooked (see Levy s. v. pTQ and Hlip
= Assyr. diqaru).* In NT 'vessel' is used for 'wife' in 1 Thess. 4,4
and 1 Pet. 3,7. Aquila translated TW^'^^ JTHIZJ Eccl. 2,8 (RV, concu-
bines very many) by kvXlklov koL KvXUta (Vulg. scyphos et urceos hi
ministerio ad vina fundeyida). In modern Palestinian poetry a maiden
is often called a well or a fountain ; cf. D 8, n. 1 ; 43, n. 2 (my fountain
is like streams of water); 49, n. 1 ; 213, n. 3; 225, 8; cf. also D 45^ 1. 9;
75, 32; 294, n. 2. Water-wheels (norias, Ss«.£-Lj) and buckets often

symbolize the enjoyment of love ; cf. D 85, n. 4 ; 106, 2 ; 107, 1. 7 {^d^'i L«
•Jt> ^). The beloved is said to have a water-wheel in her palate,
because her kisses are so refreshing (D 290, n. 4). The bride is the
fountain of pleasure, the source of delight, the wellspring of happiness,
the cistern of bliss, the stream of enjoyment.

(37) That is, running, not stagnant; cf. Gen. 26,19 (AV, a well of
springing water) and notes on the translation of Leviticus in The Poly-
chrome Bible, p. 77, 1. 32.

(38) The forest of Lebanon (see full-page illustration facing p. 72
of the translation of the Psalms in The Polychrome Bible) will protect
the source of supply so that the waters will never dry up ; they will be
perennial, unceasing, never-failing. Cf. n. 3 on No. 7.

(39) Lit., thy conduit. The same word is used in Neh. 3, 15 for the
Pool of Siloam (Vulg., piscina Siloe). This name denoted originally not
the pool but the conduit conducting the water of the Virgin's Spring
(just outside Jerusalem) to that reservoir cut in the rock. In the Siloam
Inscription this tunnel is called H^pD ' perforation,' f and T\'2'D'} p^f-
forata is the Hebrew word for 'female;' cf. n. 35 on No. 2, n. 1 on
No. 3, n. 28 on No. 7, n. 13 on No. 9, also the passages in D cited in n. 36.

(40) Cf. n. 30 on No. 3. D 28 the beloved is called a pomegranate-
tree, on whose seeds the traveler feasts at night as well as in the morn-
ing, i. e., he feeds upon her dark purple lilies {cf. n. 1 on No. 3) before
he retires and before he rises; cf. n. 8 on No. 9, also M 38; 20, 1. 13.

(41) Cf. n. 18 on No. 7. (42) Cf. n. 14 on No. 7.

(43) See my remarks on malabafhron cited in n. 28 on No. 7. The
Received Text has spikenard, saffron, sweetflag, and cinnamon, but
'saffron' should be inserted between myrrh and aloes in the third hemi-
stich. Spikenard and cinnamon have been transposed in the English
translation to improve the rhythm ; but this transposition is not neces-
sary in the Heb. text.

(44) The Acoru,s calamus whose thick creeping rootstock (the offici-
nal calamus aromaticus) is pungent and aromatic, and is still used in
confectionery, distilling, and brewing.

* See n. 101 of my paper cited on p. 27, n. *.

tCf. Journal of the American Oriental Society, 22, 5".



No. 9 The Book of Canticles 49

(45) Cf. n. 8 on No. 1. In D 112, 1. 17 the slww surre, i. e., the

navel or center (a euphemism for pudendum ; cf. n. 34 on No. 2) is said to
be like a box of civet {cf. n. 7 on No. 1) exhaling musk and camphor. Cf.
Dr. Hagen, op. cit., p. 50. D 309, No. 7 it is said of a young woman
that seven kings water her sweet basil plant (i^^^^^a. habaq).

(46) See n. 8 on No. 1.

(47) The autumnal crocus {crocus sativus) which has a sweetish
aromatic odor. It was highly esteemed by the ancients and by the Ara-
bians. Contrast n. 2 on No. 3.

(48) The dark aromatic resin of the agallochum {Aqiiilaria Agal-
locha) or lign-aloes, which is much used by the Orientals, especially in
the preparation of incense.

(49) This double-line seems to be a variant to the first half of v. 14 ;
cf. n. 14 on No. 1.

(50) That is, Let me enjoy the charms of my bride, may she recipro-
cate my love in the most enthusiastic manner {cf. n. 14 on No. 7) ! The
various spices merely symbolize the incomparable sweetness of the bride
{cf. n. 29 on No. 7). The last stanza of this poem has but two beats,
not three, in each hemistich ; cf. n. 15 on No. 3 and n. 1 on No. 10.

Notes on No. 9.

(1) No. 9 seems to be the immediate sequel of No. 8, as in the
Received Text {cf. D 15, n. 4) ; 7,12-14 and 6, 11 and 6,2 were probably
displaced in order to make the erotic allusions less obvious ; see above,
p. 19, and cf. below, n. 14.

(2) The fair garden with dark purple lilies (n. 18), henna-flowers (n. 6),
pomegranates (n. 9), &c., symbolizes the charms of the bride; cf. nn.
7. 12 and the ancient Egyptian 'garden songs;' see A. Erman, Life in
Ancient Egypt (London, 1894), pp. 194. 389,* and M 26-28, especially
No. xix, also 18, v. The wife was called the 'field' of her husband
(M 6, n. 12) ; cf. Sophocles' Antigone 565 : dpioa-LixoL yap xaTipoiv eio-iv yuai,
also apovpa 'field' = womb, &c. In D 261, below, at the beginning of a
nuptial song accompanying the giving away of the bride, we read.
When thou goest to the flower-garden ; and in the second line of a poem
sung during the torch-dance of the bride {cf. No. 2, n. 1) the bride is
addressed : O thou flower in the garden-land (D 259, below) ; cf. also D
248, 1. 9 (My dearest entered the vineyards).

(3) Let us enjoy our connubial bliss ; cf. No. 8, xi, 1. 2.

(4) This 'outing' must not be understood literally ; it is a pleasure-
trip in the garden of the bride (n. 1) just as the 'leaping of the gazelle
and the pricket on the mountains of myrrh and the hillocks of incense'
(No. 7, n. 25).

(5) Cf. n. 35 on No. 7 and the end of n. 2 above.

(6) Cf. No. 7, n. 18 ; No. 8, n. 41. AV, Let us lodge in the villages ;
so, too, Budde, following Delitzsch ; contrast Ewald and Siegfried ad loc.

* In the first German edition of the work (Tabingen, 1885) , pp. 272. .520.



50 Hebbaica No. 9

(7) Cf. n. 2 and No. 3, n. 15.

(8) In the morning fresh pleasure will be in store for us ; after the
refreshing sleep they will be ready for new erotic achievements ; cf. No.
7, n. 3, and especially the song D 28 quoted in No. 8, n. 40.

(9) Cf. No. 8, n. 40. See also D 15, 1. 7 ; 22, 1. 9 ; 237, below ; 238, 1. 2.

(10) The mandrake is regarded as an aphrodisiac in the East ; cf.
Gen. 30,14. The Heb. name duda'Im (for dtidayim; ZA 2, 275,
n. 1) is connected with the Heb. word for 'love,' dod. According to M
17, nn. 3. 10, however, duda'im is an Egyptian loanword. For the
sweetish aroma of the golden apples of the mandrake see Wetzstein in
Delitzsch's commentary, p. 440. The reddish-orange apples (or rather
berries) of the mandrake are about \^ in. in diameter and resemble small
tomatoes (German Liehesapfel).

(11) Lit., new as well as old, of this year as well as of former years,
i. e., the sweet remembrance of former kisses ^nd caresses.

(12) Bearing sweet -seeded nuts with fragrant foliage. This garden
of nut-trees denotes again the charms of the bride (n. 2). The walnut-
tree is particularly common around the village fountains in the East ;
cf. nn. 36. 39 on No. 8 and M 27, n. 10.

(13) The Heb. word denotes especially a wadi, i. e., a valley bisected


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