Paul I. Aldrich.

The Packers' encyclopedia; blue book of the American meat packing and allied industries; a hand-book of modern packing house practice, a statistical manual of the meat and allied industries, and a directory of the meat packing, provision, sausage manufacturing, rendering and affiliated trades online

. (page 1 of 47)
Online LibraryPaul I. AldrichThe Packers' encyclopedia; blue book of the American meat packing and allied industries; a hand-book of modern packing house practice, a statistical manual of the meat and allied industries, and a directory of the meat packing, provision, sausage manufacturing, rendering and affiliated trades → online text (page 1 of 47)
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Class XS_iVliI

Book ^R^—





Packers' Encyclopedia

Blue Book of the American Meat Packing
and Allied Industries

A Hand-Book of Modern Packing House Practice, a Statistical

Manual of the Meat and Allied Industries, and a Directory

OF the Meat Packing, Provision, Sausage Manufacturing,

Rendering and Affiliated Trades.

Paul I. Aldrich


Published by
The National Provisioner


Copyright 1922

by the Food Trade Publishing Co.

Publishers of The National Provisioner

Chicago and New York

All rights reserved


Press of

The Blakely Printing Co.,


JUL 19 1922



This Packers' Encyclopedia has been compiled as the
result of an insistent demand for a ready reference work on
the meat packing and allied industries. It has been felt for a
long time that such data on the largest industry in the
United States should be brought together. It was considered
appropriate that this task should fall to the official trade pub-
lication of the industry, The National Provisioner.

The work naturally divides into three parts, each of
which is decribed more in detail in its own foreword.

Part I is a Hand-book of Modern Packing House Prac-
tice. The material is arranged in the simplest possible form,
by classes of animals, nature of products and order of opera-
tions. An attempt has been made to approximate the latest
and best American packing house practice, condensed within
the space available in a single volume, and adapted to the
needs of the average operator.

This portion of the work is what gave the book its name.
The Packers' Encyclopedia. Its preparation would not have
been possible save for the generous co-operation of the lead-
ing operating experts of the industry.

Part II is a Statistical Section which offers, chiefly in
chart form, graphic comparisons covering a decade of the
number and prices of meat animals and their chief products ;
production, exports, imports and consumption. Freight rate
data and officially-adopted trade term definitions are also in-
cluded for the convenience of the reader.

Part III is the first comprehensive Trade Directory ever
attempted for the industry. Here is listed data of corporation
information, capacity, operations, brands and trade-marks,
equipment, etc., covering the meat-packing industry of the
United States and Canada, together with names of packers iij


other countries. There are also lists of wholesale meat deal-
ers, sausage manufacturers, renderers and other allied trades.
This section of the work, though more readily subject to
change than the others, nevertheless will be of great practical
interest and value.

The aim throughout has been to prepare a work of ready
reference and strictly practical purpose, which should meet
the average man's every-day need. In shaping the plan and
carrying out the purpose of the work the Editor desires to
acknowledge the invaluable assistance of Arnold C. Schueren.
It is not out of place here to express the hope that this book
is a step on the way to an adequate industry library.



Chapter One: CATTLE 1-62

Breeds of Cattle

Market Classes and Grades of Cattle and Calves

Dressing Percentages of Cattle

Beef Slaughtering

Beef Cooling

Beef Grading

Beef Loading

Handling of Beef for Export

Beef Cutting and Boning ' '

Plate Beef . '

Mess Beef

Curing Barreled Beef

Manufacture of Dried Beef

Handling Beef Offal

Handling Miscellaneous Meats

Handling and Grading Beef Casings

Manufacture of Beef Extract

Manufacture of Oleo Products


Handling of Hides
Chapter Two: HOGS 63-119

Breeds of Hogs

Market Classes and Grades of Hogs

Dressing Yields of Hogs

Hog Killing Operations

Hog Cooling

Shipper Pigs

Pork Cuts

Curing Pork Cuts

Smokehouse Operation

Ham Boning and Cooking

Lard Manufacture

Hog Casings

Edible Hog Offal or Miscellaneous Meats

Preparation of Pigs' Feet


Chapter Three: SMALL STOCK 120-125

Market Classes and Grades of Sheep and Lambs

Sheep Killing


Sheep Casings

Casings from Calves and Yearlings
Chapter Four: INEDIBLE BY-PRODUCTS 126-146

Inedible Tank House

Blood and Tankage Yields

Calculating Tankage Values

Digester Tankage

Tallow and Grease Refining

Manufacture of Glue

Bones, Horns and Hoofs

Handling Hog Hair

Catch Basins

Cost and Return on By-Products
Chapter Five: MISCELLANEOUS 147-204

Sausage Manufacture

Meat Canning

Animal Glands. and Their Uses

Packinghouse Chemistry

Packinghouse Cost and Accounting Methods

Location of Packing Plants

Construction of Packing Plants

Packinghouse Refrigeration
Chapter Six: VEGETABLE OILS 205-221

Vegetable Oil Refining

Compound Lard

Winter Oil

Hydrogenation of Oils and Fats

Manufacture of Margarin


United States Meat Industry Statistics 223-253

Sources of \J. S. Meat Supply

Areas of U. S. Meat Consumption

Cattle and Hog Loading Points and Slaughtering Centers

Yearly Top Prices of Beef, Hogs and Sheep, 1910-1920

Monthly Average and Top Prices of Native Beef Cattle, 1910-1920

Cattle and Corn Prices Compared, 1910-1920

Hide, Tallow and Oleo Oil Prices

Beef Production and Consumption, 1907-1921

Hog Population and Average Prices, 1910-1920

Hog and Corn Prices Compared, 1910-1920


Pork and Lard Production and Consumption, 1907-1921

Sheep Population and Average Prices, 1910-1920

Mutton Production and Consumption, 1907-1921

Veal Production and Consumption, 1907-1921

Livestock Population in the United States, 1900-1922

Slaughtering in the United States, 1907-1921

Meat Packing in the United States, 1914-1919

Exports of Meat Products, 1910-1921

Provision Prices at Chicago, 1910-1921

Canadian Meat Industry Statistics 254-255

Vegetable Oil and Margarin Statistics 253, 261

Railroad Rates on Cattle, Beef and Packing House Products. .256-261

Domestic Trade Term Definitions 262-267

Export Trade Term Definitions 267-272


Meat Packers and Slaughterers 274-391

United States




South America

South Africa


New^ Zealand
Wholesale Meat Dealers, Sausage Makers and Provisioners. . .392-416

Renderers 417-424,

Refiners of Edible Oils 425-428

Margarin Manufacturers 428-429

Brokers in Packing House Products and Vegetable Oils 430-439

Livestock Order Buyers 440-445

Advertising Section 447-520

Topical Index 521-525

Index to Illustrations 526

Index to Advertisements 527-529


Part I of The Packers' Encyclopedia is a book written by prac-
tical packinghouse men, and intended for the use of practical pack-
inghouse men. It is not theory, or a one-man book, but the result
of the experiences of many.

The arrangement of material is by classes of animals, nature of
products and order of operations, making it easy to follow through
or to refer to any particular part. It is, therefore, in handy form for
the student. In addition there is a topical index.

Methods here described represent the best American packing-
house practice, as developed in both large and medium-sized plants.
Large packer practice has been used in many instances, as most ex-
perimentation and development heretofore has been in large plants.
But the tendency is growing to operate packing plants in smaller
units, and so-called small plant practice has been kept in line in direc-
tions and suggestions given. Where difference of opinion exists among
authorities, the practice quoted is that most adaptable to the average

It is not expected that packinghouse operators will agree on
many of the details of practice given herein. Hardly any two ex-
perts agree; each has his own methods and prefers them. The object
here has been to outline the main points and emphasize the best
procedure. The reader is not expected to follow blindly what he
finds here, but to adapt it to his own special needs. Detailed de-
scription of all operations would have required a series of volumes
instead of one. Requests for more detailed information on any
subject may be submitted to the Editor, THE NATIONAL PRO-
VISIONER, Chicago.

An effort has been made to standardize illustrations. All pictures
of animals, carcasses and cuts are from official photographs of the
U. S. Department of Agriculture (Bureau of Markets and Crop Esti-
mates), published here for the first time. No attempt has been made
to show machinery, as this is the province of the manufacturer's
catalog. Explanatory fundamental drawings are shown instead. Con-
struction and refrigeration details also are left to experienced pack-
inghouse architects and engineers," who know how to lay out each
particular job to meet conditions. What is written herein on con-
struction and refrigeration will apply to everyday packinghouse

Packing House Practice

Chapter I— CATTLE


There are four strictly beef breeds of cattle; namely, Shorthorn,
Hereford, Angus and Galloway. These breeds have been developed for
the sole purpose of producing an animal which is very efficient in the
production of meat. The ideals toward which the sponsors of all the
beef breeds are working are a low-set animal with plenty of depth, a
wide spring of rib, short neck and legs, and quarters that carry the
fleshing down well. In short, a blocky, rectangular conformation that
carries a maximum amount of beef.

The dressing percentage of carcass, more about which will be said
later, is influenced markedly by the use of good-type, pure-bred beef sires,
and it is principally from this standpoint that the packer is interested.
This type of animal not only is generally a good investment for the pro-
ducer, but gets high quality animals which dress out well, in both of
which the packer is particularly interested.

Beef Breeds Described

The Shorthorn is roan, white, red or red and white in color. It has
a quiet disposition, is adapted for farm beef making, good for grading
up herds, growthy and early maturing, and dresses out well. The weight
of mature bulls is from 1,800 to 2,500 pounds, and of mature cows 1,200
to 1,800 on an average.

The Hereford is red with white markings, commonly known as the
"white face," is a good rustler and widely used on the ranges as well
as for a farm beef animal, thrives under adverse conditions and does
well in the feed lot. It matures early and fattens out )well. The
mature cows weigh from 1,300 to 1,700 pounds and mature bulls from
1,800 to 2,300 pounds.

The Angus is solid black in color, has soft, mellow skin and
fine hair, and no horns. They fatten well on grass and respond to
liberal feeding in winter. The Angus probably does best under maximum
conditions, but also gives excellent returns on either the range or the
general farm in any section of the country, and is increasing in popularity.
The mature cows weigh from 1,200 to 1,600 pounds and the bulls from
1,600 to 2,100 pounds. These cattle are commonly known as "doddies."

The Galloway is one of the oldest breeds of cattle. The mature



Prime Killing Steer

Medium Beef Steer

Common Killing Steer

Market Classes of Cattle


cows weigh from 1,000 to 1,500 pounds, and the bulls from 1,400 to 1,800
pounds. They are solid black in color, have long curly hair, and are
polled." They mature somewhat more slowly as compared to the other
beef breeds, but they are exceptionally well adapted to climates having
severe winters. They are good rustlers and winter well on roughage.
They are not so well adapted to feed lot conditions as are the other
three breeds. The grain of the meat is fine and high in quality.

There are some breeds of dual-purpose cattle which are designed for
the production of both milk and beef. Average animals of these breeds
do not reach the highest attainments, however, in the production of either.
Among these are the Red Polls, Dutch Belted, Devons and some others.
While these breeds do not reach the maximum of either milk or beef
production, they find very wide usage on many farms where general
purpose cattle are desired.


Cattle and calves intended primarily for meat production fall into two
general divisions; first, killing cattle and calves, which are those utilized
for immediate slaughter ; and second, feeder and stocker cattle and calves,
which are utilized for further finish and development. The feeder animal
is ready to go into the feed-lot at once, while the stock animal is thin
and best adapted, economically, to be further developed on cheap feeds
before being put in the feed-lot for intensive feeding designed to pro-
mote the rapid production of flesh and fat.

The market classes in which bovine animals are placed are based
on sex and age. However, as the animals in any one class are not equal
in quality, form and condition, they are further divided into grades to
indicate their relative merit within the class. Further division of classes
in the case of killing steers, killing calves and feeder steers is made
according to weight, as weight is often important as a price-determining
factor within these classes, but logically must be considered as a matter
of selection rather than as a reliable indication of grade.

As baby beef must show some of the characteristics of veal, animals
classified as baby beeves, which may be regarded as a specialty, are given
maximum weight and age limits. Requirements for animals falling within
this class are such, however, that by no means all of the young steers
and heifers falling under the maximum weight and age limits shown in
the classification properly classify as baby beeves, owing to deficiencies in
quality or finish or both; and occasionally animals of somewhat greater
weight and age qualify in the carcass as baby beeves.

The buyer must be a competent judge of the different grades, and be
able to calculate mentally what dressing percentage may be obtained, as
well as the quality of meat that will be forthcoming from the different
classes and grades. Daily test sheets showing a comparison between the
buyer's calculation and the actual dressing percentage and quality of the
meat are valuable aids in determining whether the buyer is working along
the right lines.

The following classification — in arranging which effort has been made
to eliminate all class or grade nomenclature that may be considered vague


];al,N Becve

Good Fat Cow

(/(iiiinii'ii i-"at ( i<\\

Market Classes of Cattle


SatrDepar!:::„rof;^Su^ BuTe '^"T^^^^^^^^^ '^ *^ United
after extended investigation Inn' 7 " °^ ^^'^^^' ^"^ Crop Estimates,
interests in the Se ,3 „L snit^hl '1'^ T'^ representatives of all
to be used uniform^ 'at all Lrkets "^'' "''"''^^ "^"°^ modifications,

Killing Cattle and Calves

(^^ass Sub-Class ^. ,

Steers: 1. Heavv Weie^ht v> ■ ivr . ''" ^

(UOO "b: Tp) ChoTce "o'r No f r ^'^""^ °^ ^^'^^ '

^ ^:.hoice or No. 1 Common or No 4

(jood or No. 2

Good or No. 2 Cutter or No S '

' "W.t^iw..) ?s- -r cojrrKo-?- ^

Good or No. 2 Canner or No 6
Medium or No. 3

Heifers t3 ■

• • • "S™^ ""^ ^^°- A^ Common or No 4

Choice or No. 1 Cutter or No S '
Good or No. 2 Canner or No 6
-Vledium or No. 3

Cows r-u •

J:;^o^J^e or No. 1 Common or No 4

Good or No. 2 Cutter or No. S

Medium or No. 3 Canner or No. 6

■ ■ • ^^°l^^ °^ No. 1 (Butcher and Beef)

Good or No 2 (Butcher and Beef) ^
Medium or No. 3 (Bologna)

Common or No. 4 (Bologna)
Canner or No. 6

Stags f-u • X'

^i^o^ce or Ivjo. I Medium or No 3

Good or No. 2 Common or No. 4

Calves- 1 T ,-o-i.f /-nn 11 t I Choice or No. 1

Ganes. 1. Light (110 lbs. down). (Good or No 2

2. Handy (110-190 lbs.) . . Medium or No. 3 •

Common or No. 4
L Cull or No. 7

I Choice or No. 1

3. Medium (190-260 lbs ) ! ^°'^'^ or No. 2

4. Heavy (260 lbs. up) . . . j Medium or No. 3

"^ Common or No. 4

I Canner or No. 6


Feeder and Stocker Cattle and Calves

1 . Feeders
Class Sub-Class Grade

I Fancy Selected
Steers: 1. Heavy Weight ( 1,000 lbs. j or No. Al

up) I Choice or No. 1

2. Light & Medium Weight ] Good or No. 2

(1,000 lbs. down 'I i Medium or No. 3

1 Common or No. 4

Heifers Choice or No. 1 Medium or No. 3

Good or No. 2

Cows Choice or No. 1 Medium or No 3

Good or No. 2 Common or No. 4

Bulls Choice or No. 1 Medium or No. 3

Good or No. 2

Calves Fancy Selected Good or No. 2

or No. Al
Choice or No. 1

2. Stoekers

Steers Fancy Selected Medium or Vn. 3

or No. Al Common or No. 4

Choice or No 1
Good or No. 2

Heifers, Cows, Bulls Choice or No. 1 Medium or No. 3

Good or No. 2 Common or No. 4

Calves Choice or No. 1

Good or No. 2
Medium or No. 3

Percentage of Classes and Grades Slaughtered

The percentage of the different classes and grades of beef animals
slaughtered in the various centers varies widely, depending upon the mar-
ket as well as upon climatic conditions. For instance, during droughts in
the Southwest and in the Northwest many thousands of thin and im-
mature cattle and of breeding stock, that would have been held under
favorable conditions, were shipped to market because of the scarcity of

The composite chart shown here illustrates very clearly the percentage
of different beef animals slaughtered at various centers over a period of


Depending upon the breeding, fill and condition, the dressing per-
centage of all cattle varies. Other conditions also affect the percentage
of beef obtained from any animal ; namely, the freedom from paunchi-
ness, the type and quality. Fat steers always outdress animals of less
finish. The filling of the digestive organs with feed and w'ater is as
important as the condition or degree of fatness. The broad, thick type


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of steer will outdress the steer of dairy type, even when the condition
and fill are the same, by three to five per cent.

While quality, hide, meat and bone may affect the per cent ratio
by one to two per cent, the average run of steers of the type marketed
today at most markets will dress out about 53 per cent. The good to
choice will dress from 56 to 59, and steers of the fancy type will dress
from 59 to 63 per cent.

A table showing the average dressing percentage of fair steers, baby
beef, cows and canners, together with the percentage of fat and hide,
is as follows :

Avg. Live Avg. Dressed Yield of
Weight Weight Beef Fat Hide

Lbs. Lbs. P.C. P.C. P.C.

Fair Steers 1,050 580 .5552 AYs 6^/4

Baby Beef 900 527 .582 5^4 634

Cows 1,100 572 .52 4^ 6%

Canners 800 340 .425 V/i 6%

Aside from the fat and hide there is little, if any, difference in the
yield of offal products from the various classes of cattle.

The yield of cuts from the dressed carcass from canners, No. 1
cutters and native steers is as follows, in percentage :


Loins 14.34

Ribs 10.77

Plates 13.14

Rounds 20.31

Total 58.56 61.49 62.68

From this table it will be seen that the native steer, of course, has a
higher percentage of loin and round than do the poor classes of cattle, and
that the percentage of plates is considerably less. As this percentage is
based on the dressed carcass as 100 per cent the difference in the yield is
much more pronounced when figured from the live weight basis.

By-Product Yield of a 1,000 Lb. Steer

The various by-products in pounds derived from a 1,000 lb. steer
are as follows, and may be used as a general guide for the packer in
estimating the yields which he should obtain :

Trimmed tongue 5.00 lbs. Middle casing 32 feet

Cheek and head meat.. 5.00 lbs. Round casing 105 feet

Brain 90 lbs. Weasand 1 piece

Gullet 25 lbs. Bladder 1 piece

Lips 1.25 lbs. Bung 1 piece

Heart . . . .• 3.50 lbs. No. 1 oleo oil 22.00 lbs.

Liver 10.00 lbs. No. 2 oleo oil 1.80 lbs.

Kidneys 75 lbs. No. 3 oleo oil 75 lbs.

Tail 1.25 lbs. Stearine 13.00 lbs.

Sweetbread 30 lbs. Prime tallow 4.10 lbs.

Suprarenal glands 06 lbs. No. 1 tallow 1.75 lbs.

Honeycomb tripe 1.50 lbs. Brown grease 16 lbs.

Plain tripe 6.50 lbs. Hide 65.00 lbs.

1 Cutters



Steer %










Switch 1 piece

Sinews and pizzle 2.62 lbs.

Dewclaws 40 lbs.

Green blood 35.00 lbs.

Dry blood 7.00 lbs.

Tankage 10.00 lbs.

Hoofs 1.85 lbs.

Shin bones 1.60 lbs.

Thighs 1.45 lbs.

Buttock bones I.IS lbs.

Cannon bone 1.00 lbs.

Neatsfoot oil 85 lbs.

Grinding bones 13.00 lbs.

Horns 70 lbs.

Horn piths 90 lbs.

Offal Test on 508 Shipping Cattle

The following is an offal test on 508 shipping cattle, which averaged
1,242 lbs. live weight:

Total Per head

Raw fat for oleo 26,023 lbs. 51.23 lbs.

Cheek meat 2,061 lbs. 3.94 lbs.

Head meat .. 540 lbs. 1.06 lbs.

Ox lips 606 lbs. 1.19 lbs.

Long cut tongues 2,624 lbs. 5.16 lbs.

Brains 442 lbs. .87 lbs.

Sweetbreads 85 lbs. .14 lbs.

Tails 599 lbs. 1.18 lbs.

Horns 1,490 lbs. 2.93 lbs.

Hearts > 2,128 lbs. 4.19 lbs.

Melts 897 lbs. 1.76 lbs.

Livers 5,422 lbs. 10.67 lbs.

Heads 7,568 lbs. 14.89 lbs.

Jaws 2,112 lbs. 4.15 lbs.

Feet 7,723 lbs. 15.20 lbs.

Sinews 1,271 lbs. 2.50 lbs.

Fizzles 274 lbs. .55 lbs.

Tripe 7,909 lbs. 15.57 lbs.

Bladders 156 pieces , .30 lbs. per piece

Weasands 501 pieces .98 lbs. per piece

Tankage 3,048 lbs. 6.00 lbs.

Blood 3,556 lbs. 7.00 lbs.

Neck trimmings 445 lbs. .87 lbs.

Rendered tallow 2,602 lbs. 5.12 lbs.

Grease 170 lbs. .33 lbs.

Export rounds 945 lbs. .64 set

Domestic rounds 635 lbs. .35 set

Middles 914 lbs. .36 set

Bungs 545 lbs. .99 piece

Switches 452 pieces .89 piece

There was a total of 17,861 lbs. offal which went to the tanks for
tallow, grease and fertilizer.

Offal Test on 499 Butcher Cattle

In comparison to the above, here is a test on 499 butcher cattle,
averaging 926 lbs. live weight :

Total Per head

Fat for oleo 14,342 lbs. 28.74 lbs.

Tongues 1,800 lbs. 3.41 lbs.

Heads 6,447 lbs. 12.92 lbs.

Jaws 1,865 lbs. 3.73 lbs.



Total Per head

Cheek meat 1,810 lbs. 3.62 lbs.

Head meat 135 lbs. .27 lbs.

Ox lips 815 lbs. 1.63 lbs.

Brains 375 lbs. .75 lbs.

Sweetbreads 20 lbs. .04 lbs.

Hearts 1,320 lbs. 2.64 lbs.

Melts 585 lbs. 1.17 lbs.

Sinews 955 lbs. 1.90 lbs.

Fizzles 160 lbs. .32 lbs.

Horns 1,045 lbs. 2.09 lbs.

Tripe tanked 7,820 lbs. 15.67 lbs.

Tails 553 lbs. 1.10 lbs.

Bladders 169 pieces .34 lbs. per piece

Weasands 449 pieces .90 lbs. per piece

Feet 6,068 lbs. 12.16 lbs.

Livers 3,285 lbs. 6.59 lbs.

Blood 3,243 lbs. 6.50 lbs.

Tankage 3,003 lbs. 6.02 lbs.

Tallow 1,434 lbs. 2.89 lbs.

Grease 166 lbs. .33 lbs.

Export rounds 842 lbs. .57 set

Domestic rounds 788 lbs. .43 set

Middles 1,025 lbs. .37 set

Bungs 580 lbs. 1.00 piece

Switches 459 pieces .92 piece

There was a total of 15,560 lbs. offal which went to the tanks for
tallow, grease and fertilizer.

Online LibraryPaul I. AldrichThe Packers' encyclopedia; blue book of the American meat packing and allied industries; a hand-book of modern packing house practice, a statistical manual of the meat and allied industries, and a directory of the meat packing, provision, sausage manufacturing, rendering and affiliated trades → online text (page 1 of 47)