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led to the foundation of the Lawrence Scientific
School. In addition to the general courses,
special classes have been held in drawing from
1S.50 to 1879; and in science for school teachers
in connection with the Boston Society for
Natural History. Courses have also been given
for workingmen under the auspices of the
Wells Memorial Workingmen's Institute. In
1S72 the Lowell School of Practical Design
was instituted for the promotion of industrial
art. Free tuition is given in drawing and
weaving in a course of three years. The courses
are at present (1912) arranged in the following
series: I. Free Public Lectures in Huntington
Hall; II. Free Evening School for Industrial
Foremen (applied science); III. Teachers'
School of Science (in connection with the
Boston Society of Natural History); IV. Col-
legiate Courses; V. Free Lectures in King's
Chapel on Current Topics in Theology; VI.
Free Lectures on Local Natural History. Series
III and IV are part of the University Extension
Courses given by a combination of all the col-
leges in and about Boston. The present
trustee is President A. Lawrence Lowell, and
the curator is William T. Sedgwick.

References: —

Barnard, H. American Journal of Education, Vol. V,

pp. 427-440.
Smith, H. K. History of the Lowell Institute. (Boston,


ture Systems.

LOYOLA. — See Jesus, Society of, Educa-
tional Work of.


— See Jesus, Society of, Educational
Work of.


— See Jesus, Society of, Educational
Work of.

TION IN. — See Germany, Education in.

LUBEN, AUGUST (1804-1874). — German
schoolman; was born in Golzow, near Kiistrin,
Pomerania, and educated at the Seminary of
Neuzelle. In 1822 he was called as assistant
teacher to the seminary of Weissenfels, where
he was greatly influenced in his pedagogic de-
velopment by Barnisch (q.v.). In 1825 he took
charge of a village school in the province of
Saxony, in connection with which he managed
a very successful training class for teachers; in
1829 he became the principal of a larger school
in Aschersleben ; and in 1849 he was appointed
to a still more important position in Merseburg.
In 1S58 he was called as director of the newly
established Teachers' Seminary in Bremen,
where he remained until his death. He pub-
lished a large number of pedagogic writings, and
deserves especial credit for his improvement in
the teaching of nature study and of the mother
tongue. His reader for Burgerschulen, published
in 1851 in collaboration with Nacke, was very
widely used. From 1857 until the time of his
death, he edited the Padagogiscker Jakresbericht
(Educational Annual), as well as from 1861 on,
the pedagogic magazine Der praktische Schul-
mann (The Practical Schoolman). Among his
works may be mentioned also his .4 nweisung zu
einem methodischen Untcrricht in dcr Pflanzen-
kunde (Methods of Teaching Botany, Halle, 1832),
followed by a similar work for zoology and an-
thropology (1836), and his Einfuhrung in die
deutsche Literatur (Introduction into German Lit-
erature), the tenth volume of which was pub-
lished in three volumes in Leipzig, 1892-1896.

F. M.

BEN (1565-1621). — A German scholar and
educationist, son of a pastor in the duchy of
Oldenburg, who studied at Leipzig and other
universities, and in 1595 became Professor of
Poetry in the University of Rostock. In 1605
he transferred to the Chair of Theology in the
same university, and died in 1621 . (See
Allcgemeine Deutsche Biog., Band NIN, p.
331.) Lubinus published many works, includ-
ing editions of the Epistolce of Apollonius, the
De Vanitate Mundi of Bernard, the Greek An-
thology, the Epistolce of Hippocrates, the works




P iris. He

:iii edition of which
published by the London Stationers' Com-
pany in 1620 The !/• I dla I. ngua '
was published in London a* late a- 1745.

A- an educationist, however, Lubinus is now
chiefly remembered for hi- remarkable epis-
tolary Discourse, prefixed to his edition 'if the
New Testament (1614). This was printed in
English by S B rtlib in his small eo

tion of tracts on 1 ,'.' 11''/ /

to lea 1654 See H \u i -

lib, Samuel.) It was in this Discourse, thai
3tic '■ilucat inn of the seventeen) h century re-
ceived its earliest, clearest statement; and, as
Mr Quick suggested, Comeniua probably took
from it the idea of an illustrated OrWs /■
(Quick, R. II., Educational Reformers, p. 166.)
Lubinus says thai living creatures ought to
be painted and shown to children; ami only
those known to children should at first In- given
the Latin names. (See also Kiwi.r. Cyprian.)
All terms or words, he further says, of tl
which ran be seen ami painted can '><• taken
from the Nomenclator of Hadrianus Junius
. provided those are first chosen which
arc already known by the child. Lubinus is
thus the father of systematic pictorial illus-
tration as an educational method. F. W.

Reference : —
Laubi - - John Amos Comenius. (Cambridge,


See I' \' i dolo.

LUCIAN OF ANTIOCH. — Pr.-i.yter ami
martyr, hold- a place in the history of peda-
gogy, not as formulating pedagogical principles,
luit as giving t he characteristic tendency of what
is known as the School of Antioch. The first
known teacher of that school was Maid
who seems to have combined general education
with specifically theological instruction, ami n ho
confuted Paul of Samosata, Bishop of Antioch,
and brought about his deposition, Wne
Lucian shared the opinions of Paul at the time
t be determined. A creed written by
Lucian, <>r attributed to him, shows little re-
semblance to i lie teachings of PauL 1' is
highly probable that he left the communion of
the Church about the time Paul was deposed,
and remained out ni commnniim under the next
of that prelate, or from about 275
a.d. to 303 But in >pite of his highly equiv-
ocal ecclesiastical position, he became head of
the local theological school. His great contri-
bution i" the work of that institution was
insistence upon what are now recognised as the
fundamental principles of scientific exegesis,
or the literal ami grammatical interpretation

03 opposed to the allegorical method at that


time generally in vogue in tin- church. This
spirit of scientific exegesis makes the work of

the Antiochian exeg - of permanent worth.

In speculative theology Lucian'.- efforts were
by no means so fortunate. Arius, Eusebius
ral Othi r early I.
. iaiii.-m were trained by Lucian. "If the
works of this great teacher only fragmei I
main Hi- edition of I was long

widely used in the cl
nople, A-ia Minor, and Antioch. It dm

to-day a- a whole, and it- n const i uct ion
i- a ta.-k yet unperformed (If his exegetical
work only fragments remain, hut hi.- principles
are abundantly illustrated in the still valuable
commentaries of. Chrysostom and Theodore
of Mopsuestia. Lucian died a- a martyr in
Nicomedia, .Ian. 7.

The material for the life of Lucian is singularly
scanty. About till that is known has been
gathered by A. Harnack in his article in the
A''"' Theologie.

Accoui - H In- found in tin' various histories
of the Christian Church. His literary re-
mains are to lie found in Routh, Reliqvia
sacra. Vol. IV. J. C. A., Jr.

LUDER. PETER (c. 1415-c. 1474). — Ger-
man humanist . chiefly worthy of note as the
lir-t humanist lecturer in any German univer-
sity. He had himself studied at the University
of Heidelberg. He had spent much time in
Italy a- a student at Ferrara under Guarino,

had madt '" ' lr te, and had studied

m. 'ile tdua. In I4"it'i he was appoi

Prof essor of Poetry ami Rhetoric at Heidelberg,
and delivered an inaugural address in pi
of the humanistic studies, defending them
ist charges of immoral tendencies. He
met with opposition both of the student- and
the clergy. He uexl appeared at Erfurt in
1 lii'h and in I 162 at Leipzig. After a short
tiiim at Basel I I I64)j he is lost sight of in the
retinue of Duke Sigismund of Austria.

Reference : —
Pu i.-i:\. lii, Geschichie des gekhrlen VnterrichU.
I. ipng

LUDIMAGISTER {Ludi^M agister, master of

a school). — The term used in Rome for the
teacher of an elementary school (ludus), also
called lUeraior. Only the rudiment.- of reading,
writing, and calculation were taught heir. The
term appears again ill the English schools of the

sixteenth century, when Inii, '> synony-

mous with archididatcvliu and Headmaster.
In Germany the term ludirector is found at

the -:i me pel iod.

Bee Ron \\ Educ ition.

SCHOOLS. - (See also Food urn Ecjebdtkg ok
School < Jhildren for the dietetic aspect of the

subject.) The need of school lunches i- now



so generally recognized that few large high
schools are without them, and the elementary
schools are beginning to take up the problem
in earnest. When the distance between home
and school makes the noon luncheon at home
impossible for the child, there is scarcely a
justifiable argument against its provision at
school. Too little care is given to lunch carried
by the children even from the better homes,
its daily preparation being universally conceded
to be the most irksome of all household duties,
and the carrying of it so disagreeable to the
chihl that no lunch at all is preferable. If
money is given to buy lunch with unguided
choice, it is spent at alluring push-carts for
unwholesome, even poisonous, hot meat sand-
wiches and for ice-cream' cones and pickles.
It is wise and often necessary to make outside
purchase impossible, as has been done in many

High Schools. — The problem of providing
high school lunches has been met in most
schools in the following way: the Board of
Education provides the rooms and permanent
equipment, — chairs, tables, ranges, hot water,
gas, etc., — and either awards the concession
to some individual or club, thus receiving a
suitable per cent on the investment, as Chicago
does in her nineteen high schools, or appoints
at a salary a woman who takes charge of it as
of any other department of the school, and
works out intelligently the problem of providing
at minimum cost the best of food in hygienic
and appetizing variety. This method is fol-
lowed in St. Louis and Indianapolis. With
the first method the profit goes to an individual
or club, and carries with it the temptation to
.sacrifice quality for gain. With the second,
the profit that accrues is used for improved
equipment and facilities, or allowed to grow as
a school fund for whatever use the Board may
specify, or is taken periodically as the basis for
reduction in prices charged. A combination
of the first and last ways has been used in the
Manual Training High School of Indianapolis,
until in two years the tableware was greatly
improved, with an astonishing effect upon the
manners of the children at table; and the price
of luncheon was reduced almost half. The
medium of exchange in use there is an alumi-
num check of three-cent value. This buys any
of six or eight kinds of sandwiches, generous
in size and of excellent quality, salad, sauce, or
fresh fruit, a large bowl of soup with fresh
toast, any hot vegetable, coffee, cocoa, milk,
pie, or ice-cream. Two of these checks buy
hot roast, dressing and gravy, finer salads with
wafers, or an ample bowl of shredded wheat
and cream. In St. Louis a five-cent check
buys a combination, such as sandwich and
milk, salad and wafers, individual baked beans
with bread and butter, etc. Nine or ten cents
at these places buys a much better luncheon
than most children ever bring from home. In
the Englewood (111.) high school, which is

excellently conducted by a woman's club, the
average cost of luncheon to the child is twelve
cents. In these schools every article of food
is of superior quality, and the cooking and
cleanliness are above reproach. The general
plan for getting the work clone is to employ

competent women at g 1 wages in the kitchen,

and let students assist in serving, with pay
according to time given. Each person eating
gets his own dishes and food, paying for the
latter as he takes it, and after eating carries
his dishes and any paper or refuse to receptacles
for these, and the bare tables are washed for
the second sitting. Nowhere is the buying of
food compulsory. Children may bring all or
part of their luncheon and use tables and dishes
without charge; but in order to make it suc-
cessful it is well to have some restriction upon
outside buying by avoiding the open noon
hour ami making the lunchroom attractive
and the quality of food irresistible. The fre-
quent requests for pickles, bakers' pastries, etc.,
soon die out, and the absence of headaches
and afternoon languor is acknowledged.

Elementary Schools. — The problem of
school lunches is only beginning to be solved
in elementary schools, where the longer recess
and shorter distance tend to make it less
serious. During the present year (1911) the
Board of Education of Chicago has begun an
experiment to provide suitable noonday lunch-
eons for children whose mothers are away from
home during the day. The plan is being tried
in three centers. For one cent the child is
provided with (1) a sandwich of bread and
jam or bread and syrup, and a glass of milk, or
(2) a bowl of bean or pea sou]} with bread. A
woman is employed to prepare and serve this,
and whatever cost exceeds the sum brought by
the children is borne by the Board of Education.
One school in the poorer districts of Indian-
apolis has successfully furnished a bowl of
soup and toast at one cent. A woman living
near does the cooking, friends give dishes, and
the children do the serving under direction of
teachers. It makes a social hour, and improve-
ment is noticeable in the manners, the physical
appearance of the children, and in their ability
to do the afternoon work. E. K. C.

Education in.

LUPSET, THOMAS (c. 1498-1530).—
Scholar and protege 1 of Dean Colet (q.v.), who
placed him in St. Paul's School and later
maintained him at Pembroke Hall, Cambridge.
In 1.515 Lupset went to Italy and on his return
graduated B.A. at Paris. Settling at Oxford
in 1521, he lectured on Cardinal Wolsey's
foundation on the humanities and Greek.
From 1526 onwards he held several rectories.
Lupset belonged to the circle which included
Colet, More, Erasmus, and Linacre. He
prepared and corrected work for the press of




mus, Linacre I ,ml More < Utopia,

2d >■,! I. In a letter to < iolel 1512) br. :

of him, "Thomas Lupset, your true pupil,
i- both useful and agreeable to me by his daily
companionship, and the assistance be lend- me
in these corrections."

References : —

•'iinj of Sational Biography.
Nichols, 1 M !>■ ; »/ Erasmus, Vol. II.

(Loudon, i


Opened in LSfil mar I. a I'r ■. Wis., and

moved to its present location in L862. It is
under the control of the Norwegian Lutheran
Synod. A four-year preparatory department,
is maintained in addition to the college. Can-
didates are admitted on completion of a four-
year preparatory course The degree of A.B.
i- conferred. The faculty consists of sixteen

LUTHER. MARTIN (1483-1546). — The
great German Protestant reformer- ami advo-
cate of the development of an organization of
schools and the reformation of school subjects

and school work. He was horn at Lisleben,

and brought up at Mansfield in Saxony. In
l 197 he went to school at Magdeburg, and then
to Eisenach. Be went to the University of
Erfurt in 1501. In 1505 he entered the Augus-
tinian Monastery at Erfurt. In lolls Luther
was called to become a professor in the newly
established University of Wittenberg, where
In- duties wen- to lecture on the Dialectics and
Physics of Aristotle. In 1509 be became a
Bachelor of Theology, and thus was entitled to
lecture on the text of the Holy Scriptures;
and in the same year he was invited to Erfurt

to lecture to higher students in theology. In
loll Luther went to Rome on a mission con-
nected with Erfurt, and I he experiences derived
from this journey were highly educative. In

1512 he became Bub-prior of the monastery
at Wittenberg, and in the same year he took
i be degree of Doctor of Theology in the Univer-
sity of Wittenberg, and became professor of
theology — then devoting his whole mind to
scriptural studies first to the Psalms, then
to the Epistle to the IJoinaiis, learning < Ireek for
that purpose. He read much of Augustine,

and of the recent writers, especially Tauler.

Iii 1517 he issued his Ninety-five Theses with
regard to Indulgences. These were placid on
the door of the Castle Church at Wittenberg,
this act being regarded as the starting-point of
the deformation. In 1520 a Hull was issued
against Luther, and in 1521, at the Diet of

Worms, he WaS called upon to recant. He

refused to do anything against conscience.
( 'ailed upon, accordingly, to help to build anew
the Church. Luther Bet upon the work of
translating the whole of the Scriptures into
German. The \v» Testament was published

in l.j'J2; the canonical hooks of the Old


Testament were finished in 1532, and the
Apocrypha in 1.V54. in which year the transla-
tion of the whole Bible into the vernacular

tirst appeared.

Revolution- in Church doctrine and govern-
ment have usually been accompanied by
changes in educational systems. Luther saw
the necessity of a reformation of Bchools, ae
soon as be became conscious of the need for a
reformation of the Church, since the religious
instruction of the child in the family and in the
-chool was the very basis for the continuity of
the new faith. After hi- translation of the
New Testament, he prepared bis Larger and
Smaller Catechisms, which were issued in 1529
Catechism.) He was made miserable by
the fact that "the common people know
nothing at all of < ihristian doctrine.-, and many
pastors are well-nigh unskilled and incapable
of teaching." In bis preface to the Larger
i he insists thai it is the duty of the

father of each In usehold at least once a week to

question his children and servants in this
Catechism. Luther thus is the pioneer of
Protestant household instruction in religious
subjects. Luther's Hymns, in the collection
known as Gcixtliches Gesangbuch 1525), con-
taining thirty-two hymn-, of which twenty-
four wen- by Luther, was composed for the use
of schoolboys as choristers. Hi- hymn begin-
ning i'.u, f( '. B g ist unser Gott is a Christian

Classic for both children and adult-. Luther

i- of profound significance in his insistence on
the educational and religious possibilities of
family life, and the idea of the good housewife

and good men of the house, and g 1 bouse

government with Protestant religion- training
has sunk into the German consciousness ae
one of i he greai t radii ions of Lutheran influence.
Luther's principal works hearing directly on
school- and education are the Letter (o the

Mayors and Aldermen ofaUtht Cities in Behalf
of Christian Schools (1524), and the Sermon on

Duty e.i' Sending Children (•> School (15

lie advocates the necessity of school- for
religion and for supplying preachers, jurists,
scribes, physicians, schoolmasters, as well as
rulers. Hut he would have all children, hoys

and girl-, go to Bel I for an hour or two a

day, and slill leave them lime to learn to
do business work and housework as well
So necessary is schooling that Luther advocated
Compulsion. " For if magistrates may com-
pel their sturdy subjects to handle mu-ket and
pike in war, how much more should they compel
BubjectS to keep their children at school. For

1 here is a worse war to lie waged with the devil,
who is busied secretly thus to impoverish towns
and principality through the absence of edu-
cation." Therefore magistrates should be

warned to keep all Suitable boy- al school.
" To give money for this purpose is. rightly
speaking, to give money to churches. This
i< not releasing -mils from purgatory; it is
preventing souls from going anywhere but to



heaven." But Luther does not only base his
arguments for the need of schools on religious
grounds, for he says, "Were there neither soul,
nor heaven, nor hell, it would be still necessary
to have schools for the sake of affairs here
below," and again, " The highest welfare,
safety and power of a city consists in able,
learned, wise, upright, cultivated citizens, who
can secure, preserve and utilize every treasure
and advantage." Education, accordingly, was
conceived by him as an essential preparation
for the ordinary duties of life in the home, voca-
tion, civic life, and the church. It is not sur-
prising, then, to find how highly Luther appre-
ciates the services of the teacher. In one
of his sermons he says : "A diligent devoted
school-teacher, who faith fully trains and teaches
boys can never receive an adequate reward,
and no money is sufficient to pay the debt you
owe him." He says elsewhere, " If I were not
a preacher, there is no other calling on earth I
would have rather than that of schoolmaster.
We must not consider how the world esteems
it and rewards it, but how God looks upon it."
Luther recognizes the disciplinary value of
teaching on the schoolmaster himself, and says
he would wish to see all preachers go through
the experience of schoolmastering before tak-
ing up that office. " When one has taught
about ten years, then he can give up teaching
with a good conscience."

Luther advocates the learning of the classical
languages. God has not caused the Scriptures
to be written in Hebrew and Greek in vain.
Where these languages flourish, the power of
the prince of darkness will be destroyed, and the
glosses of scholastics become useless. Lan-
guages are best learned by practice. We learn
the vernacular from oral speech at home, in
the market, and in the pulpit better than
through books. Grammatical knowledge is
important, but the knowledge of subject
matter is essential, and particularly in the
teacher. Mathematics should be taught at
the university stage. Luther combated as-
trology, pointing out that Esau and Jacob were
born under the same constellation, and yet
were so dissimilar in disposition. History is
an important study, teaching us through
examples and illustrations. What philosophy,
founded on reason, discloses as helpful to noble
living, history shows forth in living example.
Out of stories and histories, nearly all laws, arts,
and examples of wisdom, comfort, fear, strength,
courage, instruction arise. Luther urges the
study of dialectic, as showing order and
reason, and the grounds of forming judgments.
Rhetoric should be studied, so that we may be
effective in putting points to others. Dialectic,
he says, is proper to the reason; rhetoric as an
influence on the will. Music is a beautiful,
noble gift of God. near in its educative position
to theology. " Unless a schoolmaster sings,"
says Luther, " I think little of him." It has
been claimed for Luther that he supported

nature study. For he argued that "now we
look forward to attain the knowledge again of
the created world, which was lost by Adam's
Fall. Now we regard more rightly the crea-
tures of God than we did in the old religion."
As to physical exercises, Luther says: " These
two exercises and pastimes please me best of
all, viz. music and the tournament with fenc-
ing, wrestling, etc. The former drives away
anxiety from the heart and gloomy thoughts.
The latter renders the limbs of the body
elegant, fit, and well-proportioned, and keeps
it in health and elasticity, etc."

Luther thus touches on many points of edu-
cational theory and practice. All his education
is subordinate to the religious motif, yet it
includes the greatest questions, religious teach-
ing, family education, the vernacular. As the
translator of the Scriptures into German, the
writer of the German Catechism, the writer of
German hymns, and, in pursuance of these aims,
the teacher and trainer of his own children,
Luther stands out as the Prophet of German
popular education, and the inspirer of princes
and magistrates in the erection of popular
schools. His sympathetic attraction to teach-
ing is shown by his words: " Let no man

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