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A monograph of the British phytophagous Hymenoptera .. (Volume 1) online

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with a thin yellow line, and there is a broader and longer yellow mark
behind them ; the third to sixth segments of abdomen beneath and at the
sides dark reddish-testaceous. Legs dark testaceous ; coxae, trochanters,
and hinder femora black ; hinder tibiae testaceous at base, the rest of it
piceous ; hinder tarsi pale ; coxae and trochanters streaked with white ;
calcaria scarcely reaching to middle of metatarsus. The middle furrow
on vertex is scarcely indicated behind, but a little behind the ocelli is
seen as a deep groove, which is prolonged between the ocelli, while at
the base of these there is a transverse groove, so that the two furrows
form a well-marked cross; the frontal area is distinct, wide, and
shallow; antennal fovea deep; clypeus slightly incised. Antennae
black, dark testaceous on under side, thickish, attenuated at the apex.
"Wings hyaline ; tegulae black.

Length 4| lines.


A stouter, broader insect than tristis ; antennse
thicker and shorter, abdomen broader, more inflated,


and otherwise is easily known by the broad, brown
band surrounding the eyes. From the next species it
may be recognised by the black pleurae, by the four
apical segments of abdomen being black at the sides
and beneath, and by the larger, stouter body, and
thicker antenna?.

The typical ft< triceps differs from the form I have
described in having the third to sixth segments " bright
unspotted red," and the sternum pitchy. I have no
doubt of the two being identical. Stephens' single
specimen was from Bristol ; mine from the south of

PI. XVII, fig. 7, Saw.

Tcnthredopsis lividiventris, Cam., Tr. Ent. Soc., 1881, 568.

Black; labrum, clypeus, mandibles, orbits of the eyes broadly, edge
of pronotum, tegula), scutellar spots white; an irregular splash on meso-
pleura and sternum, and the edge of abdomen above testaceous; sides
and lower surface livid white. Legs testaceous ; coxae black, lined at the
sides and below with livid white ; trochanters pale ; hinder femora for
the greater part black above ; apex of hinder tibia) and tarsi fuscous.
Wings hyaline ; tegula? white.

Length scarcely 4 lines.

Easily known by the livid abdomen, and by the pale
splashes on sternum and pleurae.

Not common. Mugdoch Wood, near Glasgow, early
in June.

PI. XVII, fig. 8, Saw.

Tentliredopsis allomaculaiits, Cam., Tr. Ent. Soc., 1881, 569*

Head, -with labrum, clypeus, mandibles, and orbits of eyes broadly
white, the rest dull brown, save the sutures on vertex and the space
feurroundiBg the base of antenneo, all of which are black. Antennse
dull testaceous, darker above, especially at the apex, which is somewhat
attenuated. Thorax black ; a line on pronotum white ; mesopleura with
a broad white mark; metapleura lined with white; sternum for the
greater part dull brown ; sutures of mesonotum dull brown ; scutellar
VOL. I. 8


spots white. Abdomen dull testaceous, a broad black band on back,
and a whitish transverse line at the base. Legs testaceous ; coxae black,
broadly lined with white at sides and below ; hinder tarsi and apex of
tibiae fuscous.
Length 4 lines.

This is a slightly larger insect than lividiventris ;
the brownish colour on head and thorax is much more
extended, the marks on pleurae are larger and clear
white, antennge paler, coxse almost wholly white, and
legs reddish without any black on them.

Rare. Rannoch in June.

PL XVIII, fig. 1, Saw.

Tenthredopsis nigriceps, Cam., Tr. Ent. Soc., 1881, 569.

Dark rufescent ; antennae, head below the hinder ocellus, prothorax
beneath, mesopleura behind, metathorax, the greater part of the four
anterior coxae, and all the trochanters deep black; scutellum, two spots
behind, and cenchri yellow. The front tibiae are paler than the rest of
the legs ; base of the middle femora and the greater part of the posterior
femora and coxae suffused with black ; hinder knees black ; posterior
tarsi fuscous. Head and thorax covered with a close fuscous pubes-
cence ; sutures of mesonotum and parapsides black ; labrum dirty
white; palpi dark testaceous; cerci and apex of abdomen blackish.
Antennae attenuated at the apex, longer than the abdomen; the
third joint distinctly longer than fourth ; spurs on hind legs not
reaching to middle of metatarsus. Wings hyaline ; costa pale, except
before stigma, where it is fuscous; tegulae deep black.

Length nearly 4f lines.

The dark rufescent colour of body, and the black
head and pleurae, readily separate this species from all
the luteous species of Tenthredopsis.

Seemingly rare. Salen, Mull ; June.

PL XVIII, fig. 2, Saw.

Tenthredopsis Saundersi, Cam., Tr. Ent. Soc., 1881, 570.

Bark testaceous ; mandibles, labrum, clypeus, scutellum, and scu-
tellar spots yellow ; sides and lower part of thorax (save a dark testa-


ceons splash on sternum), COXSB, trochanters, base of hinder femora,
middle suture of mesonotum, metanotum, base and apex of abdomen,
and a triangular mark in centre of intermediate segments, black ; hinder
tibiae almost piceous, apex of tibia), and base and apex of tarsi blackish ;
second, third, and fourth joints white. AntennaD fuscous. Clypeus
slightly incised; lateral sutures on vertex very deep, central one
scarcely, if at all, indicated behind the ocelli, but it is very distinct,
broad, and deep between the two outer ocelli, and has a transverse
groove behind; the frontal space is not indicated, but the antennal
fovea is very deep and wide. Wings hyaline, costa testaceous. Calcaria
short, not reaching to middle of metatarsus.
Length 4 lines.

Similar to nicjriceps, but differing in being smaller
and narrower, in having the lower portion of the head
the same colour as the upper, clypeus slightly incised
at the apex, mesopleura3 and sternum black, spurs
shorter, and the tarsi paler.

A single specimen in Shuckard's collection.

PI. XVIII, fig. 3, Saw.

Tenthredopsis dorsivittatus, Cam., Tr. Ent. Soc., 1881, 570.

Luteous ; labrum, clypeus, orbits of the eyes, a spot behind them, a
line on pronotum, scutellar spots, and a line on basal segment of abdo-
men, bright yellow; sutures on pleura), metapleuraB, the greater part of
metanotum and base of first abdominal segment, and a broad, usually
more or less narrowed and interrupted on middle segments, band on the
back of abdomen, with the sheath deep black ; four front coxa3 dark
luteous, more or less black and white ; hinder coxa3 black, spotted with
brown and white ; trochanters pale, a black spot beneath, hinder tarsi
with joints more or less fuscous. Wings hyaline.

Length 3f 4A lines.

A Scotch specimen has the antennse entirely luteous^
the black band on abdomen very faintly indicated, the
tarsi scarcely fuscous, the space enclosing the ocelli
and the middle suture on mesonotum black. An
English specimen is much darker coloured, the black
band on abdomen is represented on segments three
to five by a triangular black mark on each, but
the black extends all over the upper surface of basal


and apical segments ; the hinder tibiae and apex of
femora are fuscous, four apical joints of hinder tarsi
pale, antennae pitchy, and the metapleuro3 are not
altogether black.

A species intermediate between inornata and nigri-
ceps. From the former it may be known by having
the metapleurae black, coxaa blacker, and (as well as
the trochanters) more distinctly marked with white,
antennas and spurs longer ; from the latter by its
longer antennae and spurs, lighter-coloured antennae,
luteous tegulae, pale trochanters, and entirely luteous

Apparently rare. I have it from Kingussie, have
a specimen from the Manchester district, and have
seen another in Shuckard's collection, while Mr.
Bridgman takes it at Norwich.

PI. XVIII, fig. 4, Saw.

Tenthredopsis inornatus, Cam., Tr. Ent. Soc., 1881, 571.

Dark testaceous; mandibles, clypeus, labrum, scutellum and scu-
tellar spots yellow ; back of abdomen with an interrupted black band ;
hinder tarsi fuscous, apical joints of antennae fuscous ; vertex in centre,
coxse, trochanters and hinder femora at base, and metapleurse largely
marked with black. The middle suture on vertex is absent ; there is no
distinct furrow between the ocelli, only a depressed space, frontal area
depressed, antennal fovea wide. Wings hyaline.

The $ black ; labrum, clypeus, and orbits of eyes broadly, and
tegulae and edge of pronotum yellowish-white ; front coxse with a white
spot below, the rest and the posterior coxse and base of femora black ;
trochanters pale. Legs and abdomen reddish, the latter with the apex
and a band in the centre black.

Compared with nassata it is smaller, the antennae
are shorter and thicker in the middle, with the third
joint longer in proportion to the fourth ; the colour is
darker, pubescence (especially on mesonotum) is much
denser, hinder tarsi shorter in proportion to the tibias,
and the wings shorter. Nassata, too, wants the black
on legs and pleurae, and the head projects more behind


the eyes. Stn'dula may be known from it by its
longer and thinner antenna?, the colour of the body is
much brighter ; the antennal fovea is deeper, but the
frontal area is not so clearly indicated, the clypeus is
more transverse at the apex, the base of legs always
paler than the rest, and the pleurae marked with yellow.
Dorsii'ittata may be separated by the black meta-
thorax and coxse, by. the band on abdomen being
broader at the base and more distinct throughout,
the band in iinn-nata being not much more than a
darkening in colour compared to the colour of the rest
of abdomen.

Apparently rare. Bishopton on birch in June,

PL XVIII, fig. 5, Saw.

Tenthredo nassata, Lin., S. E., ed. xii, 926, 38, <J ; Fab., S. P.,
59; Fall., Acta Holm., 1808, 116, 56
( ?) ; Lep., Men., 84, 246 ; Ste., 111.,
vii, 75, 5.

tilia, Pz., F. G., Heft 91, pi. 13.

mdanorrhcea, Gmel., 136 ; Lep., F. Fr., pi. 4, fig. 4 ;
Mon., 85, 248; Ste., 111., vii, 75, 6.

wutabili*, vnr. nassata, Kl., Berl. Mag., viii, 197, 142 ;

Htg., Blattw., 308, 37; Evers.,
Bull. Mosc., xx, 49, 22.

Perineum sordida, Thorns., Hyin. Sc., i, 266, 3 (exparte).

nassata, Cam., Fauna, 14. 1 ; Andre, Species, i, 433,
pi. xx, fig. 3 ; Cat, 52*, 6.

Tenthrcdopsis nassatus, Cam., Tr. Ent. Soc., 1881, 572.

Yellowish-testaceous; mouth, sometimes the inner orbits of the eyes,
scutellum, two spots behind it, and cenchri, yellowish-white. Wings
hyaline, stigma fuscous, with the basal half white ; second transverse
cubital nervure interstitial. Spurs reaching to near the middle of

The $ has the head clear yellow, except the vertex, which is black,
\ horax yellow, mesonotum black, except the scutellar spots, four ante-
rior coxa3 pale yellow, base of abdomen yellow, the rest of body and legs
as in ? , except that the hinder tarsi are paler, almost white. The last
abdominal segment has, in the middle, a horse-shoe-shaped depression
with a blunt carina in the centre. The l.asal joints of the antenna? are
yellow, marked with black above.

Length 6 6| lines.


Ab. a. ? . Abdomen marked with black above on
the basal segments.

Ab. 1}. 3 . Sutures of mesopleurse lined with black.

Ab. c. $ . Sutures of mesonotum marked with

The largest of the testaceous species. Easily known
by the long spurs and interstitial second recurrent
nervure. Common in June. Clydesdale, New Gallo-
way, Rannoch, Lochaweside, Mull, London district,

Continental distribution : Sweden, Holland, Ger-
many, France, Italy, Hungary, Russia.

PL XVIII, fig. 6, Saw.

Tenthredo sordida, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 199, 143; Htg.,

Blattw., 308, 36; Evers., Bull.
Mosc, xx, 49, 21.

Perineura sordida, Thorns., Hym. So., i, 266, 3 (ex parie) ;

Andre, Species, i, 433, Cat., 53,* 9.

Tenthredopsis sordidus, Cam., Tr. Ent. Soc., 1881, 572.

Luteous ; sparsely covered with a white pubescence, mandibles,
labrum, clypeus, orbits of eyes, edge of pronotum, scutellar spots, bright
yellow ; abdomen with a broad, almost continuous, black band running
down the back ; coxae pale yellow, marked with white at side ; pleurae
marked with pale yellow at the juncture of the three divisions
antennae longish, slender, the apical joints marked with fuscous colour
above, the third joint not much longer than fourth, Wings hyaline,
nervures blackish, costa testaceous, stigma fuscous, white at base.
Clypeus truncated at apex. Middle furrow on vertex distinct behind
ocelli, and prolonged between them into a deeper channel ; frontal area
not well defined; antennal tubercles largo, projecting.

$ black ; mouth, orbits, tegulse, pronotum, a broad band on pleura?,
and the greater part of the coxae, white ; hind tibiae and femora more or
less fuscous-black; abdomen reddish-testaceous, black in the centre
above ; anal segment with two deep fovese.

Length 3f 4 lines.

The smallest of the yellow species. The colour is
paler than in nassata or inornata, the head has the
yellow brighter and wider round the eyes, the coxse
and trochanters pale yellow, marked with white, while
in nassata they are of the same colour as the body,


and in inornata darker and marked with black. The
sutures on thorax are also pale yellow, and the back
of abdomen is, except very rarely, broadly black.

Commonly distributed in Scotland, appearing in

Continental distribution : Sweden, Holland, France,
Germany, Switzerland, Hungary, Tyrol, Italy, Russia.


Synairema, Htg., Blattw., 1837, 314, <J .
Perineura, Htg., I c. 303, ? .

Wings : lanceolate cellule contracted in the middle. In the <J the
transverse nervures are all produced along the edge of the wing so as
to form a surrounding border. The ? has two middle cellules.

Antenna long, filiform, the third joint nearly of the same length as
the fourth.

Abdomen with a large distinct blotch. Body smooth, shining;
thorax with white markings.

Clypcus with a deep triangular incision in the middle. Labruin
large, rounded at the apex. Mandibles small. Eyes small, parallel,
not touching the base of the mandibles.

Legs short. Frontal sutures and parapsides distinct.

Of this genus only three species are known, and it
is doubtful if these are all distinct. I am not aware
of any forms being known out of Europe.

From Te-iithredopsis, Syncerema is readily known, by
the deeply increased clypeus, distinct blotch, and con-
tracted lanceolate cellule.

Ols. Hartig formed the genus Perineum for the <? of the Ten-
thredo ruli, Pz., and for the ? he created another genus, Syncerema.
Thomson utilises the name Perineura for the instabilis group and
some other species (as already explained), while he retains Syncerema
for ruli. As, however, Costa formed a genus for the instabilis group,
the name Perineura must sink. I have used Synarema in preference,
because it has been correctly defined by Thomson, and further, the ?
as a whole affords the most reliable characters, the same neuration
of the posterior wing in the being found in Tentliredopsis.


PL VIII, fig. 10, 3 , 10 a antenna.

Tenthredo rubi, Pz., F. G., xci, fig. 14; Klug., Berl. Mag., viii,
50, 11; Lep., Mon., Ill, 320; Ste., III.,
vii, 75, 7.

(Perineura) rubi, Htg., Blattw., 303, 16.

lividiventris, Fall., Acta 1808, 117.

elegantula, Fall., 1. c.

delicatula, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 188, 129.
Synterema delicatula, Htg., Blattw., 314, 62.

rubi, Thorns., Opus., 300, 1; Hym., Scand., i, 264,

1 ; Cam., Fauna, 15, 1 ; Andre, Species,
i, 414; Cat., 52,* 1.

cJ . Antenna) thick, nearly as long as the body, reddish, the two
basal joints black. Head black, clypeus, epistoma, labrum, mandibles
(except the tips, which are brownish), inner orbits of the eyes, broadly
in front and narrowly behind, and the sides of head behind yellowish-
white. Thorax black, shining, two spots on centre of mesonotum, the
greater part of pleura? and scutellum, a triangular spot behind and the
cenchri yellowish- white. Abdomen yellowish. Legs reddish, white at
the base. Wings hyaline, costa and stigma testaceous-white.

The ? I have never seen. According to Thomson it has the three
apical joints of antennai white, the labrum, apex of clypeus, inner
orbits of the eyes, a transverse mark on vertex, edge of pronotuni,
tegulse, posterior parapsides, scutellum, a line on the pleura? and legs
sordid white ; the coxa? black at the base, posterior tarsi and the femora
nearly all blackish-fuscous ; abdomen livid red in the middle and on
the belly at the apical portion of the segments. Stigma fuscous, pale
at the base.

Length nearly four lines.

Seemingly rare. I have taken in July two males at
Gadder Wilderness.

It occurs in Scandinavia, Germany, Holland, Bel-
gium, and France, but seems to be rare everywhere.

Ge nus P ACH YPEOTA si s .

Pachyprotasis, Htg., Blattw., 295.

Wings with two radial and four cubital cellules ; lanceolate cellule
shortly contracted. Hind wing with the transverse cubital, and
recurrent nervures present. Antenna? much longer tLan the head
and thorax, filiform, of nearly equal thickness, fourth joint not much
shorter than the third. Eyes almost parallel, not reaching to the
base of the mandibles ; clypeus incised. Mandibles with three sub-apical


Pacliyprotasis and Mirm^lnjn, agree together in cer-
tain points of structure which separate them from the
other genera in the sub-family. They agree in the
large size of the hind coxse, which reach or go beyond
the third abdominal segment, in the long hind legs
and spurs, and generally in the neuration of the wings,
which have the lanceolate cellule usually shortly con-
tracted. They agree, too, in having the body (as a
rule) smooth, shining, and unpunctured, as well as
in coloration ; but they differ in three important points :
hyprotasisli&a the antennae long and filiform, never
fusiform nor thickened ; while the third joint is only a
little longer than the fourth ; the eyes on the inner
sides are parallel, not converging, and do not reach
to the base of the mandibles ; and the pleurae and
sternum are variegated to a large extent with white or

The larva?, so far as is known, are green, and feed on
trees or herbaceous plants. The species are more
northern in their distribution than those of Macrophya,
but otherwise have pretty much the same geographical
range. Six, if not seven, species are European, one or
two are described from India and Japan, and the genus
also occurs in North America.

Syno2)sis of Species.

1 (6) Legs white or yellow, lined with black.

2 (5) Pleurae marked with black.

3 (4) Head and thorax with white markings, punctured, pilose;

abdominal segments scarcely bordered with white. Rapce.

4 (3) Head and thorax with yellowish-white markings, smooth,

glabrous, unpunctured; abdominal segments broadly bor-
dered with yellowish- white. Simulans.

5 (2) Pleurae entirely yellow ; head and thorax with yellow markings ;

hind tibiae with a yellow ring at the apex. Antennata.

6 (1) Legs red and white, lined with black ; pleura3 marked with

black. Variegcda.


PI. IX, fig. 2, Saw. ; PI. VI, figs. 1 and la, Larva.

Tenthredo rapes, Lin., S. N., ed. xii, 926, 35 ; Schr., En., 336, 676

ViJL, Lin. Ent., 45 ; Rossi, Mant., 242 ;

Fab., E. S., ii, 114, 35; S. P., 41, 56 ;

Fall., Acta, 1808, 99, 30, 1 ; King, Berl.

Mag., viii, 127, 96 ; Ste., 111., vii, 73, 1 ;

Htg., Blattw., 296, 19; Evers., Bull.

Mosc., xx, 43, 12.
Pachyprotasis rapce, Thorns., Opus., 284, 1 ; Hym. Scand.,i, 248,

1 ; Cam., Fauna, 15, 1 ; Andre, Species,

i,341; Cat., 43,* 5.

Head and thorax faintly punctured; head behind vertex, thorax,
and adomen above black ; orbits of the eyes, lower parts of the head, a
V-shaped mark on the mesonotum, a minute spot behind it ; scutellurn,
a spot on post-scutellum, and the lower part and sides of the body
white ; pleurae and the edges of sternum largely marked with black ;
abdominal segments variegated with black. Legs white, a mark on
coxae, the apical half of all the femora and the hinder pair also at the
sides, tibiae and four anterior tarsi above, and the whole of the posterior
tarsi black. Wings hyaline, costa and stigma fuscous-black. The
tegulae are black. The has the antennae longer than the body.

Length 3 4 lines.

Some specimens have the white markings much less
and the black ones on the pleurae and sternum larger
than in others, while, again, in rare cases, the former
are much larger and the ]atter less, and the abdominal
segments faintly lined with white on the back.

The larva has the upper half of the body dull
greyish-brown, darker at the junction with the lower
white half ; a brownish stripe is over each leg ; claws
brown. Upper part of the head faintly brownish,
varying in intensity ; a black band goes across the
middle of the face from behind the eye spots, where it
is broader and darker in tint ; over the mouth the
head is paler, almost white ; mandibles black ; a few
scattered hairs on the head. The skin is wrinkled,
almost bare ; the anal segment has a few hairs.

At the last moult the body becomes dark green, a
lighter and brighter green below the spiracles, a white
stripe is at the junction of the two colours. Head
light green, light brownish on vertex, eye spots black,


moutli brownish, a light brownish band over face, and a
dark oblique spot over legs; claws brown, spiracles
pale. The anal segment is whitish, and bears a few
hairs, while over it is a light blackish mark.

The larva was discovered by Mr. Fletcher feeding
on Srroj'Jut.I'ii'id, <i./n<ifira and Stachys letonica. In
Clydesdale it frequents mostly ]vy/^.>v///// fhapsus and
Pedicularis in the autumn. It pupates in the earth.

An extremely abundant species, found everywhere in
June and the early part of July.

Its Continent distribution extends from Lapland to
the Mediterranean, and eastward to the Ural Moun-
tains and India (cf. Cameron, Trans. Ent. Soc., 1877,
88). Apparently, too, P. omega, Norton, a widely
distributed form in North America, is the same species.


Tenthrcdo simnlans, King, Berl. Mag., viii, 128, 97; Htg.,

Blattw., 296, 20 ; Ste., 111., vii, 73,
2 (nee type).

Pacliyprotasis la-vicollis, Thorns., Hyru. Scand., i, 249, 2.

simulans, Andre, Species, i, 340; Cat., 43,* 6.

Black, smooth, shining ; the face from the antennal fovea, inner and
outer orbits of the eyes to a little above the insertion of the antenna?,
tegulee, suture of middle lobe of mesonotum, a small square spot in
front of seutellum, scutcllum, two spots behind it, breast, a broad band
along the middle of mesopleura, hinder edge of metapleura going down
from the wings, sides of abdomen, belly, a broad band at the junction
of the segments on the back (the anterior spreading out so as to divide
the black portion in the middle, so that the middle of the abdomen is
yellow with longish black marks along the sides), yellowish-white.
Legs yellowish-white, a mark on upper and lower side of coxse, a broad
line over the trochanters and femora, and four anterior tibia? and tarsi,
the greater part of the posterior tibia? and tarsi, black. Hinder tibia?
variegated with white in the middle ; base of metatarsus and spurs
white. Antenna? longer than the body, yellowish-white on underside.
Wings hyaline, nervures, costa, and stigma black. $ .

Length 4 lines.

Differs from rapce in the smooth, impunctate, almost
glabrous front and mesonotum, and by the greater
extension of the white on the abdomen. The <? has


the antennae longer and with a denser pile than in

The larva is described by Kaltenbach (Pfl., 431). It
is 9'" long ; the head is orange-yellow, body olive green,
with small white points ; on the sides and belly the
colour is dirty white, while on the inner side of each
segment there are two green spots, one under the other.
It feeds in September on low growing ash trees (Fraxi-
nus), eating along the edge and underside of the leaf.

Rare. I have only seen one $ from Norwich (J. B.

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