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A monograph of the British phytophagous Hymenoptera .. (Volume 1) online

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Continental distribution : Sweden. France, Tyrol,


PL IX, fig. 1 $ ; la, antennas ; 1 b, leg ; 1 c and 1 d,
trophi ; 1 e, saw.

Tenthredo antennata, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 128, 98 ; Ste., 111.,

vii, 74, 3 ; Htg., Blattw., 296, 21.
duplex, Lep., Mon., 87, 251,
Pachyprotasis antennata, Thorns., Opus., 294, 3; Hym. Scand.,

i, 250, 4; Cam., Fauna, 15, 3;

Andre, Species, i, 340, pi. xix, fig.

1; Cat., 43,* 3.

Vertex, head behind, thorax and abdomen above, black; abdomen
with a faint bronzy tint ; inner orbits of the eyes, lower parts of the
head, sides and under side of the thorax and abdomen, and some marks
on meson otum (as in rapte), yellowish- white. Legs yellowish- white ;
a line on the upper side of the four anterior femora at the apex, and on
each side of the posterior, and a line above the tibiae and tarsi, black ;
apex of posterior tibia3 and tarsi entirely black, the hinder tibise having
a yellowish ring before the black apical part ; hinder calcaria pale at the
base. Wings hyaline, costa and stigma blackish-fuscous, tegulse white
in front. Vertex faintly punctured.

The <J has the antennse pale on the lower side and as long as the
body ; there is a small, oblique, black stripe on the mesosternum, and
another on the hind coxa?, but these may be absent.

Length 4 4 lines.

Antennata is a common but not very generally dis-
tributed species. It is not rare in the Glasgow district,
in Sutherlandshire, Rannoch, Braemar, Kingussie ;
also about London, at Grlanvilles' Wootton, Devonshire,


Manchester. It appears from the beginning of June to
the beginning of July.

Continental distribution : Scandinavia, Germany,
France, Holland, Tyrol.


Tenthredo varicyata, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 129, 99 ; Ste., 111.,

vii, 74, 4, pi. 38, fig. 3; Htg.,
Blattw., 296, 22.

Pachyproiasis variegata, Thorns., Opus., 294, 2 ; Hym., Scand.,

i. 249, 3; Cam., Fauna,, 15, 2;
Andre, Species, i, 339 ; Cat., 43*, 2.

Black, smooth, shining; head (except behind and a large spot on
vertex), pleura}, sternum, abdomen beneath, and some spots on the
niesonotuin, white ; the upper sides of the pleurae, and a large spot on
the edge of the sternum, black. Legs : all the femora and the hinder
tibiae red, four anterior tibiae and tarsi, white in front, black behind ;
apex of posterior tibiae and tarsi black ; coxae and trochanters white.
There is a thin black line above the first pair of femora. The base of
the hinder tarsi and the calcaria reddish. The margins of the dorsal
abdominal segments are white, the sides and belly are faintly variegated
with black. Wings hyaline, costa and stigma fuscous. $.

Length 4 4i lines.

This species is readily separated from all the other
species by the reddish legs.

It is not very common. I have taken it in Rannoch,
Kingussie, and Glen Urquhart. Stephens records it
from Darenth Wood and Devonshire.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany, Hol-
land and France.


Macropliya, Dbm., Comp., 4.

Wings with two radial and four cubital cellules, the second and third
of the latter receiving each a'recurrent nervure. Lanceolate cellule with
a short transverse nervure, or shortly contracted. Transverse cubital
and recurrent nervures in hind wings present. Antenna? short, not much
longer than the head and thorax, thickened from the fourth joint, and
sometimes fusiform ; third joint about double the length of fourth.
Legs long, hind coxae large, reaching to the third abdominal segment;
hind calcaria reaching beyond the middle of the metatarsus. Clypeus
deeply incised at the apex; eyes converging on the inner side, and
reaching to the base of mandibles.

The body is cylindrical, appearing short and thickset owing to the


great length of the legs. With most species the lanceolate cellule is
shortly contracted, but with blanda, neglecta, and crassula, King, there
is a very short straight cross nervurc. M. sturmi, Klug, again, has an
oblique cross nervure. The form of the cellule, however, varies in the
same species as, e.g. in M. ribis ; that is to say, the contraction may
be longer or shorter. Mostly there are two median cellules in the hind
wing, but in M. carinthiaca, Kl., there is only one.

The ground colour is generally black, with the legs,
thorax, and abdomen variegated with white, red, or
yellow, or all three. The sexes not unfrequently differ
in coloration, as, for instance, in hcematopus and dume-
torum, which have the four front legs yellow in the $
instead of red as in the ? ; or, as in rustica, which has
the hind legs quite black in the 3 and black and
yellow in the ? .

The species are commoner in southern than in
northern Europe, being especially common along the
Mediterranean. Eastward they extend into Japan and
into the Oriental region as far south as southern India.
They are not uncommon in the Nearctic region, thirty-
eight species being included in Ores son's catalogue.
There are close on fifty European species.

Synopsis of Species.

1 (10) Legs black and white, abdomen marked with yellow or white.

2 (3) Four anterior legs white. Rustica.

3 (2) Four anterior legs for the greater part black.

4 (5) Stigma testaceous. 12-Piinctata.

5 (4) Stigma black.

6 (9) Abdomen and pronotum with white markings, scutelluni faintly


7 (8) Vertex, scutellum, and coxse with white markings, sides of

abdomen black, tegular partly black, $ with the apex of
abdomen black beneath. Albicincta.

8 (7) Scutellum and coxai black, pleurse and abdomen marked with

white, tegulse white, $ with the apex of abdomen white
beneath. Albipuncta.

9 (6) Abdomen and pronotum without white markings, scutellum

strongly punctured. Ribis.

10 (13) Legs black, abdomen with a red band and a membranous white

spot over posterior coxa).

11 (12) Posterior coxa? with a large white mark, mouth more or less

white. Blanda,

12 (11) Posterior coxae without a white mark, mouth black. Neqlecta.

13 (10) Legs reddish.

14 (15) Abdomen with a red band. Ruftves.


15 (14) Abdomen without a reel band.

16(17) Mouth white, pronot urn black. H&niatopus.

17 (16) Mouth black, pronotum yellowish-white. Panctum-album.

Lanceolate cellule with a short, straight ncrvurc, wings hyaline,
infuscatcd at the apex, stigma black. Thorax strongly punc-
tured, scutellum gibbose. Clypeus and labrum convex. Ab-
domen black with a broad red band. Legs black. Transverse
medial nervure received close to basal (Species 1 and 2).


Tetithredo Wanda, Fab., E. S., ii, 119, 59; S. P., 36, 35; Pz., F.
G., lii, 9 ; Ixv, 9 ; Klug, Berl. Mag.,
viii, 111, 76; Lep., Mon., 98, 277;
Htg., Blattw., 292, 2.

liyustrina, Fourc., E. P., ii, 24.

cylindrica, Fab., S. P., 32, 16; Pz., F. G., Ixxi, fig. 7 ;
Spin., Ins. Lig., i, 56.

cognata, Fall., Mon., 48, 17.

lacrymosa, Lep., F. Fr., pi. 6, fig. 7 ; Mon., 101, 285.
Allantus blandus, Ste., 111., vii, 63, 17.

Macrophya blanda, Evers., Bull. Mosc., xx, 40, 1 ; Tasch., Hym.,
14; Thorns., Opus., 295, 1; Hym.,
Scand., i, 251, 1 ; Andre, Species, i,
343; Cat., 46,* 38.

var. brevicomis, Gradl, Ent. Nacht., 1878,

Black, mouth at the side, apex of labrum, apex of two anterior
femora and tibiae in front, and a large spot on the posterior coxae white ;
the third to the fifth abdominal segments red. Head and thorax
opaque, almost glabrous, strongly punctured. Wings almost hyaline,
with a faint smoky tinge at the apex ; costa and stigma sordid-fuscous ;
the lower part of the latter being paler than the upper.

The c? has the whole of the mouth, the entire anterior tarsi, femora,
and tibiae in front, basal half of hind femora beneath, and coxae at the
apex, whitish. The red abdominal band is very much narrower and
rarely encircles the whole body.

Length 6 6 lines.

Ab. a. Abdomen entirely black.

Mr. F. Smith tells me that this is a common species
in the west of England. It is taken by Mr. Dale at
Glanvilles' Wootton, and according to Stephens is
common in the London districts. Norwich (Mr.

It is of wide European distribution, being found in
Sweden, Prussia, South Germany, Hungary, France,
Switzerland, Italy, and Russia.



Tenthredo neglecta, King, Berl. Mag., viii, 112, 77; Htg.,

Blattw., 292, 3.
blcmda, Schaef., Icon., vii, fig. 5 ; Fall., Mon., 47, 16.

Schae/eri, Lep., F. Fr., pi. 6, fig. 4; Mon., 98, 276.
Allantus neglectus, Ste., 111., vii, 63, 18.

Macropliya neglecta, Evers., Bull. Mosc., xx, 40, 2; Tasch,

Hymen., 14; Thorns., Opus., 295,
2 ; Hym. Scand.,i, 251, 2 ; Andre,
Species, i, 367; Cat., 46,* 39.

Black ; the second to sixth abdominal segments red ; the anterior
femora and tibiae white in front. ? and $ .

Yery like the last species, but smaller, the mesonotum
and head scarcely so strongly punctured ; mouth black ;
the red band on the abdomen broader. There is
no mark over the posterior coxa3, while the wings are
darker and the antenna, if anything, shorter.

A common species in the midland and southern
counties of England.

It has the same European distribution as blanda,
but is much commoner. Nothing is known regarding
the earlier stages of these two species.

Lanceolate cellule subcontracted; costa and stigma yellowish.
Abdomen with white markings on sides and anus. Legs with
white on tibise and tarsi, the rest black ; a white membranous
spot over hind coxse ; scutellum convex (Species 3).


Tenthredo 12-punctata, Lin., S. N., Ed., x, 558, 25 ; F. S., 1559;

Fall., Acta, 1808, 101, 32; Pz.,
F. G., Hi, fig. 8 ; Fab., E. S.,
ii, 119, 56 ; S. P., 36, 32 ; Rossi.,
F. E., 724 ; Spin., Ins. Lig., i,
57, 14; Klug, Berl. Mag., viii,
122, 91 ; Lep., Mon., 100, 282;
Htg., Blattw., 294, 13.

fera, Fab., S. P., 38 ; Coqueb., Icon., Tab., 3, fig. 7
Lep., Mon., 242, 82.

Allantus 12-punctatus, Ste., 111., vii, 61, 10.
ferus, Ste., 111., vii, 61, 11.


Macropliya 12-punctata, Evers., Bull. Mosc., xx, 42, 10 ; Tascli.,

Hym.,15; Thoms.,Opus.,296,
6; Hym. Scand., i, 252, 3;
Andre, Species, i, 351 ; Cat.,
44,* 19.

Black, shining ; vertex and mesonotum almost glabrous, punctured
labrum, clypeus, edge of pronotum, scutellum, a large spot over pos-
terior coxae, a spot on the side of the fourth, fifth, and sixth abdominal
segments, one over the anal segment, and the greater part of the tibia)
at the side, white. Tegula3 black; cenchri pale white. Wings sub-
hyaline, fuscous at the apex, nervures, costa and stigma sordid yellow.

The 3 has the mouth, scutellum, abdomen and posterior tibia? (except
a very narrow ring) black ; there is only a small white spot at the base
of pronotum, the costa is fuscous, stigma sordid- testaceous, and the
wings want the yellowish tinge, while the white lateral markings on
the abdomen are very faint. The mouth and posterior tibia) have,
occasionally, as much white as in the ? .

Length 4 5 lines.

From the succeeding species 12-punctata is easily
separated by the colour of the alar nervures, legs and

The larva, according to Andre, feeds on the alder in
July and August. It has a greenish-yellow body,
striated transversely ; the head smooth, green, with
brown eye spots.

Common in Dunham Park, near Manchester, Glou-
cester, Worcester, Glanvilles' Wootton, and in the
metropolitan district.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Holland, Swit-
zerland, France, Germany, Hungary, Russia.

Wings infuscated at the apex, costa and stigma black. Legs
with white at base, and on tibia) and tarsi. Abdomen with
white markings on sides, base and apex, or quite black.
Thorax smooth, shining, or strongly punctured. Lanceolate
cellule sub- contracted, or with a short, straight nervure
(Species 4 to 6).


Tenthredo albicincta, Schr., En., 329, 661 ; Klug , Berl. Mag.,

viii, 129, 94; Lep., Mon., 103,
291 ; Htg., Blattw., 295, 14.

/era, Fall., Acta Holm., 1808, 102, 33.

luctuosa, Lep., Mon., 103, 290.
Allantus albicinctus, Ste., 111., vii, 61, 12.

VOL. I. 9


MacropJiya albicincta, Tascli., Hym., 15 ; Voll., Tidj. Ent., i (2),

189195, pi. 7 (lar.) ; Ent., vi,
43 ; Kalt., Pfl., 298 ; Cam., E.
M. M., xiv, 265; Fauna, 15;
Andre, Species, i, 354, pi. xxx,
fig. 4; Cat., 46,* 34.
ribis Thorns., Opus., 295, 4; Hym. Scand., i, 253, 6.

Black, sliming ; head and thorax covered with a pale pile, clypeus,
except at the extreme base ; the greater part of the labrum in front and
at the sides, a mark at base of mandibles, two small dots behind the
ocelli, pronotum, tegulee in front, the greater part of the scutellum, the
apical fourth of the two anterior femora and tibia), except at the extreme
apex ; basal joint of the tarsi in front, apex of four posterior femora,
the greater part of hind tibiae in the middle, posterior trochanters, base
of femora and apex of coxse, a faint spot over anal segment, a large
oblong spot over the hind coxae, and the blotch white.

The antennae are somewhat longer than the abdomen, the middle
joints being thickened ; on the pleurae are scattered punctures ; they are
almost shining and faintly pilose ; the scutellum is smooth, shining,
vertex slightly contracted, sheath of saw projecting, pilose at the apex ;
palpi annulated with fuscous-white, and the hinder tarsi are quite black.
Wings hyaline at the base, smoky at the apex. The nervure in the
lanceolate cellule varies in form, it being sometimes shorter, at other
times longer contracted.

In the <? the antennae are longer and thicker, the joints being also
more closely compressed together ; clypeus and labrum almost wholly
white ; anterior legs have more white in front ; white band on posterior
tibiae smaller ; the anal lobes are white, and so also are the posterior
abdominal segments at the side. The scutellum is black.

Length 45 lines.

Ab. a. Scutellum black ( ? ).

The amount of white on the mouth, legs, &c., varies
in intensity in both sexes.

The larva has been described by Van Vollenhoven
and Kaltenbach. The former naturalist observed the
9 on the 8th of April, about half past eleven (the
thermometer being at 60 F.), flying about wildly
around an elder bush and settling occasionally on the
leaves. This specimen he caught and placed in a glass
along with a branch of elder. When in the shade it
remained very quiet and even fell and lay upon its
back, but when the glass was placed again in the
sunshine it revived ; at first it moved the antenna3
violently, and then commenced to run rapidly about;
By 4 o'clock it had laid twelve eggs in little receptacles
in the leaves embedded in the lower epidermis. The


egg is bean-shaped, pearly white, rather flat on one
side, the skin being very thin.

The larva has a sordid greenish-yellow head, with
a quadrate, shining black spot on the vertex, and two
large round similar spots on the sides, in which the
eyes are placed, mouth brownish; head both above
and below shortly and sparsely hirsute. In the
younger larvae the body is a sordid yellow, with three
brown-green stripes, the outer of which are darker
than the inner one ; the spiracles pale yellow ; above
them are some black lines, and below, just over the
legs, is a dark transverse line. Above the anus is a
small black spot. The three dorsal lines have the
appearance of being ribbed, the inner side of tho
numerous folds of the skin being of a pale tint. The
thoracic legs are pale yellow, with black lines on the
first or thickest joint. The claws are pale brown.
The ventral surface, as also the posterior legs, are pale,
without spots, and the caudal end is beset with short
white hairs.

When full fed there are two dark grey triangular
marks over each leg. The black spots over the spiracles
become larger, and the edges of the stigmata very pale
brown. Over each proleg are two oblique blackish
spots, and there is a triangular spot over the anus of
the same colour.

After the last moult the head is reddish and the
body entirely of a very pale greenish-grey colour ; the
three dorsal lines being darker than the ground colour.
The black points on the sides disappear.

During the day the larvae remain reposing on the
underside of the leaves. In the evening they commence
to feed, eating large holes in the leaves; they do
not invariably commence to feed along the margin, but
frequently eat holes out of the middle.

The larvae are found in June and July, and spin their
cocoons in the earth, emerging from them in the winged
state in the following spring.

In Britain, allncinda is perhaps the commonest and


most widely distributed of the genus, being found
almost everywhere from Sutherlandshire to the South
of England.

Continental distribution : Scandinavia, Germany,
Holland, France, Switzerland, Tyrol, Italy, Hungary.

PL VIII, fig. 12, ? .

Tcnthredo albipuncta, Fall., Acta, 1808, 104, 37.

Macrophya Thorns., Opus., 295, 5 ; Hym. Scand., i,

254, 8; Cam., E. M. M.,
xiv, 265 ; Fauna, 15 ; Andre,
Species, i, 362 ; Cat., 46,* 35.

Black, variegated with white. Antennas scarcely longer than the
abdomen, the fourth to eighth joints thickened, third nearly double the
length of fourth. Head shining, covered with a short pile; palpi,
clypeus, and labruni clear white, clypeus deeply incised. Thorax with
a very short pubescence, tegulse, pronotum, and a narrow stripe on the
pleurae white. Abdomen roundish, not longer than the head and
thorax, the segments at the sides and a large spot over anus white.
Legs with the apex of coxae, trochanters, and base of femora, apex of
four anterior femora and tibiae in front, posterior knees and femora,
except at the extreme base and apex, white. Wings hyaline, costa
fuscous, the stigma in the middle sordid- testaceous.

In the 3 the anterior legs bear more of the white colour, being entirely
white in front, and the posterior femora are lined with white below ;
posterior tibiae are lined throughout with a black streak ; ventral
segments below and the anal lobes white. In the only specimen of
this sex that I have seen, the transverse radial nervure is almost

Length 3^4 lines.

Compared with albicincta, the present species is
smaller and has the head and thorax less pilose ; the
scutellum is black, slightly truncated and less convex ;
there are no marks on the vertex, the mouth and
tegulas are white, antennas short, and otherwise it is
readily separated by the marks on the pleurae. The
$ is easily known by the white ventral segments.

Ab. a. Basal joint of posterior tarsus white ( $ ).

Albipunda is not common. I have seen three
specimens only ; one from Eannoch, one from Muchalls,
Aberdeenshire (Trail), and another from Dairy (Sharp),
Mr. Bridgman records it from Norwich.


On the Continent it has only been recorded from
Scandinavia and Germany.

Obs. Thomson quotes Macrophya crassula, Kl., as a synonym of albi-
puncta, but this is a mistake, Klug's species is larger ; the markings
are yellowish, the mark on the pleurae is larger, pronotum broadly
marked with yellowish-white, the hinder tibiae are not black at the base,
the stigma is not testaceous, the second recurrent is almost interstitial,
while it is received with albipuncta near the middle of the cellule.

Thomson describes albipuncta as having the lanceolate cellule
uncontracted, but this is really a character of no value, since in
my specimens the form of this cellule is not quite the same in any of

Macrophya carinthiaca, KL, forms a section with only a single cellule
in the posterior wing.


Tenthredo ribis, Schr., En., 332, 668 ; Fab., S. P., 30, 8 ; Pz.,
F. G., Hi, fig. 12 ; Spin., Ins. Lig., i,
55, 5 ; Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 126, 95 ;
Lep., Hon., 104, 293 ; Htg., Blattw.,
291, 11.

leucopus, Gmel., S. N. f 2666, 118.
Allantus ribis, Ste., 111., vii, 62, 13.

Macrophya ribis, Tasch., Hym., 15; Kalt., Pfl., 298 (Script
ribesii); Cam., E. M. M., xiv, 265;
Andre, Species, i, 344 ; Cat., 46,* 37.

albicinda, Thorns., Opus., 296, 17 ; Hym. Scand., i,

254, 7.

Antenna? stout, a little longer than the head and thorax, not tapering
much towards the apex ; black, covered with a very short microscopic
down. Head black, densely covered with a longish grey pile, punctured,
clypeus deeply notched, almost to the base ; vertex raised ; the clypeus
at the base on each side, a spot on the labrum in front, mandibles at
the sides and palpi (faintly) white. Thorax covered with a longish
scattered grey pile. Mesonotum punctured, the lobes deep, especially
that in front of scutellum, which is raised and very deeply punctured ;
cenchri white ; pleura) semi- opaque, punctured. Abdomen longer than
the head and thorax. Legs black, a narrow spot on the side of each of
the four anterior coxae, a large pyriform one on the posterior, tro-
chanters, apical fourth of four anterior femora and tibiae entirely in
front (except at the extreme apex where the colour is black), and a ring
near the apex, tarsal joints more or less in the middle ; apex of posterior
coxae, trochanters, base and apex of femora, apical third of tibiae (except
at the extreme apex), and the apical joints of the tarsi more or less
white. The calcaria are black and reach near to the middle of the meta-
tarsus. Wings subhyaline, slightly brownish at the apex.

The $ has the clypeus and labrum for the greater part white ;
anterior legs almost entirely white in front, as well as the posterior
coxse, trochanters, and base of femora. The apical part of abdomen is
marked with white below.

Length 4 lines.


From the allied species, Ribis is distinguished by the
blackish clypeus (in the ? ) and pronotum, immaculate
and strongly punctured scutellum, the abdomen with-
out white markings, and its generally dull and less
shining colour. The amount of white on legs and
mouth parts varies.

Personally I know nothing about the history of
this species, and what has been written about it is
rather conflicting. Schranck describes the larva as
green with a rugose body with two minute black dots
on the vertex, and feeding on Ribis. Dours (Cat.
Syn., p. 22) states that the larva lives on the goose-
berry, and has for parasites Pygostolus sticticus, Hal.,
and Mesoleius armillatorius, Grr.=luteifrous, Gr. (ac-
cording to Goureau). Kaltenbach, on the other hand,
says that it is suspected to have a similar history to
albicincta. The larva he describes as very like the
latter, the head orange-yellow with a black mark on
vertex and anus, and without any lateral markings.

In Britain ribis is confined to the South of England.
Stephens says it occurs in DarenthWood. It is taken
at Glanvilles' Wootton by Mr. Dale, and at Norwich by
Mr. Bridgmau.

It is met with in Sweden, Holland, Germany (in
gardens according to Hartig), Prussia, France, Italy,

Lanceolate cellule shortly contracted ; transverse median nervure
received close to basal. Legs yellowish-white, posterior
femora, tibiae and tarsi marked with black; abdomen with
white markings at base, sides, and apex; thorax strongly
punctured; wings hyaline, darkened at apex, stigma black
(Species 7).


Tenthrcdo rustica, Lin., S. N., ed. xii, 923, 16 ; Fab., E. S , ii
118, 52 ; S. P., 30, 6 ; Schr., En., 324^
653; Rossi, F. E., 719; Klug, Berl.
Mag, viii, 119, 88 ; Lep., F. Fr., pi. 5,
fig. 6, pi. 7, fig. 2; Hon., 94, 267;
Htg., Blattw., 294, 11,


Tenthredo notata, Pz., F. G., Ixiv, fig. 10.

carbonaria, Fab., E. S., ii, 120, 63; S. P., 307; Pz.,

1. c., fig. 10.

Mfofeirafa, Gmel., S. N. V., 2665.
Allantus rusticus, Ste., 111., vii, 60, 9.

Macrophya rustica, Evcrs., Bull. Mosc., xx, 41, 7 ; Tasch., Hym.,

15; Thorns., Opus., 295, 3; Hym.
Scand., i, 252, 4 ; Andre, Species, i,
3, 43, pi. xix, ligs. 2, 6,7; Cat.,43,*5.

Black ; labruin, clypeus, and palpi partly white ; tegula), pronotum,
a Land (narrowed in the centre) on the fourth segment, a fascia on the
fifth and sixth, a smaller one lower down on the seventh, and a ring
surrounding the last segment above, four anterior legs (except base of
coxae and tarsi), apex of posterior coxa), trochanters, basal three-fourths
of femora, and a line a little below the middle of the tibia) yellow. The
apex of anterior tibia) and the tarsi are marked with black ; anterior

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