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spurs yellow, posterior black. Wings subhyaline, the apical third
suffused with a fuscous tint, costa and stigma fuscous. The head and
thorax have a griseous pile ; clypeus is only slightly einarginate, pleura)
and niesonotum are punctured, antenna) subclavate.

The 3 has the pronotum and abdomen immaculate ; there is a small
white spot on the outside of the posterior tibia), the second to fourth
joints of hind tarsi arc white, and the hind coxa) have more yellow
on them.

Length 5:1 5 lines.

Ab. a. Scutellum marked with yellow.

The thickish body and the disposition and colour of
the markings will readily serve to distinguish rnxliai
from the other British species.

It is a common species in the south and south-
western districts of England, and is found also in
Clydesdale although rarely.

Common in Scandinavia, Prussia, South Germany,
Holland, Hungary, France, Spain, Switzerland, Italy,
Russia, Greece.

Legs red, hinder femora without a white band ; abdomen with
white markings. Mouth white; clypeus deeply incised.
Lanceolate cellule contracted in the middle (Species 8 and 9).


Tenthredo hcematopus, Pz., F. G., Ixxxi, figs. 11 and 12; Fab.,

S. P., 36, 37; Spin., Ins. Lig. i,
58 ; Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 116,
84; Lep., Mon., 100, 281 ; Htg.,
Blattw., 293, 7.

ocreata, Schaeff., Icon., figs. 4 and 5.

divcrsipes, Schr., F, B., ii, 23, 6.


Tenthredo coralllpes (King), Evers., Bull. Mosc., xx, 41, 5.

Allantus hcematopus, Ste., 111., vii, 62, 15.

Macrophya htematopus, Andre, Species, i, 347 ; Cat., 45,* 26.

Black ; apex of clypeus, labrum, mandibles, scutellum, and a spot on
the side of the fifth, a smaller one on the sixth abdominal segments,
white. Legs ferruginous-red ; coxa?, posterior tarsi, the anterior at the
tips, apex of hind tibiae, and basal three fourths of the same black. Wings
hyaline, costa and stigma fuscous.

The $ has the coxae and the four anterior legs straw-yellow, and a
narrow black stripe over posterior femora.

Length 5 lines.

Ab. a. Scutellum black.
,, b. Abdomen with only one white mark.
c. Abdomen without any mark.

A much larger species than Album punctum. Easily
recognised from it by the white mouth, no white
mark over posterior coxse, nor on tibiaB, black prono-
tum, &c.

Seemingly a rare form. The only precise locality in
Britain known to me is Glanvilles' Wootton, Dorset.

It is more especially a southern species, occurring
in France, South Germany, Hungary, Switzerland,
Italy, Russia, and also Siberia.


Tenthredo rufipes, Lin., S. N., ed. x, 557, 17; Fallen, Acta,
1808, 53, 9.

strigosa, Fab., E. S. Sup., 217, 58; S. P., 36, 34;

Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 114, 80; Lep.,
F. Fr., pi. 6, fig. 1; Mon., 96, 271;
Htg., Blattw., 293, 5 ; Evers., Bull.
Mosc., xx, 40, 4.

dumetorum, Fourc., E. P., 28; Geof., H. I., 28;

Klug, Berl. Mag, viii, 115, 81 ; Htg.,
Blattw., 293, 6.

citreipes, Lep., F. Fr., pi. 6, fig. 2 ; Mon., 96, 272.
Macrophya strigosa, Tasch., Hym., 15 ; Thorns., Opus., 296, 8.
rufipes, Thorns., Hym. Scand., i, 255, 9; Andre,

Species, i, 357, 359; Cat., 44,* 13.
Allantus strigosa, Ste., 111., vii, 63, 16.

Antennae subclavate, black. Head black, covered with a fuscous pile,
shining, punctured, front depressed, ocelli raised, clypeus moderately
incised; clypeus, labrum, palpi, and mandibles white. Thorax half
shining, black, with a fuscous pile, deeply and closely punctured;
pleurae opaque, deeply punctured ; tegulee, a line on the pronotum, and


scutellum white. Abdomen black, the whole of the third and fourth
segments above and at the sides reddish, a large stripe on the sixth, and
a smaller mark on the seventh at the sides and apex white. Legs : all
the coxae except at the apex black, the four anterior and posterior at the
base straw-yellow or pale red, hind femora and tibiae reddish, posterior
tibiae with a black line near the base, hind tarsi and calcaria black.
The anterior femora have a reddish tinge. Wings hyaline, smoky at
the apex, costa and stigma sordid-testaceous.

The $ wants the white fasciae on the abdomen ; anterior femora are
reddish ; coxae nearly all straw-yellow ; there is a mark of the same colour
on the middle of the breast, a small black line on the upper surface of
the posterior femora, ; the posterior tibia) as well as the tarsi are black ;
the third to the fifth abdominal segments are red all round.

Length 5 5J lines.

The amount of red on the abdomen is subject to

Rvfipes is easily distinguished from its close ally,
hcematopus, by the white pronotum and coxa3, blackish
hinder tibiae, red banded abdomen. The c? is known
from the same sex in hcematopus by its having (besides
the abdominal band) the tegulae whitish, abdomen
without any white marking, and posterior tibiae entirely
black instead of only the basal half.

Rufipes is rare in this country, and is, so far as I
know, confined to the south of England. Stephens
reports it from Darenth and Coombe Woods, Devon-
shire, Dover ; and Mr. Smith tells me that it occurs
occasionally in woods in Kent.

Continental distribution : Scandinavia, near Dantzig,
South Germany, Holland, France, Italy, Switzerland
and Ural districts in Russia.

Body short, with white marking on thorax and abdomen. Mouth
black; clypeus shortly incised. Anterior legs black, white in
front ; posterior femora red, tibiae black, with a broad white
band. Eyes parallel, front convex. Lanceolate cellule con-
tracted (Species 10).

PI. VIII, fig. 11.

Tentkredo punctum album, Lin., S. E., ed. xii, 924, 23 ; Schr.,

En., 333, 669; Vill., E. P.,


Tenthredo punctum, Fab., S. E., ii, 119, 58 ; S. P., 36, 33 ; Pz.,

F. G., xxvi, fig. 21 ; Spin., Ins.,
Lig., i, 57; Klug, Berl. Mag.,
viii, 117, 85 ; Lep., F. Fr., pi. 6,
fig. 6 ; Mon., 99, 280 ; Htg., Blattw,,
293, 8.
erythropus, Schr., F. B., 86.

Allantus punctum, Ste., 111., vii, 62, 14.

Macrophya punctum, Thorns., Op., 296, 10; Kalt., Pfl.,'432, 436.
album punctum, Thorns., Hym. Scand., i, 256, 11 ;
Cam., Fauna, 15; Andre, Species,
i,360; Cat., 44,* 14.

Black, shining ; pronotum, scutellum, and post-scutellum yellowish-
white ; four anterior legs for the greater part in front with the tarsi, a
band on the outer apical half of posterior tibia3, a large spot over the
hind coxa3, a spot on the last abdominal segment, and a number of
oblong spots on the sides white ; hind femora reddish, hind tibiaB
(except the white band) and tarsi black. Wings hyaline, costa and
stigma pale fuscous.

In the <J the scutellum, abdomen, and posterior femora are black, and
there is only a thin pale band on pronotum.

Length 3 4 lines.

The lateral abdominal marks are often obliterated,
and the scutellum has occasionally a black dot in
centre. The scutellum and pronotum are in rare
cases quite black.

The nearest ally of this species is M. 4<-maculata 9
Fab. (not a British insect), which is easily separated
from it by its white mouth, black pronotum, pale pos-
terior coxge and trochanters, and reddish hind tibiae.

M. punctum album does not appear to be very com-
mon. It has been taken in Scotland by Dr. Sharp. In
England it occurs in the London districts ; Mr. Smith
says (in lit.), " scarce, but once plentiful on a hedge of
privet;" near Dover, Grlanvilles' Wootton, Devonshire.

According to the observations of Katzburg, Saxesen,
and Kaltenbach, the totally green larva feeds on the
leaves of Ligustrum vulgare and Fraxinus, and Mr.
Bridgman finds it on the former plant at Norwich.

Its Continental distribution extends to Scandinavia,
Prussia, Pomerania, South Germany, Hungary, Hol-
land, Switzerland, France, Italy, and Spain.



Allantus, Jurine, Hymen., 54.
Htg., Blattw., 285.

Lanceolate cellule with a short perpendicular nervure. Posterior
wings with two middle cellules. Stigma mostly pale.

Antenna a little longer or shorter than the thorax; the first joint
large, more than double the length and breadth of the second, the third
joint double the length of the fourth, the succeeding joints considerably
thickened, fusiform ; ninth sharply conical, narrower than the eighth.

Legs of medium length, somewhat thick, the posterior coxao not
reaching beyond the apex of the second abdominal segment ; the tibia
and femora are of nearly equal length, the tarsi are longer than the
former. In the <? the tibia) at the apex and the basal joints of the
tarsi are swollen.

Head broad, thick, projecting considerably behind the eyes, which
are oval, converging, and reaching to near the base of .the mandibles.
Antenna! fovea absent. Vertex thick. Mandibles with three subapical

Clypeus incised at the apex but not very deeply; labrum large,
rounded at the apex.

Abdomen slightly inflated in the middle, subcylindrical, generally
marked with yellowish or whitish bands.

In coloration the Allanti are usually black, with
yellow bands on the abdomen ; yellow marks on the
mouth, pronotum, and more rarely on the pleuraD,
while the legs are yellow, with the femora and tarsi
more or less black. The scutellum is black, rarely
yellow, and the same remark holds good for the
antenna. The general rule is that when the scutellum
is yellow, so also are the antennse wholly or in part,
and vice versa. The wings are generally hyaline, more
or less inf us cated at the apex, or they may be entirely
black or bluish (metallic) black, or yellowish. The
stigma is always pale. The thorax is in the majority
of species roughly punctured and opaque ; more rarely
it is smooth and shining.

Most of the species are very variable in the colora-
tion, hence the specific determinations are somewhat
difficult unless other points beyond mere colour are
attended to.

The males do not differ much, if at all, from the
females in coloration and markings. When a difference
exists between the two sexes, it may be either in the


3 being darker coloured, as in A. arcuatus, or lighter,
as in A. cingulum. The antenna do not differ in length.
The species of Allantus are mostly found in the
warmer portions of the temperate regions. Few
species are found in northern countries. They extend
all over the Palsearctic region, being especially com-
mon in the Mediterranean subregion, and are not un-
common in the Manchurian. They abound also in
the Oriental, and to a greater extent in the Nearctic.
They are found neither in the Ethiopian, Australian,
nor Neotropical regions. Fifteen species are described
from North America, and there are altogether fifty-nine
European species.

As a whole, the points of distinction between
Allantus and Tenthredo can scarcely be regarded as
very important or well defined. The most noticeable
is the form of the antennge, which are short and
clavate, while in Tenthredo as a whole they are longish
and of nearly uniform thickness. In Allantus , too,
the antennal fovea is absent. It must, however, be
said that so far as the form of the antennae is concerned
the difference in this respect between Allantus cingulum
and T. bicincta is by no means great (see p. 92).
Still the Allanti are so similarly coloured, both as
regards the body markings and in the pale stigma,
and, as a whole, are so readily known from Tenthredo
that there can be no hesitation in considering it a
distinct genus.

Synopsis of Species.

1 (2) Antennae entirely luteous, wings yellowish, accessory nervure in

posterior wing joined to the transverse median. Scropliularia.

2 (15) Antennae black, yellow at the base. Accessory nervure in hind

wings not joined to transverse median.

3 (14) Head and thorax deeply and distinctly punctured.

4 (9) Pleurae entirely black.

5 (8) Fore wings with a distinct blackish blotch in the radial and

cubital cellules ; scutellum black, tegulae yellow ; head dilated
behind the eyes ; parapsides indistinct.

6 (7) Fourth abdominal segment with a yellow band, stigma tes-

taceous. 3-cinctus.


7 (6) Fourth abdominal segment without a yellow band, stigma

fuscous at the apex. 4>-cinctus.

8 (5) Fore wings without a distinct blotch in fore wings, tegulae black,

scutellum marked with yellow ; the fourth and fifth segments
black beneath; parapsides distinct, head scarcely dilated
behind the eyes. Marginellus.

9 (4) Pleurae marked with yellow marks.

10 (11) Wings yellowish ; only the hind femora marked with black ;

hind tibiae and tarsi luteous. Flavipes.

11 (10) Wings hyaline.

12 (13) Abdomen with two complete yellow bands; hind tarsi and

apex of tibiae reddish. Tegulse black. <? abdomen beneath
black ; the apical segments yellow above. Schae/eri.

13 (12) Abdomen with three complete bands; hind tarsi and apex of

tibiae black ; tegulae partly yellow. $ belly yellow ; the
apical segments black above. Arcuatus.

14- (3) Head and thorax smooth, covered with a silky pubescence.
Parapsides deep. Tegula) black, 5th (sometimes 6th) segment
yellow all round ; stigma fuscous at apex ; hind tarsi and
tibiae reddish. Cingulum.

15 (2) Antennae entirely black. Head strongly dilated behind the
eyes. Head and thorax covered with a long silky pubescence,
smooth, with scattered punctures.

10 (17) Wings yellowish, hyaline, four front legs partly yellow, pro-
notum with a yellow border ; pleurae tuberculated. Tenulus.

17 (16) Wings deep violet-black, four front legs violet-black, pronotum
without a yellow border, pleurae smooth. Vidua.

PL I, fig. 2 and 2 a, larva.

Tadhrcdo scropliularia:, Lin., S. N., x, 556, 12; Fall., Acta

Holm., 1808, 48, 1 ; Fab., E. S.,
ii, 112, 29;S.P.,28,l;Geof.,
H. I., 13; Schr., En., 330,
663; Pz., P. G., 89, fig. 10;
Spin., Ins. Lig., i, 53, 1 ; Reau-
mur, Mem., v, Tab., 13, figs.
12-23; King, Berl. Mag.,
viii, 131, 102 ; Lep-, Mon., 87,
25, 3 ; Evers., Bull. Mosc., xx,
35, 1 ; Htg., Blattw., 286, 1.

Allantus scropliularue, Brischke, Beschr., 7, pi. 1, fig. 4 (lar.) ;

Voll., Tidj. Ent., iii, 99103,
pi. 7; Zool. (s.8.), 8653;
Bouche, Naturg., 138; Kalt.,
Pfl., 460 and 462 ; Ste., 111.,
vii, 57, 1 ; Thorns., Opus.,
297, 1 ; Hym. Scand., i, 257,
1 ; Rudow, Stett., Ent. Zeits.,
1871, 87, 1; Newman, Ent.
Mag., pi. 1, figs. 2, 3; Cam.,
E. M. M., xvi, 221.


Tenthredo propinqua, King, Bcrl. Mag., viii, 132, 105 ; Htg.,

Blattw., 287, 2.

Black, covered with a close fuscous pubescence, strongly punctured,
antennae, knees, tibiae and tarsi luteous ; clypeus, labrum, tegulse, edge
of pronotum, a spot below the fore wings, scutellum, a spot behind it,
a spot over posterior coxae, the apical edge of basal segment of abdomen,
and of the fourth to the ninth whitish-yellow. Wings yellowish, the
radial and top of cubital cellules infuscated, costa and stigma yellowish.
The anterior femora have a yellow line above.

The $ has the basal abdominal segment and the third and following
segments broadly lined with pale yellow all round, and all the femora
are lined with pale luteous above and in front.

Length 67 lines.

The larva feeds on Scroplmlaria nodosa and Ver-
bascum nigrum, in the leaves of which it eats irregular
holes in the middle, generally avoiding the nerves,
although it eats very close to them. The head is deep
black, pale at the mouth ; it is narrower than the
second segment, and has a few scattered hairs over it.
The body is of a bluish-grey velvety colour to the
spiracles, below which it is white. The legs are yel-
lowish-white, with black claws, and at the base of
each is a small black mark. Along the back, in the
centre, is a line of eleven large (compared to the
others) roundish black marks ; between this and the
spiracles are three irregular rows of smaller black
dots, the outer ones being the largest. The margins
of the spiracles are pale brown, and below each are
two small dots. The skin is in folds.

"When young it is of a pale bluish-grey colour. At
the last moult it casts off the markings, and becomes
of a uniform pale reddish-brown colour, with a some-
what darker stripe down the back. The head is of
the same colour, with a darker mark on the vertex \
the eyes being surrounded with a darker ring. If any-
thing, too, the skin becomes more folded and wrinkled;

It pupates in the earth, forming an earthern cell in
which it passes the winter, emerging as a fly in early
summer. In England it is common in the midland
and southern counties, but does not, so far as I know,
occur in Scotland. Its distribution extends all over


PI. I, fig. 3, larva ; PL IX, fig. 4, ? .

Tudhrcdo tricinctus, Fab., S. P., 30, 5 ; Geof., Ins., ii, 276, 11 ;

Klug, Bcrl. Mag., viii, 138, 108 ;

Htg., Blattw., 288, 7; Evers.,

Mosc., xx, 38, 8.

vespiformis (Latr.), Lep., Mon., 89, 258.

rustica, Do Gecr, Mem., ii, 234, pi. 34, figs. 919

Alhudus vcspiformis, Ste., 111., vii, 58, 3.

tricinctus, Voll., Tidj^Ent., i, 171176, pi. 9 (lar. etc.) ;

"p., 15, pi. ii
5 a, 6, c ; Kalt., Pfl., 304 ; Cam.,

Brischke, Beschr., 15, pi. iii, figs.

Fauna, 16 ; Andre, Species, i, 388 ;
Cat., 47,* 6.

Black, almost opaque, densely covered on head and thorax with a
short grey pile ; the head and thorax being also strongly punctured,
the pleurcc tuberculated, abdomen smooth, almost shining, and with a
few shallow punctures. The first joint of the antenna), the greater part
of clypeus, a line on pronotum, a broad one on the basal abdominal
segment above, one all round on the fourth and fifth, a small one on the
middle of seventh, and the whole of the eighth and ninth as well as a
spot over the posterior coxa) are yellow. Teguhe and legs reddish -
yellow, the greater part of the femora and base of coxa) black. Wings
hyaline, with a brownish band extending from the base to the apex of
the radial and the upper half of the cubital cellules. The costa and
stigma testaceous, mandibles piceous, palpi dark fuscous.

In coloration the $ is nearly similar, except that the labrum is
yellow, the base of antenna) and the posterior tarsi with apex of tibia)
blackish or fuscous. The wings, too, are, if anything, darker.

Length 5^ 6 lines.

Ab. a. A narrow lateral yellow line on the third and
sixth segments of abdomen.

The larva is of the same form as that of Scrophula-
ritr. Its ground colour is a dull grey, sometimes
with a bluish or even a pinkish hue. On the back, on
each segment except the last, is a triangular, deep
brownish or blackish spot, the narrow base of which
points towards the head ; the broad opposite end is
curved inwardly, each point ending in a curved projec-
tion ; inside of this are two small black dots. The
first of these dorsal marks is somewhat oval and
divided in the middle by the food canal, Laterally, a
stripe of a darker grey than the ground tint runs


througli the spiracles. The head is black, with paler
mouth, and covered with a short, scattered pile. The
legs have black claws.

After the last moult it becomes of a pale ochreous
colour, with a pale brownish head. When young it
has a bluish tint, and the dorsal markings are not
clearly defined as regards their shape.

The larvse have various food plants, being found on
the snow-berry, honeysuckle, jasmine, guelder rose,
ash, and on alder, according to Rudow. During the
day they remain quiet, rolled up in a ball, and it is not
till the evening that they commence to feed. Generally
they devour holes in the centre of the leaf, but they
will also eat along the edge. They form an oval cell
in the earth in which to pass the winter. According
to Brischke they line the smooth inner side of this cell
with silk, but this is not always done in confinement.

The perfect insect appears in June. It does not
seem to be very common, Stephens records it from
Dover, Eipley, and Darenth ; Mr. Smith tells me it
is met with in Kent and Hampshire ; Mr. Dale takes
it at Grlanvilles' Wootton, and I have captured it at
Clydesdale, where the larva feeds on the guelder rose.

It is found in Scandinavia, Germany, Holland,
France, Switzerland, Italy, Tyrol, Portugal, Russia,


Tenthredo quadricinctus, Uddmann, Disp., 83.

Allantus 4-cinctus, Thorns., Opus., 297, 3 ; Hymen., Sc., i, 258,

3; Cam.,E. M. M., xvi, 221 ; Andre,
Species, i, 399 ; Cat., 37,* 8.

Black ; head and thorax opaque, punctured, covered with a scattered

Eubescence ; abdomen smooth, shining; two basal joints of antennae,
ibrum, clypeus, a broad line on the pronotum, tegulse, the fifth abdo-
minal segment all round, apical half of the first and the seventh to
ninth above yellow. Legs yellow ; coxae (except at the apex), the
greater part of the posterior femora, anterior behind and slightly in
front black ; apex of tibia? and tarsi reddish. Wings hyaline, with a
yellowish tinge, the radial and cubital cellules infuscated ; costa and
stigma testaceous, the latter fuscous at the apex. The transverse radial


nervure is received a little beyond the middle of the third cubital
cellule ? .

Length 4 4 lines.

Almost similar in body coloration to A. zona, Klug,
but differing in the roughly punctured head and thorax,
the wider yellow line on thorax, and red posterior
tarsi and apex of tibise. From marginellus it may be
known by the yellow labrum and tegulae, half white,
half fuscous stigma, black scutellum, and by the fourth
abdominal segment wanting the yellow ring found in
marginellus (and -c.mctus). It also wants the yellow
spot over the posterior coxae found in 3~cindus and

Seemingly rare. I have seen two individuals one
taken by the late F. Smith, and another in Shuckard's
collection, both probably from the South of England.

Continental distribution : Sweden, France.


Tcnthrcdo marginelht, Fab., E. S., ii, 117, 50; S. P., 292;

Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 133, 104;

Htg., Blattw., 287, 3; Evers.,

Bull. Mosc., xx, 36, 3.
succinctus, Lep., F. Fr., pi. 5, fig. 5; Mon., 93, 266;

Andre, Species, i, 401; Cat.,

47,* 7.

Allantus viennensis, Ste., 111., vii, 58, 4; Cam., E. M. M., xvi, 221.
Tenthredo viennensis, Pz., F. G., Ixv, fig. 5 ; Lep., F. Fr., pi. 5,

fig. 7 ; Mon., 95, 269 ; Fall., Acta,

1808, 49, 3.
Allantus marginellus, Rudow, Stett. Ent. Zeits., xxx, 89, 2;

Thorns., Opus., 293, 2; Hym.

Scand., i, 259, 4.
decipiens, Foerster, S. E. Z., 1848, 288.

Black, half shining, covered with a scattered pubescence; head and
thorax punctured; two basal joints of antennae, clypeus, sides of pro-
notum, two marks on scutelluin (sometimes joined), a band on the
apical half of the first abdominal segment, the greater part of the fourth
and fifth above and at the sides, a stripe on the side of the sixth, the
seventh, eighth, and ninth in the middle above, and a spot over the
posterior coxa^ yellow. Legs yellow; coxse, except at apex, the greater
part of femora, black ; tibiae and tarsi fulvescent ; the tibiae at the base
yellow. Wings hyaline, clouded from the base of stigma. Tegulae black.
VOL. I. 10


The S has the labrum, clypeus and mandibles at the base yellow
the mark on the pronotum is smaller ; there is only a thin yellow band
on the fourth abdominal segment ; the anterior tibiae and tarsi are
yellow in front ; the hinder pair have only the knees yellow, and the
posterior tarsi are thickened and fuscous in the middle. The last
abdominal segment and the anal appendages are yellow. In one aberra-
tion the scutellum is black and the pronotum without any yellow.

Length 5| 6 lines.

Ab. a. The fourth and fifth segments each with a
broad yellow band ; the posterior tibias dull yellow to
beyond the middle; the apex of hinder tibias and all
the tarsi fuscous (Deal, F. Smith).

Ab. b, As in a, but the yellow more developed ; a
distinct yellow mark on lower part of prothorax, and
one beneath fore wings (in Shuckard's collection).

The typical marginellus is stated to have the first,
fourth, fifth and apical segments yellow, but this is not
a constant character; indeed, Thomson describes the
first to ninth segments as yellow in the middle ; and in
some continental specimens (Germany) which I have
the five apical segments are broadly banded with that
colour. The band on the fifth segment is often absent,
or it may be divided in the middle, the sixth may be
entirely black ; the yellow on the scutellum is not

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