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A monograph of the British phytophagous Hymenoptera .. (Volume 1) online

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unfrequently divided in the middle, or it may be
absent ; a small yellow spot is sometimes seen on the
hinder edge of the pleurae, while the posterior tarsi
may be black, fuscous, or coloured like the tibia3.
Judging, too, from the descriptions, the c? must vary

This insect comes nearest to 3-cinctus, but is
smaller, the punctation is not so rugged ; scutellum
is smoother and yellow; labrum piceous, not black;
the incision in the clypeus is deeper ; the femora bear
more black ; while, most noticeable of all, the wings
are not blackish at the apex.

It agrees with cingulum in having the hinder tibiae
and tarsi more or less reddish, but its labrum is fuscous s
the incision in the clypeus is very much shallower, the
puncturing on head and thorax deeper, and they are
not so shining, the scutellum bears two yellow spots,


the tarsi are marked with black, while the abdominal
bands do not go all round, but only on the back and
sides. The wings, too, are infuscated at the apex,
and the stigma is almost unicolorous, while the radial
nervure is received near the middle of the third
cubital cellule, instead of close to the third transverse
cubital nervure, as in cinyidum.

According to Dours (Cat. Syn., 20), the larva feeds
on Umbelliferce.

Marginellus appears to be somewhat rare in this
country. Mr. Smith tells me that it is found in the
London district. Stephens gives Coombe Wood and
Norfolk as localities, Mr. Dale records it from
Glanvilles' Wootton and Whittlesea Mere, and Mr.
Bignall sends it from Plymouth.

Continental distribution: Sweden, Germany, Switzer*
land, Italy, Russia.

PL 1, fig. 8, Larva (after Curtis).

Tenthredo dispar, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 141, 111 ; Htg.,
Blattw., 289, 10; Evers., Bull. Mosc.,
xx, 47, 13.

flavipes, Fourc., E. P., 26 ; Geoff., H. J., ii, 26 ; Lep.,
Mon., 132, 402.

Allantus flavipes, Curtis, B. E., pi. 764 (<?,dets. and lar.); Cam.,
E. M. M., xvi, 221 ; Andre, Species,
1,383; Cat., 48,* 15.

marginellus (in pt.), Eudow, S. E. Z., xxx, 137.

dispar, Kalt., Pfl., 274.

rufocingulatus, Tisclibein, S. E. Z., xiii, 108 (1852).

Black, shining, covered with a scattered down ; two basal joints of
antennae, labruin, clypeus and base of mandibles, tegulae, pronotum, a
large spot on pleurae, the outer edge of the basal abdominal segment, a
somewhat triangular spot on the sides of all the others, outer edge
of the fourth to seventh, the two apical segments wholly, and the legs
vellow ; coxae black at base ; the apical joints of the posterior tarsi
black; apex of fore tibiae and the tarsi fuscous-black; the posterior
paler. "Wings yellowish; costa, stigma and nervures luteous; the
palpi are pale yellow ; tips of mandibles blackish.

The ^ has the fourth to sixth and base of seventh abdominal seg-
ments reddish ; the following and a very thin line on the^sides of the


first yellow ; there is a black line over tlie posterior femora. Other-
wise it is of the same coloration as the ? .
Length 5 5? lines.

The yellowish wings and legs, as well as the fact of
all the abdominal segments being broadly marked with
the same colour, the yellow posterior tarsi and the
black anterior, as well as the large yellow spot on the
pleuraB, will readily enable this species to be identified.
Compared with arcuatus the body is smoother and not
nearly so strongly punctured. The red and yellow
abdomen of the $ makes it very conspicuous compared
to the same sex in the other British species. In both
sexes the amount of yellow on the body varies.

Two accounts have been published of the early
history of this insect. Curtis (1. c.) relates that the
perfect insect appeared in abundance at the end of
June in Batter sea Fields. Wishing to obtain living
specimens he went out there, and found two females
upon the flowers of Sinapis nigra and also six larvae,
which fed on that plant as well as on 8. alba. The
larvae ate the leaves, stalks and flowers. Curtis,
unfortunately, did not manage to rear these larvae, but
he had no doubt about their being those of A. flavipes.
Mr. F. Smith, too, confirms this opinion, he having
reared them himself. According to Curtis' s figure of
the larva it was of a grey colour, with ten (? eleven)
large black marks over the legs ; above each of these,
again, is a small black dot. The head is testaceous.
At the last moult the black marks were cast off,
except those on the head (which are not shown in the
figure). The pupa state was passed in the earth.

The other account is given by Kaltenbach, who says
that F. Eppelsheim bred the insect at the beginning of
June. The larvae fed up to the end of September on
the yellow flowers of Bupleurum falcatum, but not
eating the upper tender leaves. Unfortunately no
further details are given. In any case, however, I
think there can be no doubt as to the correctness of
the observations of Curtis and Smith.


Mr. Smith tells me that fiavipes is scarce in the
London district, but has once or twice been found in

On the Continent it appears to be somewhat rare.
It inhabits Germany, France, Hungary, Russia. *

PI. IX, fig. 4 a and 6, Trophi; fig. 5, Saw.

Tenthredo arcuatus, Forster, Cent., i, 79; Lep., Mon., 94,266

marginella, Pz., F. G., Ixiv, fig. 7; Lep., Mon., 91,

261 ; Fall., Acta, 1808, 52, 7.
flaveola (Gmel.), Lep., Mon., 90, 260.

notha, King, Berl. Mag., viii, 140, 110; Htg.,
Blattw., 289, 9; Evers., Bull.
Mcsc., xx, 37, 5.

Allantus arcuaius, Ste., 111., vii, 59, 7 ; Andre, Species, i, 376 ;

Cat., 50,* 43.

melanotiis, Rudow, S. E. Z., xxx, 139.

nothus, Rudow, S. E. Z., xxx, 137, 12 ; Thorns., Opus.,

298, 4 ; Hym. Scan., i, 260, 5 ;
Cam., Fauna, 16, 1 ; E. M. M.,
xvi, 221.

Black ; Lead and tliorax almost opaque, covered with a close pile and
punctured ; basal joint of antennae, labrum, clypeus, tegulae, a line on
the pronotum, one or two large marks on pleurae, scutellum, the greater
part of the first abdominal segment, a thin line on most of the others,
the sides and the greater part of the belly pale yellow. Legs yellow ; coxa)
at the base, femora above, apex of the hind tibiae and tarsi black ; the
anterior tibiae have a small black line behind, and the tarsi are either
yellow entirely or have a black line behind. The ventral segments are
marked at the apex with black, but in rare cases the belly is quite
yellow. Wings hyaline ; costa and stigma testaceous.

The 3 has the whole of the legs lined with black behind ; the belly
and coxae clear yellow. I have never seen a specimen with the scutellum
yellow, and the yellow line on the pronotum is smaller, if not obliterated

Length 4f 5i lines.

A very variable species. The basal joints of the
antennse may be entirely yellow; yellow only on the
lower surface or quite black; the scutellum is often
black. The anterior tibiae and tarsi are generally
slightly marked with black behind, but as frequently
they are entirely yellow; more rarely the posterior
tibiae are lined with black behind; the trochanters


are sometimes spotted with black; the edges of tlie
abdominal segments have generally greenish-yellow
lines, but not rarely they are entirely black.

The greenish-yellow marks on the pleurae readily
separate this insect from the other British species,
except from flavipes, which differs from it markedly in

B/udow (1. c.) is of opinion that arcuatus, dispar
(flavipes) and Schaefferi are varieties of the same
species, which he would name marginellus, Pz. He
says that the larvse* of the three species just mentioned
are coloured alike, being of a green colour, which
varies to a clearer or deeper hue. Before pupating
they are brownish, many times bearing brown spots.
He found them on Alnus, Umlelliferce, and Achillea,
but always immediately before they were preparing to
spin up, so that he was in ignorance of their precise
habits, and he seems to be even in doubt as to the
particular food plants.

With this opinion of Eudow's regarding the specific
identity of the three species we cannot agree, and it
is evident that flavipes has a very different larval
history from arcuatus.

Arcuatus is one of our commonest saw-flies. It is
found everywhere in June and July, the imago fre-
quenting the flowers of Ranunculaceat, Umbelliferce,
and Composite. It is very carnivorous, and will often
attack insects as big if not bigger than itself. The
species is equally common everywhere on the Con-

* "Larva opaca, yiridis, pruinosa, segmentum marginibus flavo-
viridis, oculis magnis brunneis ; capite viridi, crasso. In alni," 1. c.,
p. 137. Andre refers this description of larva to Scliae/eri.



Tenthredo Schae/eri, King, Berl. Mag., viii, 139, 109; Htg.,

Blattw., 288, 8; Evers., Bull.

Mosc., xx, 36, 4.
Allmius Schae/eri, Cam., E. M. M., xvi, 221 ; ? Rudow, S. E. Z.,

xxx, 137 ; Andre, Species, i, 375 ;

Cat., 48, *14.

Black ; vertex and mesonotum punctured, semiopaque ; pleura) like-
wise punctured, but not so deeply as the mesonotum ; the basal joints
of the antenna), clypeus, palpi, mandibles, scutellum, the greater part
of the pronotum, a small spot on the pleura, a large mark between the
two posterior coxa), a ring on the basal abdominal segment, a small
spot on the side of the third, a ring on the hind edge of the fourth and
fifth, a spot on side of sixth, a smaller one on seventh, the apex and
the edges of all the segments beneath yellow. Labrum and tips of
mandibles reddish-testaceous. Legs yellow ; coxa) at base, trochanters
in part, and a line on femora black ; apex of posterior tibia) and the
tarsi reddish ; the joints at the apex fuscous. Wings hyaline ; costa
and stigma testaceous ; tegulic black.

The 1$ has the band on the fourth abdominal segment broader than
in the ? , that on the fifth is interrupted in the middle; the yellow on
the apical segment is greater, and the anal appendages arc of the same
colour; the belly is entirely black. The coxa) and trochanters are
almost entirely yellow; the four anterior femora have only a narrow
black line above, the posterior are only yellow on the under side ; the
four front tibire and tarsi are lined with black above, except at the base
of the former, while the apical half of posterior tibia) and the tarsi are
entirely black, the tarsi being thickened and much longer than in the
? . The wings are decidedly infuscated at the apex, and are somewhat
shorter than in the female.

Length 4 j 5 lines.

Very similar to arcuatus, but larger ; the puncturing
on the mesonotum coarser and more opaque; the
yellow mark on the pleura is smaller, and the tegulae
are black.

It is not a common species, and is confined to the
South of England, where is has been taken near
Hastings by Mr. Butler, and by Mr. Bridgman at

Continental distribution : Germany, France, Switzer-
land, Italy, Hungary, Russia.



Allantus cmgulum, King, Berl. Mag., viii, 135, 105; Htg.,

Blattw., 287, 4; Evers., Bull.
Mosc., xx, 37, 6 ; Rudow, S. E. Z.,
xxx, 141, 15; Cam., E. M. M.,
xvi, 221.

Black, smooth, shining, not punctured ; the head, thorax and abdo-
men covered with a white silky down ; the basal joints of the antenna,
labrum, clypeus, sides of pronotum, and the apical half of the basal
abdominal segment above clear yellow; the fifth all round, a ring on
sixth, and (sometimes at the apex, more rarely at base) the ninth above
pale yellow. Legs : coxae, trochanters, base of femora and tibiae yellow ;
apex of hinder tibiae and tarsi reddish ; anterior tarsi yellowish ; the
apical joints and the base of tibiae black or fuscous; femora black,
except at base and apex. Tegulae black, white in front. Wings hyaline,
scarcely infuscated at the apex ; costa and stigma testaceous, the latter
fuscous at the apex.

The <J has only a narrow yellow stripe on the first abdominal seg-
ment ; the fifth, and sometimes the sixth, the belly (save at the apex)
and legs are yellow ; apex of the hinder femora, tibiae and the hinder
tarsi black. The stigma, too, is darker.

Length 5? 5f lines.

Ab. a. The sixth abdominal segment yellow be-
neath and above. This is the commonest form in this
country; according to the descriptions the sixth
segment is only yellow on the upper side.

Ab. b. Scutellum yellow, entirely or in part.

This species differs from all the other British Allanti
in having the head and mesonotum smooth, shining,
and unpunctured. In that peculiarity it agrees with
A. zona, Kl., and A. zonula, Klug, but is known from
both by having the sixth abdominal segment marked
with yellow, and the apex of hinder tibiae and tarsi
luteous, both the other species having these parts
annulated with black. Zonula is further distinguished
from it by having the head scarcely dilated behind the
eyes, four anterior legs entirely yellow, the hind
femora only black at apex, and the seventh abdominal
segment without any yellow band.

So far as I know it is not very common, and seems
to be confined to the south. Mr. Smith took it in


Bircli Wood, and I have received it from Hastings,
where it was taken by the Rev. A. N. Bloomfield.

It appears to be rare on the Continent, and has been
recorded from Germany, Switzerland, France and


Tenthredo tenula, Scop., I. C., 725 ; Vill., I. P., 68.

Rossii, Pz., F. G., xci, fig. 15 ; Lep., Mon., 92, 264.

zonata, Fall., Acta, 1808, 51, 5.

2-fasciata, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 141, 112; Htg.,

Blattw., 289, 11 ; Evers., Bull. Mosc.,
xx, 39, 10.

Allantus tenuliis, Ste., 111., vii, 60, 8 ; Cam., E. M. M., xvi, 221 ;
Andre, Species, i, 372 ; Cat., 47,* 2.

2'fasciatus, Endow, S. E. Z., xxx, 94, 8 ; Thorns., Opus.,
298, 8; Hym., Scand., i, 261, 8.

Black, almost shining, densely covered with a short grey pile ; head
and thorax finely punctured, pleurae roughly so ; a line on the pronotum,
a band on the upper surface and sides of the third and fourth abdo-
minal segments, and tibiae and tarsi yellow ; apices of all the tibiae and
of the apical tarsal joints fuscous ; a yellow band is over the apical half
of the anterior femora. Wings with a yellowish tinge, clouded at apex
from the stigma ; costa and stigma yellowish-testaceous.

The <? is similar, except that the tarsi are entirely black.

Length 5 5 lines.

Tenulus is readily known from all the other British
species of the genus by the totally black antennae and
mouth, less clavate antennas, legs black at the base,
&c. The head behind the eyes, too, projects more,
and the pubescence on the head and thorax is darker.
Allantus Koehleri, KL, is a close continental ally, but it
has four of the abdominal segments yellow, and there
are two small yellow spots on the post-scutellum. In
tenulus the size of the yellow abdominal bands varies.

The larva is stated by Rudow to have the body
" toto pruinoso, pilifero," brownish-green on the upper
part, clear green on the lower. On the back are two
brownish dorsal stripes ; each segment bears two
diverging brownish strips on the sides, as well as eight
points in two rows. The head and anus are brown, the
former covered with short bristles; eyes black. He


says, also, that the colour varies from brown to clear
green, and the markings are subject to irregularity.
The larva feeds on UmbellifercB and alder.

Tenulus seems to be rare. Stephens says that it
was taken near London in July, and Mr. Dale informs
me that it has occurred in the Bristol district.

Continental distribution: Sweden, Germany, Swit-
zerland, France, Italy, Tyrol, Russia and Greece.

PI. IX, fig. 3, ? .

Tenthredo vidua, Kossi, F. E., 715, tab. 3, fig. 6 ; Lep., F. Fr.,

pi. 5, fig. 4; Mon., 93, 265.
sareptana, Evers., Bull. Mosc., xx, 39, 11.
Allantus viduus, Cam., E. M. M., xvi, 221 ; Andre, Species, i,
371; Cat., 47,* 1.

Deep violet-black, shining, with, a few shallow punctures ; head and
thorax pilose ; the greater part of the third abdominal segment, above
and at the sides, and the posterior tibia?, except the extreme apex, white.
Wings dark violet black, iridescent.

The <? has the posterior tibia? black.

Length 67 lines.

I have noticed the following aberrations :

Ab. a. Anterior femora at the apex and tibiae in
front white ; fourth segment with a white line at the
side, that on the third being narrower in the middle.
$ and $ . These are two specimens from Sicily,
taken by Prof. Zeller, and stuck on the same pin.
The ? has the basal joint of the posterior tarsus
white, and the tibia in the # is white as in the ? .

Ab. b. As in description, but anterior tibige white
in front. $ .

Ab. c. Apex of anterior femora and tibise white in
front ; abdomen without the white ring. $ . A speci-
men which I received from Dr. F. Endow, of Perle-
berg, with the locality Greece.

In the form of the head, antennse and body gene-
rally viduus agrees with tenulus. The deep violet-
black colour distinguishes it from all the other forms.

As a British species it is known by a single speci-


men taken by the late Ed \vanl Newman at Darenth
Wood, and one in Mr. C. W. Dale's possession from

It is purely a southern insect. The Eev. T. A.
Marshall, F.L.S., informs me that it is common in the
Pyrenees, where it flies in the sunshine. It also
inhabits France, Switzerland, Tyrol, Hungary, Italy,
Dalmatia, Greece and Russia.


Sciapteryx, Ste., 111., vii, 56 (1835).
Eniscia, Thorns., Opus., Ent., 299.
Allantus, Auct.

Wings : lanceolate cellule broad, with a short perpendicular nervure.

Antennae pilose, short, thick, scarcely longer than the thorax; the
first joint very large, with a short pedicle at the base, truncated at the
apex ; double the length and thickness of the second, third more than
double the length of the fourth ; the fifth to eighth somewhat swollen,
varying in length ; ninth conical, thinner than the others.

Clypeus with a semicircular emargination at the apex, the outer edges

Labrum emarginated at the apex.

Head broad, thick ; front thick ; antenna) placed wide apart ; vertex
thick, its sutures scarcely visible ; frontal sutures entirely so. Eyes
small, scarcely converging, considerably removed from the base of

Abdomen depressed, short, thick. Blotch large.

Legs longish ; tibiai longer than the femora.

The position of the eyes separates this genus
readily from Allantus. It differs also in the body
shape and in coloration, being much shorter and
thicker, with the abdomen more depressed than in the
last-mentioned genus. Characteristic, too, is the
emarginated labrum, while the antennaB are not so
thickened at the apex, being also pilose. So far as is
known the species are black, with the apical segments
of abdomen lined with white.

I am not aware that Sciopteryx is found elsewhere
than in Europe and North America.


PL IX, fig. 6, ? .

Tenthredo eostalis, Fab., E. S., ii, 109, 22.

Hylotoma eostalis, Fab., S. P., 24, 15.

Tenthredo eostalis, VilL, Lin. Ent., 79 ; Lep., F. Fr., pi. 7, fig.
5; Hon., 108, 314; King, Berl. Mag.,
viii, 78, 65 ; Htg., Blattw., 290, 13.
fulvivenia, Schr., En., 338, 682.

Allantus eostalis, Rudow, S. E. Z., xxx, 93, 7.

Sciapteryx costalis, Ste., 111., vii, 56, 1 ; Cam., Fauna, 16, 1 ;
Andre, Species, i, 408; Cat. 51,* 1.

Short, thick, black ; head and thorax strongly and coarsely punctured,
covered with a grey pubescence ; greyish-white are the inner orbits of
the eyes, clypeus (except the extreme apex, which is reddish-brown),
labrum, mandibles, a line along the pronotum, coxae in part, the greater
part of the femora and tibiae in front, a thin line on the third, fourth,
and fifth abdominal segments above, the greater part of the succeeding
above, as well as the sides and belly. Tegulae, base of costa, stigma,
and a spot in front of the latter ochreous-yellow ; the rest of the costa
and stigma, with the nervures, black. Wings fuscous. The antennae
have the apical joints brownish. $

The female has only the inner orbits of the eyes in the middle, the
labrum, tibiae in front, and the apical segments of the abdomen, above
and at the sides, white; the coxae and femora are entirely black;
trochanters pale.

Length 4 4| lines.

This is the only British species known of this genus,
which contains two other European forms likely to
occur here, viz. 8. consobrinus, KL, which differs from
it in having the mouth, orbits of the eyes, costa and
stigma quite black ; the white line on the pronotum
being also smaller ; the tegulas only brownish in front,
black behind, and the wings hyaline ; and S. artica,
Thorns., which has the clypeus deeply incised in the
middle; antennae bare; head and thorax alutaceous,
and the tibise and tarsi luteous.

Costalis does not appear to be a very common species
in Britain, although it is widely distributed. Stephens
records it from Coombe "Wood, and near Bristol and
Hertford. Mr. Parfitt takes it in Devonshire, and Mr.
Dale at Leelworth, while Dr. Sharp has captured it in
Braemar and Thornhill. It is found early in the
season, early in April in England, May in Scotland.


On the Continent it has been recorded from Ger-
many, France and Switzerland.

Sub-tribe DOLERIDES.

Dolerus, Jurine, Hymen., 56.

Wings with two radial and three cubital cellules ; the first cubital
small, the second long and receiving the two recurrent nervures.
Lanceolate cellule with an oblique cross ncrvure. Basal nervure
straight, received at a distance from cubital. Costa dilated before
stigma. Transverse median nervure received in middle of discoidal
cellule. Stigma black, often pale at the base. Two middle cellules in
hind wings.

Antenncc 9-jointed, generally inserted immediately over the clypcus,
not longer, if not shorter than the abdomen, the third joint a little
longer than fourth.

Legs of moderate length, patellae distinct ; claws armed with a minute
tooth; calcarea short and rather blunt; posterior tarsi shorter than

Head with the vertex thick ; suture not very distinct. Eyes small,
not reaching to base of mandibles. Clypeus large, incised, but not
deeply. Labrum of moderate size, rounded at apex. Mandibles with
three subapical teeth. See PI. XII, fig. 14.

Thorax with the sutures and parapsides distinct. Cenchri large,

Abdomen sharply contracted from sixth segment ; the blotch small,
but distinct enough. The dorsuni is often keeled; cerci large. Saw

The species of this genus have generally the head
and thorax more or less punctured, and covered with
longish hair. Most of the species are black, or black
with the legs more or less reddish, or more rarely
white ; or the abdomen may be banded with red, in
which case the legs may be either entirely black, or
black and red. With the red-banded species the sexes
often differ very much in coloration, while they have
the antennae longer. Their bodies are generally
thickish, but are more cylindrical with the red-banded

The Dolerides are chiefly vernal species, in fact, they
are amongst the earliest to appear of the Tenthre-
(litidce, and are often found on willow catkins. Not
much is known about their Iarva3, but so far as they


have been identified they do not differ in any essential
points from those of the Tenthredinides. All the
species that have been discovered feed either on
grasses (Festuca, &c.) or on Juncus. In colour they
are greenish, or dark coloured on back and upper part
of the sides, the lower part being white. So far as is
known they do not spin cocoons, but form cells in the
earth to pass the period of transition.

They are of wide distribution in the Palasarctic
region, they are also found in Northern China, and are
not uncommon in the Nearctic region. Nearly sixty
European species have been described, as well as
seventeen North American.

Leach formed the yellow-banded species into a
distinct genus Dosytheus, which he separated from
Dolerus by the species (according to him) having the
third antennal joint longer than the fourth, these joints
being said to be equal with the other genus. That
peculiarity, however, is worthless, as is also the colour,
which was used by Stephens as a means of generic
distinction. The sub-tribe thus contains only one

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