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A monograph of the British phytophagous Hymenoptera .. (Volume 1) online

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genus.* It is most nearly related to the Tenthre-
dinides, but differs in the alar neuration and body
form, which is very uniform. Most of the species
have the head and thorax punctured and covered with
longish hair, this latter being the case with the apical
abdominal segments and the belly. The last (ninth)
abdominal segment is more developed on the dorsal
side than in the Tenthredinides.

The yellow-banded species are not difficult to
identify, but great difficulty is experienced in deter-
mining the black-bodied ones, and I am not at all
satisfied that I have succeeded in describing our
species in a clear manner. It is very difficult to find
good specific characters that do not vary ; and another
difficult task is to assign the males to their proper
partners. The best characters appear to be afforded

* As regards Pelmatopus (placed by Hartig as a sub-genus of Dolerus')
see infra.


by the form of the head, by the amount of puncturing
on it and on the thorax, by the form of the thoracic
sutures, of the neuration, and of the ovipositor. As
regards punctation it cannot always be depended upon,
for it seems to vary in intensity in the same species.
By the form of the head in wanting sutures on the
vertex -fissus, oUongus and megaptera are readily
separated from the other species. Another well-
marked group is formed by cor acinus and anthr acinus
distinguished alike by the smooth, shining, almost
impunctate body, and by the suture bounding the
middle lobe of the mesonotum being semi-circular at
the apex, while with the other species it is triangular,
and their mesonotum is punctured almost throughout.
There can be no doubt that the form of the ovipositor
can be safely relied upon in separating the species, but
it is not always easy of application. The black species
should always have their saws extended in such a way
when the insects are fresh that they can be examined
by the microscope a procedure which will save
much trouble in naming the species afterwards. The
position of the nervures may, within certain limits, be
depended upon, but no great reliance can be placed on
the colour of the spurs, though this was a character
relied upon by Hartig for discriminating species. It
only remains to add that the form of the body is apt
to change, owing to the abdominal segments shrinking
in. This causes sometimes the abdomen to bulge out
at the sides and become depressed on the back. With
age, too, the nervures become paler.

Synopsis of Species.

1 (4) Eyes oblong, inner orbits margined ; tegulao and labram white ;

abdominal segments in both sexes, or in <J only, marked
with white membranous spots. Parapsides not dilated
behind >

2 (3) Legs black ; the anterior knees and base of tibia) dirty white.


3 (2) Legs for the greater part red. Vestigialis,


4 (1) Eyes oval, the inner orbits not margined. Abdomen without

membranous spots. Parapsides dilated behind.

5 (14) Abdomen red from the second segment ; in <J red in centre ;

legs black. Thorax for the greater part red with the ? ,
black with the $.

6 (13) Thorax marked with red.

7 (8) Scutellum red ; three black marks on mesonotum. Triplicatus.'

8 (7) Scutellum black.

9 (10) Base of abdomen and a large space beneath fore wings red.


10 (9) Base of abdomen and mesopleura black.

11 (12) Side lobes of mesonotum and tibia3 reddish. Eglanteritg.

12 (11) Side lobes of mesonotum and tibias black. Anticus.

13 (6) Thorax entirely black. Chappelli.

14 (17) Abdomen black at base and apex. Thorax entirely black.

Legs marked with red.

15 (16) Abdomen red, black at base and apex. Smooth, shining, not

carinated nor granulated ; all the tarsi black ; the tibia3 in
part red. Palustris.

16 (15) Abdomen with the third, fourth, and part of second and fifth

segments red, scarcely shining, very finely granulated,
keeled in the middle ; the base of four anterior femora and
anterior tibise and tarsi entirely red. Dubius.

17 (30) Abdomen entirely black.

18 (27) Thorax entirely black; femora and tibiaB more c*r less red.

19 (24) Posterior legs marked with red ; tegulaa black.

20 (23) Cerci black ; femora for the greater part black.

21 (22) Mesonotum smooth, shining, impunctate. Gonagra.

22 (21) Mesonotum punctured, scarcely shining ; parapsides not dilated

behind. Puncticollis.

23 (20) Cerci red ; femora for the greater part red. Liogaster.

24 (19) Hind legs entirely black.

25 (19) Tegula3 red ; wings hyaline. Scoticus.

26 (25) Tegulae black ; wings fuscous at apex. Gessncri.

27 "(18) Thorax more or less sanguineous ; legs black.

28 (29) Mesonotum red. Sanguinicollis.

29 (28) Mesonotum black. Hccmatodis.

30 (17) Head, thorax, legs and abdomen entirely black or bluish-black.

31 (34) Middle lobe of mesonotum oval or U-shaped at base.

32 (33) Transverse radial nervure interstitial. Coracinus.

33 (32) Transverse radial nervure not interstitial. Anthracinus.

34 (31) Middle lobe of mesonotum V-shaped at base.

35 (36) Mesonotum opaque, roughly punctured all over ; cenchri large,

clear ivory-white. Fissus.

36 (35) Mesonotum shining, not punctured all over, cenchri of medium


37 (42) Vertex without distinct sutures.

38 (39) Wings infuscated ; antennae distinctly thickened from third

joint, not attenuated at the apex. Tinctipennis.

39 (38) Wings hyaline; antenna attenuated at the apex.

40 (41) Vertex and mesonotum almost glabrous, the puncturation on

lateral lobes indistinct. Ollongus.

41 (40) Vertex and mesonotum densely pilose, the puncturation on

lateral lobes distinct. Megaptera.

42 (37) Vertex with distinct sutures.


43 (46) Recurrent and transverse nervures, lower part of stigma and

bind spurs white.

44 (45) Transverse radial and recurrent nervures in hind wings inter-

stitial. Varispinus.

45 (44) Transverse radial and recurrent nervures in hind wings not


46 (47) Lateral lobes of mesonotum almost impunctate ; mesonotum

subglabrous ; hind spurs black. Possilensis.

47 (46) Lateral lobes of mesonotum punctured; mesonotum densely

pilose ; hind spurs pale. Intennedius.

48 (43) Recurrent and transverse nervures black ; hind spurs mostly


49 (50) Wiugs smoky at apex; cenchri fuscous. Niger.

50 (49) Wings hyaline ; cenchri white.

51 (52) Cerci red ; antennae long, filiform ; stigma pale on lower side.


52 (51) Cerci black ; antennae short; vertex with a distinct bluish tinge.



Dolerus palmatus, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 236; Ste., Ill, vii,

87, 6; Htg., Blattw., 235, 16;
Thorns., Hym. Scand., i, 279, 1;
Cam., Fauna, 49 ; Andre, Species,
i, 271 ; Cat. 34,* 26.

Black ; head and pleurae covered with a long grey pile ; mesonotum,
very shortly pilose and pretty deeply and coarsely punctured through-
out. Vertex opaque, finely punctured ; upper part of pleurae punctured,
but not so deeply as the mesonotum. Clypeus deeply incised. Cenchri
large, clear white. Legs black, covered with a short, whitish pile ;
anterior tibiae and tarsi fuscous ; knees and anterior tibiae in front dull
white ; calcaria yellowish-white ; the tarsal joints pale at the extreme
apex. Wings hyaline ; costa and stigma fuscous ; tegulae pale fuscous.
Antennae short.

The <? has the abdominal segments marked with thin white lines at
the junction of the segments ; above there is a long thin white line on
the first, second, and third and at the apex, and a large membranous one
on the centre of the fourth and fifth, sometimes also on the sixth.

Length nearly 4 lines.

This scarce species is readily known from all the
others by the white colour on the legs.

I have seen a d taken by Dr. Sharp at Dairy, and
Stephens records it from Hertford and Darenth Wood.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany, France.

VOL. I. 11



Dolerus vestigialis, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 305, 242; Htg.,

Blattw., 236, 22 ; Evers., BuJl.
Mosc., xx, 24, 10 ; Ste., 111., vii,
88, 9 ; Thorns., Hym. Scand., i,
280, 2; Cam., Fauna, 17, 6;
Andre, Species, i, 272 ; Cat. 34,*
rufipes, Lep., F. Fr., pi. 9, fig. 5 ; Mon., 124, 367. ?

Black; abdomen shining; thorax semi-opaque; the whole of the
femora, four anterior tibiae, and hinder tibiae at the base, red ; vertex
and upper part of pleurae strongly and roughly punctured ; mesonotum
punctured, but scarcely so deeply and roughly as the pleurae ; breast
finely punctured. Antennae short, thick, attenuate at the apex; third
joint longer than fourth. Abdomen shining, smooth, the apical segments
whitish at the junction ; on the back of the second and third at the junc-
tion, are two small white marks. Tegulae black, grey, or white ; labrum
rarely white ; palpi pale red. Wings whitish hyaline, costa and stigma
black. $ and $.

Length 3| 4 lines.

I have taken this insect (which does not seem to be
very common) at Dunham Park, Cheshire, and Mr.
Bridgman takes it at Norwich.


Dolerus triplicatus, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 295, 221 ; Htg.,

Blattw., 282, 4 ; Eversmann,
Bull. Mosc., xx, 23, 3 ; Thorns.,
Hym. Scand., i, 286, 16;
Andre, Species, i, 263; Cat.,
32,* 3.
? trimaculatus, Lep., Mon., 121, 358.

Dosytheus triplicatus, Ste., 111., vii, 84, 8.

Dolerus lugubris, Gim., Bull. Mosc., 1844, 125.

Yeilowish-red ; antennae, head, breast and lower edge of the pleurae,
three large marks on the mesonotum, and metanotum between the
cenchri black. Head and thorax densely covered with a greyish pile ;
head deeply and coarsely punctured, the punctures on the mesonotum
are scattered and fine, on the breast deep and rather coarse ; antennae
shorter than the abdomen. Wings with a faint fuscous tinge ; tegulae
red in front, black behind. ? and <^.

Thomson describes the <$ as having the basal segment of the abdomen
black, but this is not the case with the specimen I have seen, which
does not differ materially in coloration from the ? .

Length 4| lines.


Easily recognised from the other British species by
the three black marks on the mesonotum.

The only British example of this insect that I have
seen was one taken by the Rev. T. A. Marshall in
England, but I do not know the exact locality ; those
in Stephens' s collection were taken in the neighbour-
hood of London.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany, Hol-
land, France, Switzerland, Russia.


? Dolerus latentius, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 295, 220; HI

Blattw., 232, 3; Evers., Bull.

Mosc., xx, 23, 2; Thorns., Hym.

Scand., i, 287, 17 ; Andre, Species,

i, 262 ; Cat., 32,* 1 ; Cam., Fauna,

c? madidus, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 298, 223; Htg.,

Blattw., 233, 8; Evers., Bull.

Mosc., xx, 23, 4.

Dosytheus lateritius, Ste., 111., vii, 82, 3.
madidus, 1. c , 84, 8.

Black ; head and thorax covered with a dense greyish pile, breast
and mesonotum in the middle finely punctured and shining ; pleura?
with large but not very deep roundish punctures ; prothorax, tegulas,
the apical half of the mesopleurse and mesonotum (save the scutellum
which is black) reddish ; abdomen dilated, smooth and shining, red-
dish-yellow ; sheath of saw black. Antennae shorter than the abdomen.
Wings almost hyaline.

The <$ has the thorax quite black, antennas longer than the abdomen,
which has the second to the sixth segment banded with reddish-yellow.

Length 5 5| lines.

This insect is rather like 3-plicatus in form and
general coloration, but it may be easily distinguished
by observing that the mesonotum bears no black, while
the scutellum and the metanotum are black, the
opposite being the case with 3-plicatus, which has
besides the pleurae, red along their whole extent,
instead of only the anterior part.

A commonly distributed species. It has been
taken in Aberdeenshire (Trail), Clydesdale, Glanvilles'
Wootton, and in the London district.


On the Continent it is found in Sweden, Germany,
Holland, France, Switzerland, Russia.


PL IX, fig. 7 ? , 9 c? .

Tenthredofulviventris, Scop., I. C., 736 ; Schr., En., 337, 679 ;

Vill., E. P., 64.

pratensis, Fall., Acta, 1808, 64.

pedestris, Pz., F. G., Ixxxii, fig. 11.

eglanterice, Fab., E. S., ii, 109, 19; Spin., Ins, Lag.,

ii, 155, 38.

germanica, Pz., F. G., Hi, fig. 4; Fab., E. S., ii,

116, 43; Spin., Ins. Lig., i,
56; VilL.E. P., ii, 76; Schaef.,
Ic., t 62, fig. 89.

Hylotoma eglanterice, Fab., S. P., 25, 18.

Dolerus eglanterite, Lep., Mon., 120,356; Klug, Berl. Mag.,

viii, 291, 218; Htg., Blattw.,
232, 1 ; Evers., Bull. Mosc., xx,
22, 1.
germanicus, Lep., Mon., 121, 359.

bajulus, Lep., Mon., 121, 357.

pratensis, Thorns., Hym. Scand., i, 284, 10; Cam.,

Fauna, 17, 1; Andre, Species,
1, 263 ; Cat., 33,* 14.
Dosytheus eglanteriez, Ste., 111., vii, 82, 1.

hyalinis, Ste., I.e., 83, 4.

fulviventris, Ste., I.e., 83, 5.

bajulus, Ste., 111., I.e., 83, 6.

xanthopus, Ste., I.e., 83, 7.

Head covered with a greyish pile, punctured, opaque, frontal sutures
invisible ; pleurse opaque, covered with a close, depressed pile, and with
deep irregular punctures ; middle lobe of the mesonotum scarcely punc-
tured, smooth, shining ; lateral lobes and scutellum with a fine puncta-
tion. Antennae shorter than abdomen, somewhat attenuated at the
apex. Head and antennae black. Thorax with the sides, breast,
scutellum and metanotum, black, the rest of the thorax and tegulae
red. Abdomen reddish, basal joint black. Legs black ; apex of
femora and tibiae more or less reddish. Wings subhyaline, with a
blackish tinge ; nervures and costa black.

Length 3 3f lines.

The above is a description of the commonest form,
but numerous varieties occur. The scutellum may be
red, a common aberration has a black mark on the
middle lobe of the mesonotum, the latter and the pro-
notum are not unfrequently marked with black. In


rare cases the apical abdominal segments are spotted
with black, while the legs may be totally black, or
have the femora and tibia3 almost wholly red.

The cT has the thorax wholly black, as well as the
three or four apical abdominal segments. It has
usually the posterior tibiae red, except at the extreme

An exceedingly common species, found everywhere
among horsetails in June and July. The larvaa pro-
bably feed on these plants. It is a species spread
widely over Europe.

Obs. Thomson adopts the name ofpratensis, Lin., for this species, but
I have not followed him in this, not being satisfied as to the identity of
the two, especially as in the Linnean collection pratensis is represented
by Dolerus tristis, Kl.

Tcnthredo abietinus, Lin., is represented in the collection by Dolerus
timidus, Kl.


Dolerus anticus, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 292,219; Htg., Blattw.,
232, 2 ; Thorns., Hym. Scand., i, 287,
18 ; Andre, Species, i, 265 ; Cat., 32,*

ferrugatus, Lep., F. Fr , pi. 9, fig. 1 ; Mon., 122, 361.
Dosytheus anticus, Ste., 111., vii, 82, 2.

Black ; densely covered on the head and thorax with a long, grey
pile ; vertex and mesonotum finely punctured, mesopleurse covered with
deep, roundish punctures, middle lobe of the mesonotum scarcely punc-
tured ; antennae a little longer than the abdomen, the middle joints
somewhat thickened ; prothorax, middle lobe of mesonotum, tegulae and
abdomen red ; the basal segment of abdomen and the sheath of saw
black. Wings hyaline ; nervures, costa and stigma black.

The <^ has the antenna? scarcely double the length of the head, and
the abdomen narrowly banded with red in the middle (tests Thomson).

Length 4 5 lines.

Anticus closely resembles lateritius, but is smaller,
and is more deeply punctured ; the middle lobe only of
the mesonotum is red, and scarcely any of the pleurae,
the first abdominal segment too being black, while in
lateritius it is reddish, nor is the abdomen so much
inflated as in the last mentioned species.

The only British localities I know for anticus are


those mentioned by Stephens Bipley and near Here-
ford and Worcester, where it has been taken by Mr.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany, Hol-
land, France, Switzerland.

PI. IX, fig. 8 ? .

Dolerus Chappelli, Cameron, E. M. M., xiv, 155 ; Andre, Species,

i, 204; Cat., 33*15.

$ dull black, with a faint bluish tinge, densely covered with a pale
pubescence, deeply and coarsely punctured. Abdomen from the second
segment reddish-yellow; the sheath of the saw black. Wings sub-
hyaline ; costa, stigma and nervures black.

Length 4^ lines.

The nearest ally of this insect is D. anticus, but it
has the clypeus more deeply incised, pubescence thicker
and closer, abdomen more sharply pointed, pleura? less
shining, and the whole of the first abdominal segment
with the tegulas, pronotum and mesonotum black.

A single specimen has been taken by Mr. Joseph
Chappell in Staffordshire.


Dolerus palustris, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 296, 222 ; Htg., Blattw.,

233, 6; Thorns., Hym. Scand., i, 283, 9;

Cam., Fauna, 17, 3 ; Andre, Species, i, 267 ;

Cat., 33,* 11; Fitch, Proc. Ent. Soc., 1881,

? uliginosus, Kl., Berl. Mag., viii, 297, 223 ; Htg., Blattw.,

233, 7 (ab.).
Dosytheus junci, Ste., 111., vii, 84, 11.

Black ; the second and sixth at the base and apex respectively, and
the intermediate segments of the abdomen, with the knees and tibiae
(except at the apex), red ; mesonotum and breast finely punctured ;
tegula? black. Wings subhyaline, having a fuscous tinge; the basal
segments of abdomen smooth, shining. ? and $ .

Length 3^ 4 lines.

Ab. a. Posterior tibia3 black ; anterior brownish in
front, or entirely black, and the abdominal band of a


darker red, sometimes marked with black, and the
mesonotum duller (uliginosus).

Ab. b. Hinder tibiae fuscous; antennas brownish

The nearest ally of palustris is equiseti, Kl., which
differs from it in having the tegulae and the femora,
tibiae and tarsi red. From pratensis it differs, of
course, in coloration, and the puncturing, too, is
weaker. The neuration is subject to considerable
malformation in both sexes.

A very common species, found in most localities in

The larva is cylindrical, the skin in folds. Head
black ; the face and the sides, a little from above the
eyes, white ; a semicircular black mark in the middle
of the face. Upper part of the body dark drab-black,
lighter on the centre of the back ; the sides from a
little above the spiracles white or greenish-white ; anal
segment white. The eyes are in the black portion of
the head, but the sides behind them are white. Legs
white ; a black mark over the thoracic. The spiracles
are blackish.

It feeds in August on Equisetum palustre and
limosutn, eating from the top downwards, and fre-
quently from the inside of the stem. No cocoon was
spun in my breeding cage.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany, Hol-
land, France and Switzerland.


Dolerus dubius, King, Berl. Mag.,viii, 299, 228; Htg., Blattw.,
234, 11 ; Erers., Bull. Mosc., xx, 23, 5 ;
Thorns., Hym. Seand., i, 282, 7 ; Andre,
Species, i, 266 ; Cat., 33,* 9.

Dosytheus dubius, Ste., 111., vii, 85, 13.

Black ; second and fifth segments of abdomen, at the base and apex
respectively, the third and fourth wholly, and the knees, apex of four
anterior femora, and tibiae and tarsi red ; apex of tarsi fuscous. An-
tennae shorter than the abdomen. Mesonotum finely and closely
punctured ; pleurae with deep, roundish punctures ; first abdominal


segment punctured; dorsum of abdomen bluntly carinated. Wings
hyaline; nervures black; stigma brownish on the lower side; tegulae

The $ has the abdomen narrowed considerably towards the apex, the
red ring much narrower, sometimes obliterated entirely.

Length 5^ lines.

D. timidus, Kl., differs from the present species in
being larger, and in having all the tibise and tarsi red,
as well as the apical half of the femora ; D. tristis,
again, is smaller, has the posterior legs black, the
anterior knees and tibise reddish, tegulse reddish,
head narrower, and it is also a smaller and narrower
insect than dubius.

Stephens records dubius as being found rarely in
July in the vicinity of London.

It is spread nearly all over the European continent ;
eastward as far as the Ural range, and southward to
the Mediterranean ; north into Sweden.

PL XIX, figs. 3 and 3 a, Saw.

Dolerus gessneri, Andre, Species, i, 273; Cat., 34,* 29; cf. Cam.,
Tr., Ent. Soc., 1881, 574.

Black ; anterior knees and basal half of tibiae and spurs red. Wings
hyaline ; apical half more or less fuscous. Head and thorax densely
covered with a close white pile ; punctured all over ; more or less pilose
at the sides and at apex ; the segmental divisions white ; basal segment
punctured. Cenchri cream coloured. Antennae as long as the abdomen,
thickened, but not very much, from third joint, scarcely attenuated at
the apex; third joint considerably longer than the fourth. The
scutellum has the puncturation not so distinct as the mesonotum.

Length 4| 5 lines.

Ab. a. Fore legs entirely black.

Of the same size and almost similarly coloured as
D. niger, but is easily known by the absence of sutures
in the vertex, by the thicker antennas, more deeply
and uniformly punctured mesonotum, clearer coloured
cenchri and appendiculated accessory nervure in hind
wings. Its nearest ally is D. tinctipennis, with which
it agrees in the general form of the saw, but that


species, again, is smaller, has the legs always black,
tlic antennas shorter and more distinctly thickened
from third joint, mesonotum almost smooth and
shining, &c.

Eare. Cladich, Loch Awe in June.


PI. XIX, fig. 1, Saw.

Dolerus scoticus, Cam., E. M. M., xvii, 206 (1880).

Black ; tegulse, four anterior knees and apex of tibiae reddish ; the
red on the middle legs being more obscure than on the front pair.
Head, thorax and apex of abdomen covered with a long white pubescence.
Head, pleurae and mesonotum punctured all over. Antennae nearly as
long as the abdomen, scarcely attenuated at apex. Wings hyaline;
costa and stigma black, the latter pale on the underside. ? .

Length 3 lines.

Agrees with puncticollis in the punctured meso-
notum, but the puncturing is more distinct, body
shorter, abdomen more inflated, antennae longer, and
the radial nervure is received further from the second

A rare species. Taken by Dr. Sharp at Braemar in

PL XIX, fig. 2, Saw.

Dolerus tinctipennis, Cam., Tr., Ent. Soc., 1881, 574.

Deep black, shining, covered on head and thorax with a close, white
and long pubescence ; head and mesonotum punctured, the head
roughly, scutellum and middle lobe clearly, but not deeply nor closely,
the lateral lobes on inner sides faintly, and on outer scarcely at all.
Sutures on vertex scarcely visible. Antennae not much longer than
abdomen ; third joint not much thinner than the following and one-
fourth longer than the fourth joint, which is a very little longer than
the fifth ; the joints from the fourth distinctly thickened; two apical a
very little thinner than the preceding, but still thicker than the third.
Cenchri large, greyish white. Base of abdomen smooth, unpunctured.
Wings with deep black nervures and stigma; apical half in both wings
smoky brown; inner half almost hyaline; accessory nervure in hind


wings shortly appendiculated ; the transverse median nervure is
received a little in front of the middle of cellule. Spurs longish ; four
anterior fuscous ; posterior deep black.
Length 3^ lines.

The deep black colour, antennae distinctly thickened
from the third joint, and black- tinted wings separate
readily this species.

Rare. London district.

PL IX, fig. 10 ? , 11 c 3 organs.

Tenthredo gonagra, Fab., E. S., ii, 117, 48 ; S. P., 34, 25 ; Pz, F.
G., Ixiv, fig. 6.

crassa, Scop., I. C., 730; Schrank, En., 328, 659;

Pz, F. G., Ixv, fig. 14 ( ? ) ; Vill.,
E. P., ii, 54 ; Spin, Ins. Lig, i, 56,

erythrogona, Schr, En, 338, 681 ; Vill., E. P, 65.

geniculata, Fourc, I. P, ii, 313, 74.

Dolerus gonager, Kl, Berl. Mag, viii, 305, 241 ; Lep, F. Fr,
pi. 9, fig. 6; Mon, 124, 370;
Ste, 111, vii, 88, 8 ; Htg , Blattvv.,

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