Peter Cameron.

A monograph of the British phytophagous Hymenoptera .. (Volume 1) online

. (page 15 of 31)
Online LibraryPeter CameronA monograph of the British phytophagous Hymenoptera .. (Volume 1) → online text (page 15 of 31)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

230, 21 ; Evers, Bull. Mosc, xx,
24, 9; Thorns, Hym. Scand, i,
285, 13; Kalt., Pfl, 746 (lar.) ;
Cam, Fauna, 17, 5 ; Andre, Species.
i, 274 ; Cat. 34,* 37.
? femoratus, Evers, Bull. Mosc, xx, 24, 11.

Black, shining ; knees broadly red ; vertex and upper side of pleuraB
strongly punctured ; mesonotum slightly punctured, smooth, shining.
Parapsides dilated. Abdomen with the edges of the segments white.
Antennae a little shorter than the abdomen, very slightly attenuated at
the apex. <$ and ? .

Length 45 lines.

This is a larger, broader and more robust looking
insect than D. vestigialis. It has the puncturing on
the mesonotum and pleurae much less distinct, parap-
sides more dilated ; antennae, if anything, longer and
thicker at the apex ; the legs have not so much red ;
anterior tibiae are black, while in the other species they
are red ; eyes are emarginated, nor has it the white
marks on the second and third abdominal segments
observed in vestigialis.


Kaltenbacli says (1. c.) that he bred this species out
of larva? which fed in June and July on different meadow
grasses, and especially on Festuca pratensis.

A very common species found everywhere throughout


Dolerus puncticollis, Thorns., Hym. Scand., i, 286, 14; Cam.,

E. M. M., xvi, 249; Andre,
Species, i, 274 ; Cat., 34,* 36.

Black ; the tip of the abdomen aeneous, apical fourth of the anterior,
and the half of the posterior femora, and basal fourth of tibiae red;
calcaria pale ; head and thorax covered with a thick griseous pubes-
cence ; the head, except two shining lines on each side behind the ocelli,
and the whole of the mesonotum deeply punctured.

Length 4 lines, alar. exp. 9| lines.

A Scotch specimen differs from the above descrip-
tion (taken from a specimen taken near Plymouth by
Mr. Bignell) in having three-fourths of the hinder
femora red, calcaria darker, while the tip of the abdomen
wants the steel-blue tinge.

It is about the same size and has the same colora-
tion as gonagra, but it has the antennae shorter, and,
if anything, thicker ; the puncturing on the head is
deeper, while it extends all over the mesonotum, besides
being much more rugged ; nor are the parapsides so
much dilated.

Besides the above two examples, it has been taken
by Mr. Bridgman at Norwich, and it would appear to
be rarer than gonagra, with which it is no doubt con-
founded. Sweden is the only continental locality from
which it has been recorded.


Dolerus liogaster, Thorns., Hymen. Scand., i, 286, 15 ; Cam.

E. M. M., xvi, 249 ; Andre, Species,
i, 270 ; Cat., 34*, 35.

Black ; femora, apex of tibiae and cerci red ; head deeply punctured
all over, mesonotum also punctured, but the puncturing is not so


rugged as on the head ; abdomen smooth, shining, the basal segments
almost glabrous, and with a few minute blisters on the surface. Head
and pleurae densely covered with a grey pile ; mesonotum slightly
pilose, as is also the apical segments of the abdomen. $ and <.
Length 4f lines.

Readily distinguished from the two preceding
species by the colour of the femora and cerci. D.
vestigialis agrees with it in having reddish femora ;
but the eyes are oblong, cerci black, while it has also
white markings on the abdomen.

Rare, appearing end of May and early in June in

Sweden is the only continental country from which
it has been recorded.


PL I, fig. 5, larva.

Tenthredo hcematodis, Schr., En., 338, 678 ; Vill., E. P., 63 ;

Rossi, M., 240.

opaca, Fab., E. S., ii, 120, 62 ; S. P., 38, 42 ; Pz., F.

G., Hi, fig. 10 ; Till., E. P.,
83; Spin., Ins. Lig., i, 58, 17.

collaris, Don., B. E., xiii ; pi. 441, fig. 1.

Dolerus hcematodis, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 304, 238 ; Ste., 111.,

vii, 86, 1 ; Htg., Blattw., 235,
18; Evers., Bull. Mosc., xx,
23, 5 ; Thorns., Hym. Scand., i,
289, 21; Cam., Fauna, 17;
Voll. Tidj. Ent., xxiii, 14 ; pi.
3, a, b, c (lar.) ; Andre, Species,
i, 269 ; pi. xv, fig. 3 ; Cat., 32,=*

opacus, Jur., Hymen., 58, pi. 6; Lep., F. Fr., pi. 9,

fig. 7 ; Hon., 125, 372.

ccerulescens, Htg., Blattw., 242, 36 $.

micans, Zad., Beschr., 18.

Deep bluish-black, shining ; vertex deeply punctured ; the depres-
sions on each side of ocelli shining and connected by a furrow placed
behind the ocelli, the space bounded by the furrows being raised ;
mesonotum covered with a fine punctation ; pleurae deeply punctured,
as deep, if not deeper, than the vertex ; the head and thorax covered
with a fine, close, rather long white pubescence ; the abdomen has a
deeper bluish tinge than the head and thorax ; the basal segments are
smooth, shining, glabrous ; the apical half covered with a long white
pubescence. Tegulse and pronotum pale red. Antennas as long as the
abdomen ; apical joints much thinner than the others. Wings hyaline ;


costa and stigma black, the latter with the lower half occasionally

Length 4 5 lines.*

This species is easily known by the colour of the
tegulae and pronotum. As Zaddach has remarked, the
abdomen changes its form very much when dried.

The rT wants the red colour on thorax entirely,
the antennaa are slightly shorter than the body and
dull black, the head is more narrowed behind, and there
is on the eighth abdominal segment in front a short

The larva feeds on various species of Juncus, and I
have also seen it on Scirpus lacustris, but possibly this
may have been accidentally. It is very like the larva
of D. palustris in form and coloration, having the
upper part of the body black, the sides and belly white,
with a greenish tinge, a more or less well- developed
mark over each of the thoracic legs, and the head with
more or less of the vertex and the eyes black.

It is found in June and July, and pupates in the
earth without spinning a cocoon.

It is a tolerably common form, appearing at the
end of May and June. In Scotland it has been found
near Glasgow and at Aberdeen (Trail), and in England,
in the Midland Counties, Worcester, Devonshire, Nor-
folk, and the London district.

It is found throughout all the European subregion.

Obs. Zaddach (1. c.) is not quite sure as to ccerulescens being the $ .
He describes the as having the antennae fuscous and longer than the
body, their length being, however, subject to some variation. Zaddach
says further that the <$ is recognised from that of J). nigra by having
the head smaller and more elegantly formed, and distinguished also in
that the pad-like elevation projects from the round and raised vertex
on each side, and behind is limited by a furrow running parallel with
the hind border, and before through a similar low furrow, it being for
the most part smooth, shining, and bluish black.



Dolerus sanguinicollis, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 305, 240 ; Htg.,

Blattw., 236, 20 ; Andre, Species,
i, 270 ; Cat., 34,* 25.

Bluish-black ; pronotum, tegulae, middle lobe of mesonotum at the
sides, lateral ones save a small spot near the tegulae, red. Antennae
short ; abdomen smooth, shining ; the segments bordered with white.
Tibiae and tarsi dull black. Wings brownish ; costa and stigma dull

Length 3| lines.

Similar to hcemalodis, but smaller, the bluish tinge
is much more decided, antennae shorter, punctation
more distinct, and the wings darker. I have seen one
specimen in Shuckard's collection.

Continental distribution : Germany, Spain.

PL XIX, fig. 4, Saw.

Dolerus coracinus, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 302 ; Ste., 111., vii, 87,
4; Htg., Blattw., 238, 28; Evers.,
Bull. Mosc., xx, 25, 15; Thorns.,
Hym. Scand., i, 292, 26.

nitens, Zad., Beschr., 16 ; Andre, Species, i, 277, 57 ;
Cat., 35,* 43.

Bluish-black, shining ; head and thorax covered with a greyish pile.
Vertex deeply punctured, the two sutures short but deep. Mesonotum
smooth, shining, middle lobe (save at apex), and the posterior three-
fourths of the scutellum finely punctured, the punctures shallow and
wide apart ; the middle suture deep, semicircular at the apex. Cenchri
moderately large, cream coloured. Abdomen smooth, shining, glabrous,
slightly keeled. The apex shortly pilose. Legs covered closely with a
grey pile, calcaria black. Antennae shorter than the abdomen, some-
what thickened in the middle ; third joint a little longer than the fourth.
Wings subhyaline, with a faint brownish tinge ; costa and stigma
blackish -fuscous, transverse radial nervure joined to the second trans-
verse cubital.

Length 4 lines.

The has the antennae as long as the body, the
greenish-blue tint of the body appears more decided ;
abdomen smooth and shining. The middle lobe of
mesonotum is more sharply pointed at the apex than in
the ? .


Distinguished from all the other British species
(save Anthr acinus) by the semicircular middle lobe of
mesonotum, and shining, brilliant, bluish-black body.
D. varispinus, which agrees with it in the neuration,
differs, inter alia, in the thicker stigma, shorter antenna,
longer cerci, and pale spurs.

Rare. Manchester district (Chappell). South of

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany.

PI. XIX, fig. 5, Saw.

Dolerus anthracinus, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 302, 233; Htg.,

Blattw., 238, 27 ; Zad., Beschr.,

Similar to Coracinus, but the body darker, the bluish tinge not eo
conspicuous, body broader compared to its length ; transverse radial
nervure received at a little distance from the second transverse cubital ;
transverse median nervure received nearer the basal, while in Coracinus
it is received in the middle of the cellule ; and the stigma is pale on
lower edge. If anything, the head is stouter ; cenchri darker, blotch
narrower at the apex.

The (^ has the antennae a little longer than the abdomen (teste

Length 4 lines.

This is apparently the anthracinus of Klug and
Zaddach, the description of the latter being taken from
original type ( 3 ) in the Berlin Museum. The ?
described by Klug, however, is different ; it is carlo-
narius, Zad., a species related to fissus. Hartig's
anthracinus is perhaps different, for he says that the
middle lobe of mesonotum is triangular at the apex as
in niger. Thomson's anthracinus is also different, it
apparently = oblongus, M.

Rare. A single specimen from near Manchester
(Dunham Park).

Continental distribution : Germany.


PL VI, fig. 3, lar. ; PL XVIII, figs. 7 and 8, Saw.

Dolerus fissus, Htg., Blattw., 243, 37 $ ; Zad., Beschr., 24 ;
Andre, Species, i, 279, 13; Cat. 35,*

Dolerus leucobasis, Htg., Blattw., 240, 31, ^ (ab.).
? _ planatus, Htg., Blattw., 243, 39, <.
cenchris, Htg., Blattw., 240, 32 $ ; Evers., Bull. Mosc.,
xx, 25, 16; Thorns., Hyra. Scand., i,
290, 24 ; Cam., Fauna, 49.

Black ; covered with a short grey pile ; head thick, strongly punc-
tured ; sutures on the vertex almost invisible. Antennae scarcely as
long as the abdomen ; middle joints somewhat thickened; third joint a
little longer than the fourth. Mesonotum strongly punctured through-
out, almost opaque ; sutures moderately deep ; cenchri large, ivory
white. Abdomen smooth, shining, almost glabrous at the base, pilose
from the fourth segment; blotch long and narrow, segments edged
with white, sometimes quite black. Wings hyaline ; costa and stigma
black, the latter sometimes pale on the lower side.

The <J has the antennae longer than the abdomen, the abdomen
rather wide ; the two apical segments with a white membranous spot
in the middle ; the three basal segments smooth, almost glabrous, the
rest densely pilose.

Length 4^ 4| lines.

Easily known by the mesonotum being uniformly
and strongly punctured all over, and by the large
ivory-white cenchri.

The larva of fissus has been described by Zaddach
(1. c., p. 15). He says that he found it in June feeding
on grass. It was of a greyish-white colour, with the
back of a darker grey and the head yellowish. Unfor-
tunately it buried itself in the earth before a minute
description of it could be taken. I also bred it from
a larva (the same, I believe, as that figured in PL VI,
fig. 3) which fed on Festuca.

Fissus is a common British species. I have found
it in the Glasgow districts, Perthshire, Inverness- shire
and Sutherlandshire ; while Mr. Hardy has captured
it in Berwickshire. I have seen English specimens
from Manchester, Worcester, Glanvilles' Wootton,
York, Norwich, and the London district.

On the Continent it has been recorded from Sweden,
Germany, France and Russia


PI. XIX, fig. 7, Saw.

Dolerus megapterus, Cam., Tr., Ent. Soc., 1881, 574.

Black ; head and thorax opaque, densely covered all over with close,
longish grey hairs, which give the part a greyish appearance ; closely
punctured all over. Antennae not much longer than the head and
thorax, short, thick, last joint distinctly thinner than eighth, third
much longer than fourth. Cenchri dull grey. Breast and pleurae
opaque, covered with a long grey pile. Abdomen smooth and shining,
basal segment with a few scattered punctures; the sides and belly
covered with a whitish pubescence, which, however, is not so long as
that on the thorax. Tibiae and tarsi densely pilose; spurs fuscous,
posterior darker. Wings almost hyaline, large; nervure and stigma
black ; transverse cubital, radial and recurrent nervures white in the
middle. Transverse median nervure received before the middle of the
cellule ; accessory nervure in hind wing almost interstitial.

Length 4f lines.

Slightly larger than fissus ; antennae shorter, thicker
and not so attenuated at the apex; puncturing on
thorax not so deep, while the pile is longer and
thicker ; head broader ; transverse median nervure is
received nearer the base than apex of the cellule, the
contrary being the case with fissus, and the cenchri
smaller and dull grey.

Bare. Manchester district.

PI. XIX, fig. 6, Saw.

Dolerus anthracinus, Thorns., Hym. Sc., i, 291, 25; exc. syn.
non. Klug.

Black, shining ; head deeply punctured ; the middle and lateral lobes,
except on the extreme outside, and scutellum finely punctured ;
abdomen smooth, shining ; basal segment with a few scattered punc-
tures ; blotch distinct. Head and thorax covered with a very slight,
microscopic, scattered down; abdomen glabrous; cenchri brownish -
white. Calcaria long, sharp, more or less white on all the legs. An-
tennas shorter than the abdomen, the apical joints a little thinner than
the middle ones ; third joint distinctly longer than the fourth. Wings
hyaline; stigma brownish on the lower side; transverse radial and
second recurrent nervure white ; transverse median nervure received
before the middle of cellule ; accessory nervure in hind wing interstitial.

Length 4 lines.
VOL. I. 12


Not unlike varispinus, but the head is broader and
more closely punctured ; the puncturation on the
mesonotum is pretty much the same in both species,
but the head and thorax is almost glabrous in oblongus,
the sutures on vertex are invisible, antennae longer
and thicker, and the accessory nervure in hind wings
interstitial, and, as a whole, it is a broader insect. It
comes near to D. meg apt ems, but that species is larger
and longer compared to the breadth, has the head and
thorax densely covered with long grey hair, so that
these parts are without gloss, while in oblongus they
are shining ; the mesonotum is more densely punctured,
and the spurs and stigma quite black. From inter-
medius it may be separated by its broader body and
head, by the deeper puncturation on middle lobe, darker
cenchri, much longer spurs and metatarsus, which is
not so much thickened at the apex, and is as long as
the two following joints.

Seemingly a northern and not very common species.
Braemar, Eannoch, Clydesdale.

Continental distribution : Sweden.

PI. XIX, fig. 8, Saw.

Black, head with a bluish tinge ; head covered with punctures, not
very closely pressed together ; scutellum and middle lobe of mesonotum
punctured, but not so closely nor so thickly as the head, base of
scutellum and lateral lobes almost impunctate; head and pleurae
pilose, more especially the latter. Mesonotum sparsely pilose,
almost subglabrous. Antennae shorter than the abdomen, slightly
attenuated at the apex. Cenchri greyish. Wings hyaline ; transverse
radial, second transverse cubital and recurrent nervures pale; stigma
pale on lower border ; transverse cubital and recurrent nervures in hind
wings almost interstitial; Abdomen keeled on back, smooth, shining,
impunctate, almost glabrous above, pilose at the sides, especially at the
apex. Spurs black ; anterior pale at extreme base ; posterior meta-
tarsus almost shorter than two succeeding joints, thick, especially at
apex ; spurs short and thick. Sutures on vertex distinct. ? .

Length nearly 4 lines.

Yery similar in sculpture and clothing to oblongus,
but distinguished by the distinct sutures on vertex >


more pilose pleuraD, body longer compared to the
breadth, mesonotum less punctured, base of abdomen
impunctate, metatarsus shorter, that of oblongus being
longer than the two succeeding joints, besides not
being so distinctly dilated at the apex. From inter-
medius it is readily known by the more glabrous, less
punctured mesonotum, shorter and thicker spurs and
metatarsus. From varispinus the closer puncturation
on the head and mesonotum, thicker tarsal joints,
broader head and black spurs separate it.
Rare. Fossil Marsh, near Glasgow.

PI. XX, fig. 3, Saw.

Dolerus varispinus, Htg., Blattw., 239, 30; Thorns., Hymen.
Scand., i. 292, 27; Andre, Species, i,
278, 61 ; Cat., 35,* 45.
brevitarsis, Htg., 1. c., 243, 38 (<?).

Deep black, shining; covered on head and thorax with short pale pube-
scence, as well as on the sides and apical segments of the abdomen.
Abdominal segments thinly edged above and oeneath with white ; the
two apical segments with much wider white borders. Head covered
with shallow scattered punctures; the space surrounding the ocelli
more shining than the rest of the head; lateral sutures wide but
shallow. Mesonotum covered all over with scattered shallow but wide
punctures ; those on the outer side of middle lobe being less distinct ;
cenchri dull grey. Wings hyaline; stigma dilated, black, paler on
lower side ; transverse radial nervure received close to second cubital ;
transverse nervures in anterior wings united or nearly so. Posterior
spurs for the greater part white ; middle ones dull testaceous ; front
dull testaceous at apex. Metatarsus dull brown at the base. ? .

The <$ I have never seen. Thomson describes it thus : Abdomine
longo, dorso pubescenti-opaco, subcarinato, segmento 8 dorsali spatio
polito nullo.

Length 4 lines.

Agrees with elongatus and ceneus in the body form,
but the antennae are shorter and thicker, stigma
broader, puncturing deeper, abdomen shorter, head
and thorax not so pilose. The saw is not unlike that
of coracinus and anthracinus , but the teeth are not so
deep, more regularly and closely indented all over from
the first tooth. The transverse radial, cubital and


second recurrent on the upper side are milk white.
The accessory nervure in hind wing is interstitial.

Seemingly rare. Three specimens taken at Norwich
by Mr. Bridgman.


PI. XX, figs. 1 and 2, Saw.

Dolerus intermedius, Cam., Tr. Ent. Soc., 1881, 575.

Black, shining ; covered with a short, scattered pubescence. Head
roughly punctured ; sutures on the vertex distinct and very shining ; the
whole of the scutellum and the middle lobe punctured, the latter with
the punctures wider apart ; the lateral lobes also punctured, but not so
deeply, and more irregularly ; cenchri large, clear ivory white. Ab-
domen longer than the head and thorax, bulged out in the middle ; the
basal segment unpunctured, the following finely shagreened ; three basal
segments glabrous, the rest shortly pilose ; blotch large, distinct. An-
tennae slightly thickened in the middle, shorter than the abdomen;
third joint a little longer than the fourth ; the last sharply conical.
Spurs pale at the apex ; hinder ones reaching to the middle of meta-
tarsus, which is pale, curved at the base and thickened at the apex, and
scarcely longer than the two succeeding joints. Wings hyaline,
slightly infuscated at the extreme apex. Accessory nervure in hind
wings appendiculated ; costa, stigma and nervures black, save the
transverse nervures, which are for the most part milk white in both

The c? has the head and thorax more deeply punctured ; antennae
thicker and as long as the abdomen and half the thorax; the third
joint almost shorter than fourth.

Length 3| 4* lines.

Agrees with varispinus in having the lower part of
stigma, recurrent and transverse nervures pale white,
but it is smaller and narrower ; the puncturation on
head and thorax finer and closer ; cenchri large and
clear white; the transverse radial nervure is not
received close to transverse cubital and the transverse
nervures in hinder wings are wider apart. As in
varispinus the base of hinder tarsi is generally white,
but it is also black, and the spurs in some cases are
blackish, in others almost wholly white. It is smaller,
as a rule, than ceneus, but it may readily be known
from that species by the head wanting the bluish tinge,
by the pale stigma and nervures, and shorter antennas.


Apparently not an uncommon species in June.
Rannoch, Lochaweside, Clydesdale, Dumfriesshire,
Norwich, Hastings (Butler), Glanvilles' Wootton.

PI. XX, fig. 4, Saw.

Tenthredo nigra, Linn., S. N., ed. xii, 925, 34 ; Fab., E. S., ii,
120, 64; S. P., 38, 44; Pz., F. G., lii,
fig. 11; Rossi, Mant., 237; Schr.,
En., 336, 677; Vill., E. P., 44.

Dolerus niger, Kl., Berl. Mag., viii, 301, 232 ; Lep., F. Fr., pi.
9, fig. 7; Mon., 125, 371; Ste., 111.,
vii, 86, 3; Htg., Blattw., 237, 25;
Evers., Bull. Mosc., xx, 25, 14; Zad.,
Beschr., 22; Thorns., Hym. Scand.,
i, 289, 22; Cam., Fauna, 17, 8;
Andre, Species, i, 276, 54 ; Oat., 35*,

Black ; corered with a long greyish pile, except on the four or five basal
segments of the abdomen, which are glabrous above. Head a little
narrower than the mesothorax ; vertex not raised, with the sutures short,
deep ; vertex almost shining, punctured, but not very deeply ; the front
of the head opaque, and more deeply punctured than the vertex ; clypeus
deeply incised. Antennae nearly as long as the abdomen ; third joint
a little longer than the fourth, moderately thick ; apical joints much
thinner than the others. Thorax shining ; middle lobes of the meso-
notum strongly punctured ; the lateral lobes not so deeply at the sides ;
pleurae opaque, strongly punctured ; parapsides dilated. Cenchri dull
fuscous ; tegulae black. Abdomen longer than the head and thorax ;
the junction of the segments marked with a very thin white line ; the
ninth segment ending in a long hairy tuft. Sheath projecting, hairy at
the apex. Blotch distinct, much broader than long. Wings hyaline,
greyish fuscous at the apex ; the nervures, costa and stigma black.

The <$ has the antennae longer than the abdomen, the third and
fourth joints equal, the greyish pile longer and thicker than in the ? ;
the abdomen long ; the apical lobes large ; the eighth segment smooth,

Length 5f 6} lines.

The largest of the black Doleri. Readily known by
fuscous cenchri and wings, which are smoky at the
apex and sometimes throughout. Commonly distri-
buted. I have bred a black Dolerus from the larva
figured on PI. YI, fig. 2, which seems to be niger, but


as it is in bad condition and as it is a <$ I cannot be
certain about the species. It fed on Festuca.
Continental distribution : General.


PL XX, fig. 5, Saw.

Dolerus ceneus, Htg., Blattw., 241, 31; Zad., Beschr., 20;
Thorns., Hym. Scand., i, 293, 28;
Andre, Species, i, 275, 51 ; Cat., 34,*

Deep black, with a very faint bluish tint ; head, thorax and apical
segments of the abdomen covered with a moderately long greyish
pile. Vertex with a faint bluish tinge, deeply punctured; the two
visible sutures deep, short; vertex narrow behind the ocelli. An-

Online LibraryPeter CameronA monograph of the British phytophagous Hymenoptera .. (Volume 1) → online text (page 15 of 31)