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tennae about the length of the abdomen, slightly thickened in the
middle ; apical joints somewhat thinner. Mesonotum smooth, shining ;
sparsely punctured on the middle lobe, at the inner sides of lateral
lobes and the base of scutellum ; pleurae punctured ; sternum smooth,
shining ; both are covered with a long grey pile. Cenchri large, white ;
sutures of mesonotum deep. Legs with the knees pale fuscous ; some-
times, also, the tibise are pale in front. Abdomen longer than head
and thorax ; basal segments are almost glabrous ; apical covered with
long, grey hair ; blotch small, narrow. Cerci black. Wings hyaline,
greyish at the apex. Nervures, costa and stigma fuscous, the latter is
sometimes greyish on the lower side. The labrum and palpi are usually
pale white, more rarely black or fuscous.

The has the antennas longer than the body ; the third and fourth
joints subequal ; vertex distinctly narrowed behind.

Length 3 3f lines.



Not uncommon in Clydesdale, the Midland Counties,
Norwich and the South of England generally.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany, Hol-
land, France.



28. DOLERUS ELONGATUS.
PL XX, fig. 7.

Dolerus ceneus, var., i; Htg., Blattw., 241.

ceneus, Zad., Beschr., 20, in part.

elongatus, Thorns., Hym. Sc., i, 293, 29; Cam., Fauna,

18, 9; Andre, Species, i, 276 ; Cat.,
34,* 39.

Black ; covered with a longish white or griseous pile ; the vertex with
a faint bluish tinge, sparsely punctured. Mesonotum smooth, shining ;



SUB-TRIBE SELANDRIADES. 183

lateral lobes and scutellum very sparsely and indistinctly punctured ;
parapsides dilated; cenchri dull white; basal segment of abdomen
impunctate; cerci red. Wings hyaline; stigma pale on lower side.
Antennae longer than abdomen, filiform. The lour anterior spurs
pale.

The c? has the antenna as long as the body; the puncturation on
head and thorax closer ; the head narrower behind.

Length 4 4 lines.

Closely allied to ceneus, but it is larger, more elon-
gated, has longer antennae in both sexes, the post
costal cellule is, if anything, wider and the cerci red.
As a whole it has more of a bluish tinge than ceneus ;
in one or two of my Scotch specimens the apical
segments of abdomen are very distinctly steel blue,
these specimens, too, having the colour of the mouth,
joints of the legs and stigma darker than usual.
Thomson describes the transverse radial nervure as
interstitial, but this is the case only with one speci-
men that I have seen.

Common in Scotland, extending to the extreme
north and to the Hebrides, and occurring at an eleva-
tion of 3000 feet and upwards on mountains. It is
found also in the North of England.



Sub-tribe SELANDRIADES.

Antennae short, filiform, rarely thickened at apex; the third joint
rarely equal to and generally longer than fourth; 7- to 15-jointed.
Wings with two radial and three or four cubital cellules ; basal nervure
received near or joined to the cubital. Lanceolate cellule petiolate,
contracted, open, or with an oblique cross nervure. Hind wings with
the transverse cubital and recurrent nervures present, or the trans-
verse cubital may be absent and the recurrent present, or both may be
absent. Legs generally short; calcaria never reaching to middle of
metatarsus ; tibiae usually longer than tarsi ; patellae distinct or, more
rarely, scarcely developed. CJypeus incised or truncated at apex.
Mandibles short and thick at the base, and with a short tooth at the
apex. Body short and plump, rarely elongated. The second and third
cubital cellules receive each a recurrent nervure. When there are only
three cubital cellules the first is much larger than the second.

The larvae have twenty- two legs. In form they are varied, some
being longish and cylindrical like those of the Tenthredinides, while
others are short and stumpy. Green is the predominating colour, and
they are not (so far as is known) ornamented with lines or spots of
different colours. A few (Blennocampa, Hoplocampa) bear long branched



184 SUB-TRIBE SELANDRIADES.

or simple spines all over the body, while other larvae are covered with a
resinous exudation or with a white flaky substance. They either spin a
simple cocoon (usually with grains of earth mixed with the silk) or
simply bore into the stems of plants, and pupate there without the
protection of a cocoon.

As above defined the Selandriades are distinguished
from the Tenthredinides by their much smaller size,
shorter spurs, and generally by the position of the
basal nervure. They have never a perpendicular cross
nervure in the lanceolate cellule, while in those species
which have both the recurrent and transverse cubital
nervure they are received close to each other, instead
of being wide apart as in the Tenthredinides. The
genera Strongylog aster and Taxonus approach very
close to some of the Tenthredinides, but the form of
the neuration and the spurs at once separate them,
while the smaller species differ altogether in body
form, in the petiolated or contracted lanceolate cellule
and by the absence of the transverse cubital nervure
in the posterior wings. It is very doubtful if the two
groups can be kept apart when the extra European
species have been examined and compared with those
of the European fauna. Strongylog aster, Taxonus and
Pcecilosoma are placed by Andre in the Tenthredinides,
but these genera agree with the Selandriades in the
short spurs and in the position of the basal nervure,
while the first-mentioned genus, which in its typical
species 8. cingulatus, comes near to the Tenthredi-
nides by its elongated body, is scarcely to be distin-
guished from the genus Selandria other than by the
latter having the costa somewhat dilated before the
stigma, and yet Selandria is placed by the French
author in the Selandriades.

I once thought that the Selandriades as defined by
Thomson might be split up into three or four groups,
but I have abandoned this idea, because on a rigid
comparison I found it impossible to get structural
characters to distinguish them. For example, the
genera Phyllotoma, Fenusa, Fenella form an apparently
well-defined section, yet some of the species of Blenno-



GENUS STROXGYLOG ASTER. 185

campa, e.g. B. nana, can hardly be separated from
Fenusa.

From the Nematina they are clearly cut off by the
larvaD having twenty-two legs (although it must be
said that Hoplocampa is a partial exception in this
respect), and by the second (or first when there are
only three) cubital cellule receiving only one of the
recurrent nervures. Secondary points of distinction
are, that the third joint of the antennae is distinctly
longer than the fourth, by the basal nervure being
united to the cubital, and by the spurs being shorter.
Hoplocampa is the connecting link between the two,
it having the third and fourth joints subequal, the
basal nervure received at a distance from the cubital,
and by the transverse cubital and recurrent nervures
in the posterior wings being joined, three characteristic
features with the Nematina.

The Selandriades have a much wider geographical
range than either the Tenthredinides or the Nematina,
being found not only in the Nearctic and Palsearctic
regions, where they are abundant, but also in the Neo-
tropical, Ethiopian and Australian regions.



Genus STRONGYLOGASTER.

Strongylogaster, Dbm., Consp., 4.

Wings long and narrow, with two radial and four cubital cellules ;
lanceolate cellule open, rarely with an oblique cross nervure. Inferior
wings with the transverse cubital and recurrent nervures present, and
placed at a little distance from each other. Basal nervure curved;
transverse median received not far from the middle of the median
cellule ; accessory nervure in hind wing interstitial or nearly so.

Antenna short, of nearly equal thickness throughout ; the third joint
not much longer than fourth. Head large, thick set ; eyes not reaching
to base of mandibles ; clypeus incised. Body longish ; abdomen sub-
cylindrical, longer than head and thorax, sometimes punctured (filicis,
cingulatus), carinated (filicis). Legs short; claws bifid, or with a
minute apical tooth (filicis) ; tarsi shorter than tibiae. The mandibles
have a subapical tooth ; the indentation between it and the apical one
is rather deep. The head is large, usually with a thick swollen vertex
and cheeks ; the temples are margined on the lower side.

In the form of the head and in sculpture this genus






186 GENUS STRONGYLOGASTER.

approaches Dolerus. The species are of wide distri-
bution in the Palsearctic region, occurring all over
Europe, in Northern Siberia and Japan. Twenty species
are recorded by Cresson from North America. In
Central America both sections are not uncommon,
twenty-five species being known from that region.
Most of these are distinguished from Strongylog aster
proper by the eyes being larger and reaching to the
base of the mandibles ; the head is broad and not so
swollen and the clypeus is truncated at the apex. The
posterior metatarsus is longer than all the other joints
together, differing, in this respect from the old-world
species, which have the metatarsus shorter than the
other joints. The Central American species have pilose
antennae ; their bodies are mostly yellowish, and the
wings often bear fuscous stripes at the apex, base, or
middle, or all three.

Synopsis of Species.

1 (4) Lanceolate cellule with an oblique cross nervure. Pentagonal

area indistinct ; accessory nervure in hind wings appendicu-
lated largely. Claws with a subapical tooth. Abdomen
distinctly keeled in the middle in both sexes.

2 (3) Abdomen entirely black; tegulae and legs yellow; abdomen

impunctate. Sharpi.

3 (2) Abdomen banded with red ; legs for the greater part black ;

tegulae black in , white in ; abdomen punctured. Filicis.

4 (1) Lanceolate cellule without an oblique cross nervure; claws

bifid.

5 (6) Abdomen punctured ; pentagonal area indistinct ; hind femora

and antenna? short. Body semi-opaque, covered with a close
griseous pile ; abdominal segments banded with yellow ; stigma
testaceous, black on the upper edge. Cingulatus.

6 (5) Body smooth, shining, almost glabrous. Pentagonal* area

distinct. Antennae and hinder femora long.

7 (12) Thorax for the greater part black ; abdomen banded with red ;

stigma black or fuscous black. Antennas filiform ; transverse
median nervure received a little in front of middle of the
median cellule.

8 (11) Accessory nervure in hind wings appendiculated. Femora

testaceous. Middle of abdomen irregularly testaceous.
Mouth white.

9 (10) Legs testaceous ; hinder tibise at apex and tarsi fuscous. Vertex

and pleurae pubescent, scarcely shining. Maculus.

10 (9) Legs pale testaceous ; coxae and basal half of tibiae pale yellow.

Vertex and pleurae shining, glabrous. Mixtus.



STEONGYLOGASTEE FILICIS. 187

11 (8) Accessory nervure not appendiculated ; femora black ; third to

sixth abdominal segments testaceous all round. Mouth
black. Femoralis.

12 (7) Body for the greater part white or greenish-white, shining,

glabrous. Antennae dilated from the fifth joint ; the second
joint as long as the first, not transverse at the apex. Trans-
verse median nervure received in middle of median cellule ;
accessory nervure in hind wings appendiculated. Stigma
white. Delicatulus.



1. STEONGYLOGASTEE SHARPI.

Strongylogaster Sharpi, Cam., E. M. M., xvi, 64 (1879) ; Andre",

Species, i, 410; Cat., 51,* 10.

Black ; clypeus, palpi, tegulae, edge of pronotum, apex of the last
abdominal segment above, and legs, yellowish-white. Wings hyaline ;
costa pale, and stigma dark fuscous. The clypeus is broadly incised,
labrum fuscous, head and mesonotum slightly opaque, faintly punc-
tured, pleurae, sternum, and abdomen more shining and impunctate.
The back of abdomen is keeled in the middle ; its apex obtuse and
truncated ; the saw does not project. The wing cellules are broader
than in the other species compared to the length; the transverse
radial nervure is curved, and received before the middle of the third
cubital cellule. The antennae are shorter than the thorax and abdomen,
and of the usual form. The coxae, trochanters and knees are paler than
the rest of the legs. ? .

Length 2j lines.

The smallest of the European species, being half a
line shorter than 8. delicatulus.

Taken among ferns at Crickhope Linn, Dumfries-
shire, on 14th June.



2. STEONGYLOGASTEE FILIOIS.

Tenthredofilicis, Slug, Berl. Mag., viii, 216, 174 ; Htg., Blattw.,
299, 6 ? ; Evers., Bull. Mosc., xx,
45,7.

carinata, King, 1. c., 216, 175 ; Htg., 1. c., 7 <.
Strongylogaster filicis, Thorns., Opus., 292, 1 ; Hym. Scand.,
i, 242, 1 ; Bold, E. M. M,, x, 69 ;
Andre, Species, i, 409 ; Cat., 51,* 9.

Black ; covered with a sparse white down, abdomen reddish-brown
from the second segment, the apical segment light testaceous. Legs
light testaceous, femora luteous, coxae black, hinder tarsi fuscous.
Wings hyaline, costa and stigma black, the former light testaceous
at the base, and the latter luteous on the lower side ; nervures tes-



188 STRONG YLOGASTER CINGULATUS.

taceous at base; tegulaa white. The antennae are as long as the
abdomen. <^.

The ? has the tegulae black, legs black, with the posterior tibiae at
the base, and the anterior with apex of femora testaceous ; the middle
of the abdomen (segments 3 6) reddish -brown.

Length 45 lines.

A rare species. I have only seen a tf taken by Mr.
James Hardy at Wooler in Northumberland.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany, Russia.



3. STRONGYLOGASTER CINGULATUS.
PL XIV, fig. 7 <? , 7a mandible ; PL I, fig. 4, larva.

Hylotoma cingulata, Fab., S. E., ii, 113, 29 ; S. P., 27, 29.
Tenthredo cingulata, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 215, 173 ; Lep.,

Mon., M4, 332 ; Ste., 111., vii,

81, 26; Htg., Blattw., 300, 8;

Ratz., F. I., iii, 133, 43 (lar.) ;

Evers., Bull. Mosc., xx, 45, 8.

linearis, Klug, 1. c., 217, 178 ; $ Htg., 1. c., 300, 9.

xanthocera, Ste., 1. c., 81, 27 (a&).

atricornis, 1. c., 81, 28 (o5).

Sir ongylog aster cingulata, Thorns., Opus., 293, 2; Hym. Scand.,

i, 242, 2; Cam., Fauna, 18, 1;
Andre, Species, i, 411 ; Cat., 51,*
2.

Black ; head and thorax coarsely punctured, the former covered with
a whitish down; two basal joints of antennae, the greater part of the
legs, and a band surrounding the apex of each of the abdominal segments
reddish-yellow. Tegulae, apex of the femora and base of tibiae (broadly)
whitish -yello w ; legs black at the base; the femora have usually
the basal half lined with black above and beneath. Sheath black,
projecting, curved and narrowed towards the apex, and very hairy on
the lower side. Wings hyaline, yellowish at the apex; costa and
stigma reddish-yellow ; the latter is blackish at the base.

The <$ has the antennae quite black, and the abdomen is pale reddish,
except the basal segment which is black on the upper side.

Length 4 5 lines.

A somewhat variable species in some points of its
coloration. Thus, the basal joints of antennae are
almost, if not entirely, black occasionally, and some-
times the third, fourth and fifth are luteous ; the
amount of black on the femora varies, and the black
on the abdomen is frequently pitchy.

The larva feeds on Pteris aquilina, and more rarely
on Polystichum filix-mas. Its body is bright, rather



STRONGYLOGASTEE CINGULATUS. 189

deep green, paler below the spiracles, there oeing a
white lateral line at the junction of the two colours.
Legs whitish, with brown claws. Head brownish-
testaceous, two oval, black, or brownish-black marks on
vertex, eye spots black, mouth brownish. The skin
is bare ; spiracles brownish, the apical half of the last
segment paler than the preceding.

They are found in June, July and August, and feed
on the flat side of the leaf on the lower side. The
pupa state appears to be passed in crevices in trees,
holes made by beetles, &c.

As parasites there have been recorded : Gampoplex
transiens, Rtz. ; Cubocephalus fortipes, Gr. ; Ichneumon
Mussii, Ratz. ; M'esoleius niger, and I have also had a
Tachina from them.

This is a very common species, and is distributed
all over Britain. They are found usually on the ferns
or on the flowers of Umbelliferce in early summer.

The males are extremely rare in comparison to the
females. I am sure I have bred and captured hundreds
of the females, but have only succeeded in getting one
male which I bred, and curiously enough, it appeared
some days after all the females in the same batch had
emerged. Mr. F. Smith told me that this is also his
experience. He has sometimes had forty or fifty
females in his net at a time, without one male among
them. In all, Mr. Smith has taken only five or six
males, and I believe that this is pretty much the
experience of most collectors. We may then, I think,
conclude that parthenogenesis plays a constant role'
with this species ; a view confirmed by my having got
two virgin females to deposit fertile eggs, but the
larvae unfortunately died young, so that I do not know
whether males or females would be produced.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany, Hol-
land, France, Switzerland, Tyrol, Russia, Spain,
Portugal.

Obs. The North American 8. multicinctus, Norton, appears to be
very closely allied to, if not a variety of, cingulatus.






190 STRONGYLOGASTER MACULUS.



4. STRONGTLOGASTER MACULUS.

Tenthredo macula, King, Berl. Mag., viii, 217, 177 ; Htg.,

Blattw., 301, 11.
Sir ongylog aster macula, Thorns., Op., 393, 3 ; Hym., Scand., i,

243, 4 ; Andre, Species, i, 413 ; Cat.,

51,* 7.

Black, scarcely shining ; covered with a short pubescence on head
and thorax ; clypeus and labrum, tegulse and a broad line on prothorax
dull yellowish- white. Abdomen irregularly banded in the middle with
dull red. Legs testaceous ; apex of tibise and tarsi fuscous. Wings
hyaline ; costa and stigma black, the former fuscous at the base ; trans-
verse radial nervure received not far from the third transverse cubital ;
third cubital cellule shorter than the second. Accessory nervure in
hind wing not appendiculated.

$ has the antennae as long as the body ; posterior femora almost
entirely black.

Length 3| lines.

In form and general coloration maculus agrees
with mixtus, but the colour on thorax and mouth is
more dingy, the legs want the yellow so conspicuous
in mixtus ; the head and thorax are not so shining and
more pubescent, this being especially noticeable on the
pleura, the head broader and the antennas longer.

Rare. Clydesdale on ferns.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany, Tyrol.



5. STRONGYLOGASTER MIXTUS.
PI. I, fig. 6 and 6 a, Larva ?

Tenthredo mixtus, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 217, 176; Hartig.,

Blattw., 301, 10.
Srongylogaster mixtus, Cam., Fauna, 18, 2 ; Andre, Species, i,

412; Cat., 51,* 3; Thorns., Hym.

Scand., i, 244, 5.

Black, smooth, shining, almost glabrous; labrum, clypeus, tegulse, a
broad band on the prothorax clear white; middle three or four abdominal
segments irregularly marked with red above, the sides testaceous ;
apical segments above and all the segments beneath marked with white
at the apex. Legs pale red; apex of coxae, trochanters, femora and
basal half of tibiae yellowish-white ; tarsi fuscous at the apices of the
joints. Wings hyaline ; costa at base pale ; the rest and stigma black ;
transverse radial nervure interstitial or nearly so ; accessory nervure
in hind wing appendiculated.

The (^ has the antennas shorter than the body ; the base of the



STRONGYLOGASTEE FEMOEALIS. 191

anterior femora and the posterior almost wholly black (teste C. G.
Thomson).
Length 3J 3| lines.

Not very common in Clydesdale during May and
June. What I take to be its larva is figured on PL
I, fig. 6. It is very like that of delicatulus, but
scarcely so hairy, and the head is entirely green.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany.



6. STRONGYLOGASTEE FEMOEALIS.
PL XI, fig. 2, ? .

Strongylogaster femoralis, Cam., E. M. M., xi, 250 ; Fauna, 18,

3; Andre, Species, i, 413;
Cat., 51,* 4.

Antennae filiform, black, shorter than the thorax and abdomen.
Head shining, smooth, black. Thorax black, shining, glabrous ; pro-
notum broadly edged with sordid white ; tegulse white ; cenchri small,
obscure white. Abdomen black, less shining than the thorax ; four
middle segments red above and beneath, but faintly edged with black
at the sides ; the apex acuminate ; cerci moderately long. Wings
hyaline ; nervures, costa and stigma black ; the transverse radial nervure
is received some distance in front of the third transverse cubital one ;
accessory nervure in hind wing not appendiculated. Legs sordid
testaceous ; the femora black, except at the apices and at the base of
the posterior pair ; the knees have a yellowish hue ; hinder tibiae darker
than the four anterior ; posterior tarsi fuscous.

The < has the antennae as long as the body ; the anterior femora at
the base and the posterior almost wholly fuscous-black.

Length 3| lines.

Femoralis is most nearly related to maculus, but
differs in its narrower, more cylindrical body, the head
and thorax more shining, less pubescent, in the
abdomen being distinctly banded with red, and in the
black coxe, femora and mouth; the third joint of
antennae appears to be shorter and thicker in propor-
tion to the fourth. It also differs from maculus (and
also miztus) in the basal cellule being shorter, and in
the transverse median nervure being received not far
from the middle of the cellule, while in the other two
species it is received much nearer the apex. The
third cubital cellule, too, is distinctly longer than the



192 STRONGYLOGASTER DELICATULUS.

second; in maculus and mixtus they are almost
equal.



7. STRONGYLOGASTER DELICATULUS.
PI. XI, fig. 3 ? ; PI. I, fig. 7, larva.

Tenthredo delicatulus, Fall., Acta, 1808.

eborina, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 196, 141; Htg.,

Blattw., 301, 12.
Strongylogaster delicatula, Thorns., Op., 293, 4 ; Hym., i, 244,

6; Cam., Fauna, 18, 4; Andre,

Species, i, 412 ; Cat. 51,* 5.

Selandria phthisica, Voll., Tidj. Ent., (2), iv, 123, pi. 3, fig. 4.
Strongylogaster viridis, Smiedeknecht, Ent. Nacht., 1881 ;

Andre, Species, i, 412 ; Cat., 51,* 6.

White (greenish when fresh), smooth, shining, glabrous ; head
(mouth excepted), a small mark in front of mesonotum, one on each
side of it, some marks on metanotum, and a large spot on breast, black.
Antennae fuscous above from the second segment; abdomen with
fuscous marks along the sides, which are narrow at the base and become
united in the middle at the apex, where the colour is also darker.
Wings hyaline ; costa and stigma white.

The intensity of the black markings on the abdomen varies, some
having only a very faint fuscous line along the sides. The has
usually only a thin fuscous line down the sides of the abdomen and a
large mark in the centre of the three last segments.

Length 2f 3 lines.

The larva is found in July and August feeding on
the male and female ferns. It is entirely green like
the colour of the ferns. The body is covered with
tubercles from each of which projects a longish, bristle-
like hair. On the pale greenish head are two black
marks on the posterior edge of the vertex.

I do not know in what manner it pupates in a state
of nature, but in my breeding pots it bored into corks
where it passed the winter, without having spun a
cocoon.

Delicatulus is an abundant Scotch and North of
England species, but appears to be rare farther south,
if it is not absent there entirely.

On the Continent it is common in Sweden, rare in
Germany, Holland and France, which are the only
countries from which it has been recorded.



GENUS SELANDRIA. 193



Genus SELANDRIA.

Sclandria, Leach, Zool., M., iii, 126.

Wings with two radial and four cubital cellules. Lanceolate cellule
open. Posterior wings with the transverse cubital and recurrent ner-
vures present, and placed not far from each other. Post-costal nervure
thickened and almost joined to costal in front of stigma. Antenna)
shorter than abdomen, thickish, the third joint much longer than fourth.
Eyes generally reaching to base of mandibles. Clypeus slightly incised.
Patellao distinct. Body short, ovate, shining. ForTrophi, see PI. XIII,
fig. 9.

The basal nerve is curved ; the 1st tr. cubital nervure
is sometimes absent. The colour is either black
throughout, with yellow, or black and white legs, or
the abdomen is luteous, with the legs and part of
thorax of the same colour. They are sluggish, heavy
flying insects.

The larvae are of the usual shape, but thicker com-



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