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A monograph of the British phytophagous Hymenoptera .. (Volume 1) online

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pared to the length than those of Taxonus or Strongy-
logastcr. So far as is known at present they feed
either on grasses or ferns.

Selandria comes nearest to Sir ongylog aster in neura-
tion, but differs in the shorter, more thick-set body,
shorter and thicker antennae, and in the thickened sub-
costal nervure. The wings, too, are broader, and the
hinder tarsi shorter compared to the tibiae. Eriocampa
is easily separated from it by the lanceolate cellule
having an oblique cross nervure.

The species are confined to the European subregion,
the Neartic region and Central America ; there are
ten species known from America, and twelve from

Synopsis of Species.

1 (6) Abdomen luteous.

2 (5) Eyes nearly touching the base of the mandibles ; labrum and

base of antennae black.

3 (4) Third antennal joint not much more than double the length

of fourth. Second transverse cubital nervure not inter*
stitial. Serva.

VOL. I. 13


6 (1)

7 (12)

4 (3) Third antennal joint more than double the length of fourth ;

second transverse cubital nervure interstitial. Sixii.

5 (2) Eyes distinctly distant from base of mandibles ; labrum and

base of antennae luteous. Flavescens.

Abdomen black.
Tegula) white.

8 (9) Anal segment bordered with white ; coxso for the greater part

white. Analis.

9 (8) Anal segment and coxse black.

10 (11) Pentagonal area distinct ; temples margined behind.


11 (10) Pentagonal area indistinct ; temples not margined,


12 (7) Tegular black.

13 (14) Legs yellowish. Morio.

14 (13) Legs black and white. Aperta.

PL XXI, fig. 1, Saw. ; PI. XII, fig. 11, Mandible.

Tenthredo serva, Fab , E. S., ii, 119, 21; Klug, Berl. Mag., viii,
47, 7; Lep., Hon., 114, 334; Htg.,
Blattw., 282, 53.

soda, Klug, 111., vii, I.e., 10 ; Htg., Blattw., 282, 55.
Hylotoma serva, Fab., S. P., 26, 22.

Selandria serva, Ste., 111., vii, 45, 1 ; Evers., Bull. Mosc., xx,
33, 17; Thorns., Op., 291, 1; Hym.,
Sc., i, 236, 1 ; Cam., Fauna, 23, 1 ;
E. M. M., xlii, 198 ; Andre, Species, i,
294; Cat., 36*, 1.
soda, Ste., 80, 24.

dorsalis, Ste., Ill,, vii, 45, 2.

Yellow ; head, breast, nieso- and metanotum black, shining, covered
with a longish black pile. Wings (including nervures) more or less yel-
lowish at the base ; second recurrent nervure received a good piece past
the second transverse cubital ; apical nervures black ; basal three fourths
of costa yellow, the remainder with stigma black, the latter yellowish
beneath. The mouth is occasionally pale.

The <$ has the mouth pale ; the apex of abdomen and of the legs
black, and the thorax is entirely black.

AT). a. <$. Pronotum with a yellow line.
&. ? . Mouth and basal joint of antennas pale yellow.

Length 3 3| lines.

The c? is more variable than the ? . It varies
especially in the amount of black on the abdomen and
in the colour of the wings ; in some specimens they
are almost hyaline, while in others they are decidedly


Tliis is a very common species in marshy places
in June and July. It appears to be common every-


PL XXI, fig. 2, Saw.; PL XII, fig. 1, ? ; PL II, fig.

9, Larva.

Selandria siw, Voll., Bouwstoffen, iii, 278 (1858) ; Tidj. Ent.,
xxii, 18, pi. 4, (lar., &c.) ; Andre,
Species, i, 295; Cat., 36,* 2.
grandis, Zad., Beschr., 36 ; Cam., E. M. M., xiii, 198 ;

Fauna, 23, 2.

interstitialis, Thorns., Hym. Sc., i, 237, 2.
serva, Stein, Ent. Nacht., vi, p. 251 (lar.).

Similar to 8. serva, but much larger, the joints of the antenna? more
distinctly separated, distinctly projecting at the apices ; the third
nearly three times longer than the fourth, the second recurrent nervure
interstitial and the saw differs slightly.

Length 3^ 4 lines.

The labrum is either black (as is generally the case)
or pale yellow, the thorax is entirely black (with the
exception of the limb of the pronotum, which is
yellow), or the mesonotum, metanotuin, and breast only
are black ; the blotch on each side is surrounded with
black, or it may be without any black; and occa-
sionally specimens are got with a row of black dots on
the back of the abdomen in the centre.

The # is similar to that of Serva and is subject
to the same colour variation ; it may, however, be
always known from the <? of Serva by the apex of
the abdomen being broadly rounded, while in Serva it
is considerably narrowed at the point. The third
joint appears to be shorter in proportion to the fourth
than in the ? .

The larva feeds on Poa aquatica during the summer,
and spins up at the middle of July in a brownish
cocoon in the earth. Its head is clear brown, darker
on the vertex and between the eyes. The body is
clear green, with a darker line down the back, the
belly whitish, and the spiracles brown. From the


summer brood there issued a second generation in the
beginning of August (cf. Vollenhoven, 1. c.).

The larva described by Stein under the name of Servo,
(1. c.) as feeding on Garex ac^Ua, Juncus effusus, &c.,
Scirpus palustris, &c., if really that of Serva, agrees
very closely with that of Sixii in every respect, and has
the same habits. Euryprodus geniculosus, Gr., is
recorded as a parasite.

A common Scotch insect, but not nearly so abundant
as Serva.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany, Hol-
land, France.


Tenthredo Havens, King, Berl. Mae., viii, 47, 8 ; Htg., Blattw,,
284, 54 ; Evers., Bull. Mosc., xx, 33,
puella, Fall., Mon.

Selandriaflavescens, Thorns., Opus., 291, 2; Hym. Sc., i, 237, 3
Cam., E. M. M., xiii, 198 ; Fauna, 24,
3 ; Andre, Species, i, 293 ; Cat., 36,* 3.

Black, shining, almost glabrous ; mouth, tegula;, pronotum, abdomen,
antennas at base and legs yellow, except the coxa3, which are black.
Wings yellowish-hyaline, apical half of costa and stigma black ;
nervures yellowish at base, black at the apex. The joints of antennae
distinctly separated.

Length 3 lines.

Ab. a. Base of antennse and mouth black.
,, b. Pronotum black.

The femora are sometimes lined with black, the
base of abdomen is often blackish or fuscous, and the
stigma dilute fuscous.

Easily known from the preceding species by the form
and position of the eyes and by the less pilose body.

The 3 in the form of the body resembles Serva ;
the legs are black at the base.

Not a common species. I have taken it rarely in
marshy places in Clydesdale.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany, France,



Tenthredo stramineipes, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 75, 61 ; Htg.,

Blattw., 282, 56 ; Evers., Bull.
Mosc., xx, 33, 19.
albipes, Lep., Mon., 105, 299.

Selandria stramineipes, Stc., 111., vii, 49, 20 ; Thorns., Op., 291,

3 ; Hym. Sc., i, 238, 4 ; Cam.,
E. M. M., xiii, 198; Fauna,
24, 4 ; Andre, Species, i, 295 ;
Cat., 37,* 9.

Short, stout, black, shining ; labrum, tegulac and legs whitish-
yellow. Wings subhyaline ; nervures, costa and stigma black. Head
and thorax covered with a thick pubescence. Coxae black.

The (^ has a yellowish line in front of the tegulae, and the coxae and
trochanters are black.

Length 2 3 lines.

? A1). a. Coxse yellowish, the extreme base only


,, b. Labrum black.

A not uncommon species in May and June on ferns.
The al. l>. is the common form in Scotland.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany, Tyrol,
France, Russia.


Selandria analis, Thorns., Hym. Sc., i, 239, 6 ; Andre, Species,

i, 295 ; Cat., 36,* 6.

cereipes, Voll., Tidj. Ent., viii (2), 1315, pi. 3, fig.
6 (lar., &c.).

Black, shining ; head and thorax covered with a fuscous pubescence ;
labrum, palpi, tegulae, a thin line at base of pvonotum, legs (save the
base of coxae) and the anal segment above, white. Wings scarcely
hyaline ; accessory nervure in hind wings interstitial. Costa and stigma
black, the former testaceous at base. Pentagonal area distinct ; eyes
large, oval, not reaching to base of mandibles ; cheeks margined ; head
not projecting behind the eyes.

? . Length 2 lines.

The antenna are longer and thinner than in either


of the two succeeding species, the legs not so stout,
calcaria shorter and the hinder tarsi longer compared
to the tibise ; while the head does not project behind
the eyes, but is rather narrowed. The legs, too, want
the yellowish tinge so noticeable in Stramineipes.

The larva is stated by van Vollenhoven to feed on
Polystichum felix-mas during August, resting with the
body stretched out on the upper side of the leaflets.
It is 22"' long, head smaller than second segment,
brown, with black eye spots ; the upper part of the body
to near the spiracles is leaf-green like the colour of the
leaf ; below that it is paler ; the spiracles brownish.
Legs glassy white with brown claws. A cocoon is
spun in the earth of the usual form.

Rare, seemingly, in this country Glanville's

Continental distribution : Sweden, Holland.


Selandria temporalis, Thorns., Op., 292, 6 ; Hym. Sc., i, 240, 9 ;

Andre, Species, i, 296; Cat.,
37,* 7.

Black, smooth, shining, covered 'on head and thorax with a fuscous
pubescence ; labrum, tegulee, legs (save coxae which are black, and apex
of tarsi which is fuscous), yellowish-white. Wings subhyaline ; costa
and stigma black, the former testaceous at the base. Pentagonal area
indistinct. Temples not margined. $

Length 2 lines.

A smaller species than Stramineipes, with the
antennap shorter, the palpi and apex of tarsi fuscous,
and easily known otherwise by the form of the temples
and the indistinct pentagonal area.

A rare species. Taken by myself near Dumfries in

Continental distribution : Sweden.


PI. XIII, fig. 3, ? .

Tenthredo mono, Fab., S. E., ii, 119, 55 ; S. P., 36, 31 ; Pz.,
F. G., Ixix, fig. 17 ; Fall., Acta Holm.,
1807, 208, 19; Klug, Berl. Mag.,
viii, 60; Htg., Blattw., 282, 57.

Selandria morio, Stc., [111., vii, 50, 23 ; Thorns., Op., 291, 4 ;
Hym. Sc., i, 239, 7 ; Tasch., Ent. f.
Gart., 155; Kalt., Pfl., 261; Cam.,
E. M. M., xvii, 198 ; Fauna, 24, 5 ;
Andre, Species, i, 296 ; Cat., 37* 9.

Black, shining, slightly pilose on the head and thorax. Antennae
covered with a microscopic pile. Legs yellow, black at the base,
posterior tarsi fuscous. Wings smoky ; costa and tegula) black. The
first transverse cubital nervure very faint ; accessory nervure in hind
wings received in front of the transverse median. The pentagonal
area indistinct. ? and <$.

Length 2 lines. .

Common and generally distributed.
Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany, Hol-
land, France.

Obs. I have always taken this species on birch and generally
where no Ribes was near. Nevertheless it has been stated by Bechstein
to feed on Ribes rubrnm, the larva being further stated to be twenty-
footed, to have a green body covered with black tubercles and a black
head, and they are said to feed in companies in May and at the com-
mencement of June, appearing in the perfect state at the end of July
(cf. Kalt., I.e.). Kaltenbach, who quotes these observations, says that
he himself always captures the insect on low-growing willows.

PL XIII, fig. 9 ? .

Selandria aperta, Htg., Blattw., 282, 58 ; Thorns., Op., 291, 5 ;
Hym. Sc., i, 240, 8; Evers., Bull.
Mosc., xx, 33, 20 ; Cam., E. M. M.,
xiii, 198; Andre, Species, i, 297;
Cat., 37,* 10.

Black, shining, covered with a fuscous-black pubescence. Knees and
tibia? white ; the apical half of posterior tibia? black ; the four antmor
tibiae at the apex and tarsi fuscous. Wings slightly infuscated ; the
third cubital cellule is short, much wider at apex than base; the
accessory nervure in hind wing is received in front of the transverse

Length nearly 3| lines.


Seemingly not a common species. The only speci-
mens I have seen were taken by Mr. R. McLachlan in
the London district, and by Mr. Fletcher at Worcester.

It has a wide distribution over the Continent, being
found in Sweden, Germany, Holland, France and

The imago appears, according to Hartig, on Sorbus


Taxonus, Htg., Blattw., 297.

Ermelia, Costa, Fauna di Napoli, 1860.

Wings with two radial and four sucubital cellules, the two former
equal in length, or the second longer than the first ; the third cubital
usually shorter than second, and dilated at apex. Transverse radial
nervure received near the third transverse cubital or united with it.
The second and third cubital receive each a recurrent nervure ; the
second is parallel with the basal. Lanceolate cellule with an oblique
cross nervure. Transverse median nervure usually received not far
from the middle of the median cellule. Posterior wings with the trans-
verse cubital and recurrent nervures absent, but present in one species
(agrorum) in the $ , while in the they (with the transverse median)
form a border round the edge of the wing. The accessory nervure is
scarcely appendiculate with some species and not at all with others.
Antennae short ; the third joint a little longer than fourth. Abdomen
depressed. Head subcubital, margined on top. Clypeus excised. Legs
longish ; tarsi as long as tibiae ; claws armed with a minute tooth ;
patellae small.

Generally the body is smooth and shining, rarely
punctured on vertex and scutellum. The body is
either entirely black or black with the abdomen
banded with red; the legs are usually red, but are
black with one species.

The genus perhaps has the greatest resemblance to
Emphytus, which it is not unlike in the form of the
head, antennse and abdomen, but differs in having
four cubital cellules. T. agrorum has the neuration of
the first section of Strong ylog aster, but the form of the
head and abdomen is different, the cross nervure in
lanceolate cellule is much more oblique, and the acces-
sory nervure in hind wing is not appendiculated.


The species are generally distributed over the Euro-
pean continent, but are rare outside of it, although
one species is found in Brazil. They appear in the
spring and early summer, and with the second brood
in Autumn. As for the larvse they are cylindrical,
usually green, paler at the sides. They feed on herba-
ceous plants (PolygOmim, Eumex) and pass the pupa
state in stems. Nine European species are known,
six from North America and one from Brazil.

Synopsis of Species.

1 (2) Posterior wing with two middle cellules ; in the < the cubital and

transverse nervures are at the edge of the wing ; third cubital
cellule as long as the second ; clypeus broadly excised, with
the edge sharp ; labrum large, narrowed at the point. Poste-
rior tibiae slightly curved ; scutellum and pleurae coarsely punc-
tured. Agrorum.

2 (1 ) Posterior wings with no middle cellules in both sexes ; third

cubital cellule shorter than the second, dilated at the apex ;
clypeus roundly margined, the edge not sharply pointed ;
labrum small ; posterior tibiae straight ; scutellum and pleurae

3 (8) Legs reddish.

4 (5) Abdomen with a red band ; tegulae white. Equiseti.

5 (4) Abdomen without a red band.

6 (7) Tegulae and pronotum black, body with a bronzy tinge. Glajbraius.

7 (6) Tegulae and edge of pronotum] white ; body without a bronzy

tinge. Fletcheri.

8 (3) Legs black. Glottianus.

Plate XI, fig. 6, $ , Gfl, Posterior wing.

Tenthredo agrorum, Fall., Acta, 1808, 59, 18.

nitida, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 218, 179 ; Htg., Blattw ;

298, 1.

anomala, Evers., Bull. Mosc., xx, 43, 1.
Allantus nitida, Ste., 111., vii, 71, 44.
Taxonus Tasch., Hym. Deut., 17.

agrorum, Thorns., Opus., 290, 1 ; Hym., Sc., i, 234, 1 ;

Cam., Fauna, 19, 1 ; Andre, Species, i,
336; Cat., 42,* 3.

Black, smooth, shining, covered with a close grey pubescence ; scutel-
liuu and pleura; coarsely punctured; breast smooth, shining; three
middle segments of the abdomen and legs reddish ; anterior coxae, base
of femora, four anterior tibiai and tarsi behind, the apical knees, apex


of tibiae and tarsi (except the extreme base of tlie joints) black ; four
anterior tibiae and tarsi pale in front, posterior trochanters white.
Wings hyaline, stigma and nervures black ; tegulse black.
Length 4| lines.

This species differs from all the other forms in the
hind wings having two middle cellules, while in the
c? the nervures are at the edge of the wings. They
also diverge from them in the punctured scutellum and
pleurae, the lower part of the pronotum, too, being
ridged and projecting. It is also the largest species
in the genus.

The c? has the abdomen bluntly ridged, and the red
band is smaller (as a rule) and more irregular at the
edges. In both sexes the black on the legs varies in

Agrorum does not appear to be a common species.
Stephens (if his specimens were correctly identified)
records it from Birch Wood and Devonshire. I have
myself taken it on the Carron, not far from the Dornoch

It appears to be not uncommon on the Continent,
being found in Sweden, Germany, Holland, France
and Russia.

Plate XI, fig. 7, Scotch variety of $ .

Tenthredo equiseti, Fall., Acta, 1808, 60, 20.

bicolor, King, Berl. Mag., 219, 181 ; Htg., Blattw.

298, 3 ; Evers., Bull. Mosc., xx, 43, 2.
coxalis (Klug), Htg., Blattw., 298, 4 ; Evers., 1. c.,

sticticus, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 218, 180; Htg.,

Blattw., 298, 2.

bizonata, Zett., Ins. Lapp., 344, 24.
Allantus Ucolor, Ste., 111., vii, 71, 43.
Taxonus bicolor, Tasch., Hym. Deut., 17.

pratorum, Thorns., Opus., 290, 2.

equiseti, Thorns., Hym. Sc., i, 234, 2 ; Cam., E. M. M.,

xi, 129, var., E. M. M., xiii, 196 (lar.),
Fauna, 19, 2 ; Andre, Species i, 337,
pi. xx, fig. 3 (im.) ; Cat., 42,* 6.

sticticus, Andre, 1. c., 337 ; Cat., 42,* 5.


Black, sliiuing, covered with a fuscous pubescence; labrum, tegulae
and palpi white. Legs and two or three of the abdominal segments
red ; coxa), trochanters, extreme base of femora, black ; apex of anterior
tarsi and the whole of the posterior black. Wings hyaline, costa and
stigma black. ? and <?.

Length 3| 3 lines.

The position of the tr. radial nervure is subject to
irregularity. It is often received near the middle of the
third cubital cellule, and as often in the fourth cubital.

The following aberrations occur :

a. Abdomen with four segments red, and the stigma
pale at the base (the other forms have the latter
peculiarity to some extent). Stidicus, Kl.

b. Abdomen with three segments red. Bicolor, Kl.

c. Abdomen with two segments red. Coxalis, Kl.

d. Abdomen with two segments and a triangular
blotch in the segment succeeding these, red. (Scotch

The larva of this species feeds in the summer and
autumn on Rumex acetosella, in the leaves of which it
eats irregular, generally somewhat squarish, holes ;
and, as the larvas usually are found together, the
plants infested by them get their leaves nearly all

The upper part of the head of the larva is fuscous,
the lower portion white and the mouth brown ; the
eyes are situated at the end of the fuscous part. Legs
white. The lower part of the body is whitish, with
the spiracles brownish; upper half green, sometimes
tinged with red on the back, probably through the
food shining through. The skin is in furrows,
obscurely marked with black.

When the larva becomes full fed the body gets
shorter and assumes a yellowish tinge. I presume
that in a state of nature they spin no cocoon, but like
those of glabratus burrow in stems, since in my breed-
ing jars they bored into corks and bramble stems pro-
vided for that purpose. Apparently there is only one
brood in the year. The perfect insect makes its
appearance in June in Scotland.


Kaltenbach (Pfl. 519) describes a larva on Rumex
which is probably that of Equiseti.

A common and widely-distributed species in Britain,
being found from Sutherlandshire to the London

On the Continent it is found in Sweden, Germany,
Holland, France and Russia,

Plate II, fig. 3, Larva ; PI. XX, fig. 6, Saw.

Tenthredo glabratus, Fall., Acta, 1808, 108, 43.

agilis, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 208, 159 ; Htg., Blattw.,

298, 5 ; Evers., Bull. Mosc., xx, 44, 4.
rufipes, Lep., Mon., 81, 239.
Allantus agilis, Ste., 111., vii, 72, 45.

rufipes, Ste., 111., vii, 72, 46.
Taxonus agilis, Tasch., Hym. Deut., 17 (lar.).
-^ glabratus, Thorns., Opus., 290, 3 ; Hym. Scand., i, 235,
3; Cam., xi, 108 (ec.), Fauna, 19, 3;
Andre, i, 337 ; Cat., 43,* 8.

Violet, coppery black, smootli, shining ; legs reddish, base of COXSB
and posterior tarsi fuscous or fuscous black ; wings hyaline ; stigma
and nervures black. $ and <$.

Length 3 3f lines.

Distinguished from all the species by its coppery
violet colour, unicolorous abdomen and black tegulse.

The larva feeds on Polygonum bistorta. Its usual
habit is to remain on the underside of the leaf, curled
up in a ring, with the anal segment slightly elevated.
In this position it eats either circular holes in the
centre of the leaf, or feeds along the edge. There are
two broods in the year : the first in June and July, the
second from August to October, and this last genera-
tion seems to be the larger of the two.

The larva has the upper part of the head brownish-
black, this dark portion being divided in the middle by
a paler stripe (absent in some specimens), and others
have the vertex very pale fuscous, the colour of the
vertex being subject to considerable variation. Face
whitish-green, with a somewhat semicircular fuscous
or pale brown mark in the centre ; mouth deep brown,


mandibles darker ; the black eyes are placed in the
pale-coloured part of the head. Legs glassy
white, with pale brown claws. The upper part of the
body to the spiracles is dark drab-green, which has a
lighter tint when the food canal is filled ; the lower
part is white ; the skin is closely wrinkled. When
full fed the colour of the body has a yellowish tinge.

The pupa is glassy green, with the limbs white.

The larvae bore into the stems of brambles and other
plants with pithy stems in order to pass the pupal state.

A very common and universally distributed species.

Its European distribution is the same as that of

As already remarked (antea, p. 30), I succeeded in
getting virgin females of T. glabraius to lay eggs, and
I am now able to add (June, 1882) that three males
were reared from these unfertilized eggs.


Ta.tonus Fletcheri, Cameron, E. M. M., xiv, 266 (1878).

Black, shining, covered with a scattered pubescence ; labrum, edge of
pronotum and tegulse white ; legs reddish, pale at the base, and at the
anterior tibia? in front ; apex of the tibia) and tarsi black. Wings
almost hyaline ; costa and stigma black ; the transverse radial nervure
is almost interstitial. .

Length 2 lines.

An easily recognised species. It is three-quarters of
a line shorter than the smallest male I have seen of
T. '/hilratiis, and its body wants the coppery hue of
the last-mentioned species, while it has also the tegulas
and edge of the pronotum white.

The T. albipes of Thomson comes near to Fletcher*,
but it has the pronotum black, the body almost gla-
brous, legs yellowish- white, the four anterior tarsi and
apices of tibia3 are not black, while Albipes is likewise
larger than our insect.

The only specimen known was taken by Mr. J. E.
Fletcher, of Worcester, near that place on 30th July
on alder.



Taxonus glottianus, Cameron, E. M. M., x, 220 ; Cam.. Fauna,

19, 4 ; Andre, Species i, 335 ;
Cat., 42,* 2.

Black, half shining, very slightly pubescent on the head and thorax ;
knees, anterior tibiae and base of tarsi sordid testaceous. Wings
almost smoky ; costa and stigma black, the latter pale testaceous at the
base ; in the second cubital cellule is a small horny point.

Length 3, alar exp. 6 lines.

The black legs readily separate this insect from the
other species of the genus. Apart from the generic
characters it might almost pass for Emphytus tener.

Apparently a very rare species. I have only suc-
ceeded in taking one female, which was got on 26th
May at Kenmuir Bank on the Clyde above Glasgow.


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