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Black, half shining ; antennae shorter than abdomen, the edge of



218 PCEOILOSOMA NIGEICOLLE.

pronotum, knees, anterior tibiae and tarsi, the basal half of posterior
and the tarsi at the base (broadly) white. Wings greyish hyaline ;
the first tr. cubital nervure is generally absent ; the costa is sordid
testaceous ; stigma fuscous to testaceous ; the tr. radial nervure is
received very near the apex of the third cubital cellule. The sheath
scarcely projects. Clypeus deeply emarginated ; labrum and palpi pale.
The abdominal segments are white at their juncture, rarely have they
any other white marks. Tegulse pale ; cenchri small, blotch large.
Length 3 3 lines.

Differs from all the other species of this group by
the incised clypeus, whitish tibiae and tarsi, sordid
testaceous costa, half white tegulaa, deeply pilose head
and pale palpi and labrum.

Ab. a. Tr. radial nervure interstitial, first tr.
cubital nervure present.

I have a specimen intermediate as regards colour
between this insect and submuticum, having the iegs
with much less white than in the ordinary form. It
has no first transverse cubital nervure.

This is a common Scotch insect, but seems to be
rare in England. It is found in June. The $ I have
never seen, although the female is abundant.

Sweden is the only Continental locality recorded.



9. PGECILOSOMA NIGRICOLLE, sp. n.

Black, pilose ; four anterior knees, anterior tibiae and basal half of
tarsi, middle tibiae in front, and base of four posterior metatarsi testa-
ceous-white. Antennse very little longer than abdomen, thickish,
scarcely tapering towards the apex ; clypeus very slightly incised ;
wings almost hyaline ; costa and stigma black, the latter large, broad
compared to its length ; the transverse radial nervure issues from the
lower side, is straight and received in the middle of the cubital cellule ;
the first transverse cubital nervure is absent, the second (or third)
cellule is wide compared to the length, and wider at the apex than base,
its basal nervure is almost straight; that at the apex curved, the
cubital nervure is scarcely angled where the second recurrent nervure
is received. The claws have a blunt tooth not far from the base. <$.

Length 2 lines.

This little species might be placed in the genus
Harpiphorus, with which it agrees in the form of the
alar neuration, especially in the transverse radial
nervure issuing from the stigma at a distance from the



GENUS EEIOCAMPA. 219

costa. It agrees, however, so closely in coloration
with the black species of Poecilosoma that it is best
included in that genus. From P. sulmuticum, with
which it has perhaps the greatest resemblance, it is
easily known by its more pilose thorax and head, much
shorter and thicker antennas, more perpendicular
transverse radial nervure, slightly shorter metatarsi,
as well as by the black pronotum and much thicker
stigma.

Kare. Kier Hill, Dumfries -shire, 25th May.



Genus EKIOCAMPA.

Eriocampa, Htg., Blattw., 279.

Wings with two radial and four cubital cellules ; the second and third
of the latter receiving each a recurrent nervure. Lanceolate cellule
with an oblique cross nervure. Accessory nervure largely appendicu-
lated. Hind wings with both the recurrent and transverse cuoital ner-
vures present, or the former only.

Eyes not reaching to the base of the mandibles. Clypeus incised or
truncated.

Antenna short, the third joint much longer than the fourth ; the
apical joints attenuated at the apex ; the middle ones thickened.

Claws bifid at apex. Patellae developed only on the apical joints of
tarsi.

Body ovate, short.

The species are small, with short, thick bodies, with
black, shining bodies and legs, the latter having the
tibiae and tarsi annulated with white at the base, or
more or less testaceous, or dull white. In only one
species is there any red. The posterior wings have
either two middle cellules, in which case the clypeus
is incised at the apex, or they have one only when the
clypeus is truncated.

Eriocampa has the small, thick-set body form of
Blennocampa> from which, however, it differs in the
form of the lanceolate cellule and of the antennas. In
the form of the lanceolate cellule and partly in the
neuration of the hinder wings it agrees with Poecilo-
soma, but that genus has the body longer and more
cylindrical, the antennas not thickened in the middle.



220 GENUS ERIOCAMPA.

nor so sharply pointed at the apex, while the eyes do
not reach the base of the mandibles. Selandria again,
is easily recognised from Eriocampa by the lanceolate
cellule wanting an oblique cross nervure, the colora-
tion pattern, too, being different in the two genera.

The larvae are covered with a white flaky powder, or
more usually by a black or olive- coloured resinous
exudation. In the latter case they are slug-like in
shape, very sluggish and more or less gregarious in
habit and feed on the upper surface of the leaf.

Ten species of the genus as here restricted have
been described from the European fauna, one from
Northern China, and six from North America, besides
the European rosce and limacina.



Synopsis of Species.

1 (2) Thorax red in front. Vertex and cheeks margined. Vertex,

scutellum and pleurae punctured. Blotch absent. Antennae
almost elbowed in the middle and fusiform at the apex.

Ovata.

2 (1) Thorax black. Vertex and thorax nnpunctured ; vertex with-

out a border ; blotch distinct.

3 (8) Clypeus incised at apex; hind wings with the transverse

cubital and recurrent nervures present.

4 (7) Legs annulated with white.

5 (6) Hinder tarsi broadly annulated with white at the base ; wings

hyaline only at the apex. Annulipes.

6 (5) Hinder tarsi not annulated with white ; wings hyaline at base

and apex. Varipes.

7 (4) Legs not annulated with white, the fore legs testaceous in

front ; wings with a cloud in the middle. Limacina.

8 (3) Clypeus truncated at the apex; hind wings with only the

recurrent nervure present.

9 (10) Tibiae white at the base ; wings hyaline at base and apex ; tr.

median nervure received before middle of cellule. Cinxia.

10 (9) Fore tibiae and tarsi testaceous ; wings almost hyaline ; tr.

median nervure received almost in middle of cellule.

11 (12) Posterior tibiae and tarsi entirely black. Rosa.

12 (11) Posterior tibiae and tarsi for the greater .part testaceous.

Testaceipes.



ERIOCAMPA OVATA. 221



1. ERIOCAMPA OVATA.
PL XII, fig. 2 ? ; PL XXI, fig. 6, Saw.

Tenthredo ovata, Lin., F. S., 1553 ; S. N. f Ed., xii, 921, 28 ; Fab.,
S. E., 320, 17; Reaum., Mem., iii^
318; De Geer, Mem., ii, 237, 5; t.
xxxv, figs. 111 ; Fall., Acta, 1807,
206, 14; Hon., 31, 10; King, BerL
Mag., viii, 62, 54 ; Lep., Mon., 109,
316 ; Htg., Blattw., 280, 51 ; Ratzb.,
Forstin., iii, 132, t. 3, fig. 8 ; Evers.,
Bull., Mosc., xx, 32, 15.

Gossypina, Retz., De Geer, 303.

hcematodes, Panz., F. G., Iii, t. 3.

leucozona, Schr., Z. B., ii, 251.
Hylotoma ovata, Fab., S. P., 27, 25.

Selandt-ia ovata, Ste., 111., vii, 54, 40 ; Voll., Tidj. Ent., vi, 81
86, pi. 7 (lar., &c.).

Eriocampa ovata, Thorns., Op., 286, 1 ; Hym. Sc., i, 225, 3 ;
Cam., Fauna, 24, 1 ; Bridgman, Ent. r
1878, 191 ; Andre, Species, i, 318,
pi. xviii, fig. 3; Cat., 40,* 1.

Black, anterior tibiae in front, and a thin band on the base of the
hinder pair, obscure testaceous. Thorax above from the scutellum
sanguineous. Abdomen smooth, shining, almost bare, head and thorax
covered with a sparse grey pile. Wings hyaline, a faint fascia below
the stigma ; nervures, costa and stigma black. ? .

Length 3^ 4 lines.

The ground colour of the larva is light green, the
eye spots black, mouth brownish-black, and there is a
black spot over the vertex. A short time after its
exclusion from the egg the larva becomes dusted all
over with a whitish exudation, which on the head does
not extend below the eyes. The legs are white with
brown claws. As it gets older the white powder
develops into a white flaky material, which can be
rubbed off ; but this is cast at the last moult, when
the larva becomes of a shining green colour.

They feed on alder from July to October, eating
large holes in the leaves ; when not feeding they lie
stretched on the lower side of the leaf.

A very common and widely distributed species.
The is quite unknown, and it is very doubtful if it






222 EEIOCAMPA ANNULIPES.

exists. The observations referred to already (antea,
p. 26) show clearly that complete parthenogenesis
occurs with it.

Its nearest ally is E. umbratica, KL, which agrees
with it in the form of the antennse, head and neuration ;
but it has the vertex and thorax unpunctured, and
wants the red on the thorax.

European distribution : Sweden, Germany, Holland,
France, Switzerland, Tyrol, Hungary, Russia.



2. ERIOOAMPA ANNULIPES.
PL II, fig. 4, 4 a, Larva,

Tenthredo annulipes, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 70, 49; Htg.,

Blattw., 279, 46 ; Evers., Bull.
Mosc.,xx,32,14; Ratz.,Forstin,,
iii, 130, 39, pi. iii, fig. 7.

Selandria annulipes, Ste., 111., vii, 51, 27 ; Voll., Tidj. Ent., ii

(2), 178182, pi. 9 (lar., &c.) ;
Ent., vii, 167.

Eriocampa annulipes, Thorns., Opus., 286, 3 ; Hym. Sc., i, 225,

3 ; Cam., Fauna, 24, 3 ; Andre,
Species, i, 321 ; Cat., 41,* 9.

Black, shining ; head covered with a microscopic down; the anterior
tibis8 in front, the posterior with a broad basal band, calcaria and the
half of the metatarsus of the posterior tarsi, white. Wings smoky,
hyaline at the apex.

The has the antennse longer and more thickened towards the apex,
the third joint is thickened at the apex.

Length 2 3 lines.

Easily known from all the species by the smoky
wings, hyaline at the apex.

Very common, appearing in June and August. The
larva is found in July and again in August and Sep-
tember on the lower surface of the leaves of the birch,
oak, willow and lime.

The eggs are laid on the under side of the leaf
embedded in the epidermis, a hole being left when the
larva has left the egg. When young the larva is
pale, very shining, and covered with a glistening
varnish. The body is very transparent, so that the
workings of the internal organs can be seen through



EBIOCAMPA VAK1PJ3S. 223

the skin, while the intestinal canal appears as a black
line when it is filled with food. As the animal grows
the head becomes light brown, with darker mouth
parts, the eye spots likewise being visible as black
spots ; the entire head is very shining. The body is
dirty yellow (sometimes dirty white), the legs have a
yellowish hue, while the slimy substance is more
abundant than it was when the larva was young.

In its manner of feeding, pupating, &c., it agrees
with the other species. I have not noticed it in any
great abundance in Scotland, nor observed it do any
appreciable damage to trees ; but, according to Ratz-
burg, damage is done to the lime trees by a number
of the larvas feeding on a leaf, whereby it becomes
brown, curled up, and ultimately dies.

It is a species common all over Britain.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany, France,
Russia.



3. ERIOCAMPA VAKIPES.

Tenthredo varipes, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 69, 49 ; Htg., Blattw.,

279, 46.

Selandria varipes, Ste., 111., vii, 51, 28.
Eriocampa crassicomis, Tishbein, S. E. Z., 1846.

varipes, Thorns., Op., 287, 4 ; Hym. Sc., i, 225, 4 ;

Andre, Species, i, 323; Cat., 41,*

12.

Black ; tibiae white at the base ; anterior testaceous at the apex.
Wings hyaline, a narrow infuscated cloud below the stigma ; the stigma
is almost testaceous beneath.

The $ is similar, but the posterior wings have the tr. cubital and
recurrent nervures at edge of wing, and therefore without a middle
cellule.

Length 2| 2 lines.

Similar to the preceding, but wings clearer, only
smoky in the middle, and the tarsi are black. The
structure of the posterior neuration in the 3 distin-
guishes it readily.

The larva (which is similar to that of annulipes) has
been found by Mr. J. E. Fletcher on oak.






224 ERIOCAMPA LIMACINA.

Apparently not a common species, and confined
principally to the southern counties. It has been
found in the London' district, at Norwich, Worcester,
Dorsetshire.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany, Hol-
land, France, Italy.



4. EEIOCAMPA LIMACINA.
PI. II, fig. 10 and 10 a, Larva.

Tenthredo limacina, Retz., De Geer, 313.

De Geer, Mem, ii. 269, pi. 38, figs.

1625; Beau., 'Mem., v, 97, t. 12,
figs. 1 6.

adumbrate, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 64, 56; Htg.,

Blattw., 280, 48; Evers., Bull.
Mosc., xx ; Tasch., Ent. f. Gart.,
153, figs. 38 and 39; Gorseki,
Analecta, i, 186, t. Ill, figs. 2 and
2 a.

cerasi, Bouche, Naturg., 137 ; Newman, Ent., viii,

258.

Selandria adumbrate, Ste., 111., vii, 48, 14; Kalt, Pfl., 174, 207 ;

Toll., Tidj. Ent., xxi, lar. im., pi. i.

atra, West., Ent. Ann., 1862, p. 132; Gard. Chron.,

1848, p. 524.

Eriocampa adumbrate, Thorns., Opus., 287, 5 ; Hym. Sc., i, 226,

5 ; Cam., Fauna, 24, 2.

limacina, Andre, Species, i, 322, pi. xviii, figs. 4, 5,

6 and 7 ; Cat., 41,* 13.
Monostegia antipoda, Kirby, Trans. Ent. Soc., 1881, 50.

Black, shining, pilose; anterior tibiae testaceous, middle almost
fuscous. Wings hyaline, with a broad, smoky band in the middle. $
and ?.

Length 2^ lines.

Distinguished from the foregoing species by the
darker colour of the legs, and by the transverse radial
nervure being received nearer the third transverse
cubital; from rosce by the less deeply ernarginated
clypeus, and differently coloured wings ; and from
Cinxia by the black tibiae. Occasionally specimens of
both males and females are bred having only one
middle cellule in hind wings.

The eggs are laid on the underside of the leaf.
When very young the larva is white ; then it becomes



EBIOOAMPA LIMACINA. 225

of a greenish-yellow colour, but this is obscured by a
thick, black, olive-coloured resinous secretion, which
covers the body all over. It is much broader before
tban behind ; the thorax and base of abdomen, too,
being higher than the rest of the abdomen ; the thorax
arching over the head to a certain extent. Its shape
is in fact not unlike a pear, and in its general appear-
ance closely resembles a slug ; hence the name given
to it of the " slug worm." The head is black, and
bears a few hairs ; the mouth yellowish ; the legs are
short and stumpy, and brownish in colour. The ventral
legs are coloured like the body. At the last moult
the slimy secretion is lost and the head becomes of the
same colour as the body ; the eye spots being black.

The larvse feed on the upper side of the leaf usually
to the number of three or four. They eat only the
upper epidermis ; at first the leaf gets eaten in patches,
but ultimately every particle of green is devoured so
that it has the appearance of having been scorched ;
and ultimately it falls to the ground. When they
appear in great numbers (as they unfortunately too
often do) in hot weather, the noise they make in
feeding is said to resemble the falling of drops of rain
on the leaves. They are very sluggish, and their
sluggishness is only surpassed by their voracity. The
usual time for the appearance of the larvse is about the
middle of June, and from that time they are found in
more or less abundance to the end of September or
even October. The small black cocoon is spun in the
ground : when the larva? are very numerous, the
cocoons are spun close to each other.

The damage done by these ugly brutes to fruit trees
is very often immense; especially is this the case
during very dry seasons. They are found on most
species of Pyrus, Prunus, Cerasus, Rubus and Amyg-
dalus, as well as Cratcegus, Quercns, and Betula.

Various remedies have been tried for their extermi-
nation, such as sprinkling sand, ashes, lime and
powdered hellebore, but with no great success. Good

VOL. i. 15



226 EEIOCAMPA OINXIA.

results, however, liave been obtained in America by
showering a solution of hellebore in water over the
infected leaves from the rose of a watering pot. For
this purpose a small platform was erected on a cart,
which gave the necessary elevation ; but obviously
only the smaller trees could be reached in this way.
The solution consisted of a pound of hellebore to a
barrel of water.

As parasites there have been recorded : Erromenus
fumatus, Brischke ; Tryphon Gorslci, Ratz. ; T. Ratze-
burgi, Gorski; T. excavatus, Ratz.; and T. translucens,
Ratz.

The distribution is general throughout Britain,
Europe, and America; while it has made its way into
New Zealand.

06s. Owing to Linne quoting (but erroneously) Reaumur's observa-
tions on E. limacina, that species has been very often called cerasi, but
the true cerasi, L. is very different, having the legs and scutellum yellow.
What the latter may be I cannot say for certain; but in Linne's
collection it is represented by Lyda sylvatica, which fits the description
well, save only that Linne did not place his cerasi among the species
with multi-articulate antenna).



5. ERIOCAMPA CINXIA.

Tenthredo cinxia, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 69, 48; Htg., Blattw.,

280, 49.

Selandria cinxia, Ste., 111., vii, 52, 33.
Eriocampa cinxia, Thorns., Opus., 287, 6 ; Hym. Sc., i, 226, 6

Andre, Species, i, 322; Cat., 41,* 11.

Black, tibiae white at the base. Wings almost smoky, paler at the
base and apex ; the tr. radial nervure received shortly before the third
tr. cubital.

Length 2 lines.

Easily known from the preceding species by the trun-
cated clypeus, the first cubital nervure more distinct,
the second cellule narrower at the base ; from the suc-
ceeding it may be known by the tibiae being white at
the base. It is like varipes in the coloration of the
legs ; but the front tibia3 are not so testaceous ; it is
larger ; the radial nervure is received near the cubital ;



ERIOCAHPA ROSJ;. 227

the third cellule is longer, and the second cubital has
a horny point.

Seemingly not a common species. Mr. Fletcher
takes it at Worcester, and Mr. Bridgman at Norwich.

Continental distribution: Sweden, Germany, Hol-
land, France.






G. EEIOCAMPA
PL II, fig. 5, Larva ; PI. XII, fig 3, ? .

Sclamlria rosa, Harris, Cat., 1835; Injur. Ins., 416; Norton,
Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., i, 257 ; Cat.,
118, 22.

aethiops, West., Gard. Chron., 1848, 524; Ent. Ann.,

1862, 132.

Selandria soror, Voll., Tidj. Ent., iv, 123.
Eriocampa limonensis, Gimmerthal, S. E. Z., 1844, 38.

iiitida, Tischbein, S. E. Z., 1846, 75 ; Andre, Species,

i, 320 ; Cat., 40 * 5.

aethiops, Cam., E. M. M., xii, 192.
Eriocampa canince, Cam., E. M. M., xiv, 267.

ocampa soror, Andre, Species, i, 322 ; Cat., 41,* 14.

atratula, Thorns., Opus., 287, 7 ; Hym. Sc., i, 226, 7.
Athalia roste, Tasch., Naturg., 151, 64 (cf. Cam., E. M. M., xvi,

Black, shining ; the knees, the four anterior tibia? and tarsi white ;
wings almost smoky, slightly darker at base, having a slight violet
tinge. Transverse radial nervure oblique, straight, received close to
middle of third cubital cellule.

Length If 2 lines.

This species may be known from E. cinxia by having
the whole of the anterior tibiae and tarsi white, instead
of only the base of the tibia3. E. testaceipes, again,
has no white on the legs, and the posterior are tes-
taceous. The wings in roscv are darker at the base,
and do not differ essentially from those of testaceipes ;
in <-iri. i ia they are different, being darker in the middle.

The larvae feed on the upper surface of the leaves
of the common rose, to which they often do great
damage in gardens, by eating the upper skin of the
leaves and thus destroying their vitality. The larva
is pale yellowish-green with the food canal appearing
as a darker stripe down the back. The head is orange.



228 ERIOOAMPA TESTACEIPES.

The eggs are laid in the midrib in May, the larvse
appearing in early summer. The small oval cocoons
are spun in the earth. A second brood appears in
France during September and October, there being also
two broods in America, where it is very destructive to
garden roses.

Common in gardens in England and Scotland. I
suspect it has been introduced into America from
Europe, like the gooseberry grub Nematus ribesii.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Holland, France,
Germany.

0& s< This common species agrees tolerably well with the description
of Tenthredo aethiops, Fab., E. S., ii, 121, 65; S. P., 39, 49, which
was described from an insect in the Banksian Collection; but the
typical specimen (from England) has been either lost or destroyed. In
Europe it was first described by Westwood, who referred it to the
aethiops, Fab., but long before that it had been described in America by
Harris under the appropriate name of rosce ; I certainly think the
Harrisian name should be adopted, because there is no dispute about it,
while the Fabrician description is by no means clear, and the name has
been applied to other species. The late Prof. Zaddach informed me
that aethiops in the Fabrician Collection in Kiel is represented by a
Blennocampa. The aethiops of King and Hartig may possibly be the
aethiops mentioned by Zaddach. It is regarded by Thomson (Hym.
Sc., i, 213) as a variety of Blennocampa eppiphium, Pz., with the thorax
entirely black, but on the other hand, Gorski says that King's type of
aethiops in the Berlin Museum is identical with E. 'limacina, save that
it has only one middle cellule in hind wings, and limacina certainly has
sometimes only one cellule. I have received a " Blennocampa aetliiops "
from several Continental entomologists, but it proved always to be B.
i, Schr.



7. EBIOCAMPA TESTACEIPES.

Eriocampa testaceipes, Cam., E. M. M., xi. 129; Fauna, 24, 4;

Andre, Species, i, 322 ; Cat., 41,*
10.

Black, shining; coxse, trochanters and basal three- fourths of femora
black, the apical fourth, tibia? and tarsi yellowish-testaceous; apex of
hinder tarsi fuscous. Wings slightly longer and narrower than usual,
smoky; costa and stigma black; transverse radial nervure received
nearly in the middle of the cellule, straight, scarcely oblique. J".

Length 2 lines ; alar exp. 5 lines.

Differs from roscv in having the wings somewhat
longer and narrower, the third cubital cellule is longer,
being distinctly longer than the second, which is



GENUS BLENNOCAMPA. 229

scarcely the case with rosce on the upper side, by the
hinder tibiae being longer compared to the tibiae,, and
by the different coloration of the posterior legs.

I am not sure but Eriocampa dolosa, Evers. (Bull.
Mosc., xx, 33, 16), is the same species. His descrip-
tion is : Nigra, nitida, geniculis, tibiis, tarsisque
sordide lutescentibus ; alis limpidis, stigmate-radioque
fuscis ?. The term, "limpidis" can scarcely be
applied to the wings of testaceipes, while Eversmann
makes no mention of the neuration of the wings (save
that there is but one middle cellule in hind wings) nor
of the form of the clypeus, so that in the meantime I
prefer to retain my own name.

Taken on 6th 'June on alder at Kilmorack, near
Beauly.



Genus BLENNOCAMPA.

Blennocampa, Htg., Blattw., 266.
Monophadnus, Htg., 1. c., 271.
Phymatocera, Dbm., Clavis, 4.
Pectinia (Lep.), Brulle, Hymen., iv, p. 664.

Wings with two radial and four cubital cellules; the second and
third of the latter each receiving a recurrent nervure. Lanceolate
cellule petiolate. Posterior wings with the transverse cubital nervure
always absent, but the recurrent in one section (== Monopliadnus, Htg.)
is present. Antenna} short and thick, or longish and filiform ; the third
joint longer than fourth, or densely pilose with the third shorter than
fourth. Body short, thick, and rather ovoid in form, the abdomen being
rarely much longer than the head and thorax.

The neuration is varied as regards the position of the nervures in the
different species. The basal nervure is straight and runs parallel
with the transverse cubital, or it is curved and not parallel. The trans-
verse median nervure is generally received before the middle of the
cellule, but sometimes is received beyond it, i.e. nearer the base of the
cellule. In B. betuleti and B. nana the first transverse cubital nervure
is absent, or at least is very faint, so that these two species have pretty
much the neuration of Fenusa, with which they agree in some other
respects.

The clypeus is, as a rule, truncated or but slightly emarginated at
the apex. The pentagonal area is rarely indicated, but the frontal
sutures are distinct. The mandibles are short and broad, and have a
tooth not far from the blunt apex ; behind the subapical tooth the
edge may be indented (see PI. XII, fig. 12).



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