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A monograph of the British phytophagous Hymenoptera .. (Volume 1) online

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hyaline, tr. radial nervure interstitial. Tegulae black. Saw largely

projecting. Cenchri large, clear white.
The <$ has the antennae nearly

as long as the abdomen and half the

thorax, the joints more distinctly separated than in the $ ; and the
tibiae are more or less suffused with fuscous.
Length 3 lines.

Subcana is most nearly related to pusilla, from which
it is readily distinguished by its much greater size,
stouter form, longer and stouter antennae, the joints
being more sharply divided, the more obscure colour of


the legs, black tarsi, and generally more deeply coloured
costa and stigma. From Ginereipes it is known by
its longer and less oblong body, lighter coloured tibiae,
clearer wings, interstitial tr. radial nervure, and more
projecting saw.

In some males the tibiae are nearly quite black.

A very commonly distributed species, appearing in
May among herbage.

On the Continent it has been recorded from Prussia,
and I have seen French examples.

PL III, fig. 1, Larva, la, rolled leaf.

Tenthrcdopusilla,'K.\\ig i 'Bei'l. Mag., viii, 62; Htg., Blattw.,
267, 2.

Selandria pusilla, Ste.,111., vii, 52, 32; Voll.,Tidj. Ent., iv, TO-
SS, pi. 3 (lar., &c.) ; Kalt., Pfl,, 221.

Slcnnocampa pusilla, Thorns., Opus., 285, 23 ; Hym. Sc., i,
220, 26 ; Cam., Fauna, 25, 3 ; Andre,
Species, i, 312 ; Cat., 38,* 20.

Black, shining; knees, tibiae and tarsi yellowish-white; the apex of
posterior tibia) and tarsi fuscous ; tegulae black ; antenna) a little
longer than the abdomen, the joints distinctly separated ; the third
nearly as long as the fourth ; the two basal joints large, the first
oval, the second cylindrical ; clypeus truncated at apex. Wings fuscous,
almost iridescent; the tr. radial nervure is received immediately in
front of third tr. cubital, being almost interstitial ; stigma large, black ;
costa black. The terebra projects largely, the apex is sub- acuminate.
? and (J.

Length 2 2 lines.

The larva lives in rolled down leaves of Rosa canina,
the rolling down of the two sides of the leaf being
done by itself, but aided by the incision made by the
? when laying the eggs, the whole leaf being thereby
deformed and converted into a complete cylinder, under
the cover of which it lives, but not permanently, as it
changes its abode when it no longer affords it nourish-
ment. In this way I have seen the foliage of whole
bushes distorted and the vitality of the plant impaired.

The larva is somewhat short and stumpy. Its head
is narrower than the second segment, smooth, shining,


hairless, fuscous, pale brown, or even white to the
middle of the face, below which the colour is white ;
the mouth is fuscous. The entire body is green ; over
the feet the skin is much wrinkled ; the junction of
the segments is white. The legs are green with darker
claws ; the abdominal legs are greenish- white ; the anal
ones are well-developed and on walking are slightly
raised. Those in front of them are not well developed,
or they are hid by the overhanging folds of the body.
On the back are short spiny hairs. Lengths 4 lines.
They are found in June and July, pupate in the earth,
and appear the following May and June.

This is one of the commonest species in the genus.
I have seen specimens from all parts of the country.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany, Hol-
land, France, Switzerland, Tyrol, Hungary, Russia.

Abdomen black, legs testaceous or white. Antennae longish,
filiform, the joints of nearly equal thickness from the third ;
wings with the first transverse cubital nervure very faint ; the
transverse radial nervure interstitial (betuleti) or nearly so
(nana) ; the median nervure received in middle of cellule (betu-
leti) or nearer the base (nana). Claws bifid. Pentagonal area
distinct. Eyes greenish (Species 21 and 22).

In the absence of the 1st tr. cubital nervure, or at least in
having it very faint, this section approaches Fenusa, as it does
also in the distinct pentagonal area. In colour, too, the resem-
blance is very great ; betuleti, for example, is identical with
Fenusa betulce ; and nana approaches F. pygmcea.


Tenthredo nana, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, p. 72 ; Htg., Blattw.,
266, 1; Thorns., Opusc., 285, 24;
Hym. Scand., i, 212, 11 ; Cam., Fauna,
25, 2; Andre, Species, i, 302; Cat.,
39 * 28.

Oblong, black, shining, glabrous. Antennae filiform longer than
the abdomen, the third joint much longer than the fourth. Tegulse,
pronotum at the base, knees, tibiae and tarsi, clear white. Saw project-
ing, semi-curved ; apex of abdomen truncated ; blotch oblong. Wings
hyaline, with a large fuscous blotch in the middle of the anterior;
stigma large, fuscous ; stigma pale ; tr. radial nervure received a little
in front of cubital.

Length 2 2 lines.


The colour and tlio broad band in the wings readily
distinguish this pretty species.

It does not appear to be very common. I have
seen it from the Glasgow district, Kinguessie, Braemar
(Sharp), and it has been recorded by Mr. McLachlan
from Rannoch.

My specimens have always been taken on birch in
June and July. I believe the <$ is quite unknown.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany, Franco,


Tcnthrcdo betuleti, King, Berl. Mag., viii, 57 ; Htg., Blattw.,

267, 4.

Selandria betuleti, Ste., 111., vii, 50, 21.
Blennocampa betuleti, Thorns., Op., 283, 15 ; Hym. Scand., i,

211, 10; Andre, Species, i, 316;

Cat., 39,* 31.

Black; head and thorax covered with a thick griseous pile; legs
testaceous ; coxa3, trochanters, and base of femora, black ; the apex of
hinder tibiae and the greater part of the tarsal joints fuscous. Antennae
filiform, longer than the abdomen, shortly pilose, the third joint a little
longer than fourth. Wings highly iridescent, with a faintly brownish
tinge ; costa and stigma dull black. The tr. radial nervure is received
near the third cubital ; the first tr. cubital is faint ; tegulaa black. The
saw is short, pilose at apex.

Length 2 lines.

There is no British species with which betuleti can be
readily confounded, but it has a wonderful resemblance
to Fcnusa betulce, which, however (exclusive of the
generic distinctions), may be known from the Blenno-
campa by its deeper coloured wings, pale tegulae, and
much more distinct branchial fork at base of lanceolate

Betuleti is a rare species. Stephens records it from
Darenth Wood, and Mr. Fletcher bred it at Worcester
from a larva which fed externally on birch ; this being
all that is known of its larval life.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany, Hol-
land, France, Tyrol.


Abdomen and legs luteous. Antennae long, filiform, last four
joints abruptly shorter than the others. Transverse radial
nervure received a little past the middle of the third cubital
cellule ; third cubital cellule one fourth longer than second ;
at the base of lanceolate cellule is a distinct branchial nervure.
Wings subhyaline. Claws bifid. Apex of clypeus truncated
(Species 23).


Tcnthredo assimilis, Fall., Acta, 1807.

hyalina, KL, Berl. Mag., viii, 58, 25 ; Htg., Blattw.,

Selandria hyalina, Ste., 111., vii, 46, 4.

Blennocampa assimilis, Thorns., Opus., 282, 12; Hym. Sc., i,
217, 18 ; Cam., Fauna, 25, 1 ; Andre,
Species, i, 317 ; Cat., 40,* 46.

Black, shining, covered with a short pile ; legs and abdomen from
the second segment yellow ; apex of abdomen, saw and posterior tarsi,
black, apical joints of anterior tarsi fuscous. Antennae a little longer
than the head and thorax. Wings hyaline, with a faint smoky tinge ;
nervures black. At the base of the lanceolate cellule there is a short,
turned up commencement of a nervure. Palpi yellowish.

The cT is similar, but the antennae are thicker and the apex of the
abdomen is not black.

Length 2 2 lines.

This is a widely distributed species, the imago
appearing in June. According to Dours (Cat. Syn.,
18) the larva feeds on Sorlms aucuparia and Primus
padus, but this requires verification.

In Scotland it has been taken in Clydesdale and in
Dumfries -shire ; Mr. Fletcher takes it at Worcester
and Mr. Dale in Dorsetshire, while it has likewise been
taken in the London districts.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany, Hol-
land, France, Tyrol, Hungary.

Obs. Mr. H. T. Stainton sent me a mined leaf of Tilia Europcea
which was not known to him as being caused by a Lepidopteron. It is
very probably that of Blennocampa tiliae, Kalt. (Pfl. 78), a species
closely related, if not identical with, if one might judge from the
description, B. assimilis. According to Kaltenbach the mine com-
mences at the border of the leaf, which is followed for about 1", but is
gradually extended until the whole half side of the leaf is occupied by
it. Sometimes there are two larvae on the same leaf, each occupying a
half. The larva is from 3 4'" long, white, clear, bare and slimy; the
food canal appears as a broad greenish stripe, The body is of equa.


breadth, the sides with swollen knotched projections. The head is
brown, the eyes black ; the mouth of a darker brown than the head.
The legs are white. The pupa state is passed in the earth.

The imago is shining black, the abdomen reddish-yellow, save the two
basal segments; the legs yellow ; the wings a little clouded.

At least that is the way I read the description : " Gliinzend schwarz,
Beine, Schenkelringe und Hiif ten gelb ; " but Andre (Species, p. 317)
reads it " feet black, coxae and trochanters yellow." If that is the right
translatioiH clearly the word " Beine " should have been left out, but as
it is I can only make it mean that the legs with the coxae and trochanters
are yellow, it being a common thing to mention the colour of the coxae
and trochanters, as they are, as a rule, differently coloured from the rest
of the legs when these are light coloured white, yellow, or red.


Hoplocampa, Htg., Blattw., 276.

Wing with two radial and four cubital cellules. Lanceolate cellule
contracted. Hind wings with the recurrent and transverse nervures
present. Antennae short, third ninth joints almost equal. Eyes
oblong, not reaching to the base of mandibles. Clypeus incised. Legs
of moderate length, the patellae small, but distinct; claws with a
minute subapical tooth. Cerci long. The subcostal cellule is wide
and its cross nervure distinct. The basal nervure is received on the
costa a good piece in front of the cubital nervure, and does not run
parallel with the transverse cubital. The transverse median is received
in the middle of the cellule, and has a distinct " bulla " or clear spot at
its lower end; there being also a similar clear space at the upper end
of the first recurrent nervure. Accessory nervure in front wings
received not far from the end of the 2nd tr. median nervure ; in hind
wings it is longly appendiculated. In hind wings the recurrent and
transverse cubital nervures are almost united.

The species are pale yellow or ferruginous. They
are small in size, smooth and shining, seldom or never
punctured. The larvae have from six to seven pairs of
ventral legs. They are, as a rule, whitish or yellow
in colour, and live either in fruits or in galls. One
species (H. brevis), however, is green and bears forked
spines and lives in the rolled down leaves of the rose.

Hoplocampa forms a connecting link between the
Selandriades and the Nematina, it having almost the
neuration of the latter, save as regards the position
of the recurrent nervures.

In the position of the basal nervure and in the form
of the antennae it differs from the Selandriades, while



some at least of the larvae differ from them, and
agree with the Nematides in haying only twenty feet.

The genus would appear to be confined to Europe
and North America. Ten species have been recorded
from the former and five from the latter region.

Synopsis of Species.

1 (8) Body yellow on the underside.

'2 (3) Meso-metanotum and dorsum of abdomen black. Testudinea.

3 (2) Mesonotum and abdomen for the greater part yellow.

4 (5) Mesonotum reddish, punctured; wings with a fuscous cloud.


5 (4) Mesonotum unpunctured ; wings unclouded.

6 (7) Yellow ; base of abdomen black ; wings hyaline ; stigma yellow ;

(^ dorsum of abdomen black. Cratcegi.

7 (6) Pallid-testaceous, without black ; wings lacteous, stigma white.

$ immaculate. Alpina.

8 (1) Body more or less black on underside.

9 (12) Pleurae testaceous or luteous.

10 (11) Pale testaceous ; antennae testaceous. Gallicola.

11 (10) Luteous ; antennae black. Pectoralis.

12 (9) Pleurse black.

13 (14) Belly testaceous ; antennae and collar black. Chrysorrhcea.

14 (13) Belly black ; antennae and edge of collar testaceous.



Tenthredo testudinea, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 60, 30; Htg.,

Blattw, 277, 37.

Selandria testudinea, Ste., III., vii, 47, 10 ; West., Gard. Chron.,

1848, 851; Ent. Ann., 1862,

Hoplocampa testudinea, Thorns., Opus., 277, 1 ; Hym. Scand., i,

200, 1 ; Kalt., Pfl., 201 ; Tasch.,
Ent. f. Gart., 157; Andre,
Species, i, 327 ; Cat., 41,* 8.

Reddish-yellow, a large spot on the vertex, meso- and metanotum
and abdomen above with the sheath black; the middle joints of
antennae fuscous above. Wings hyaline ; stigma and nervures at base
blackish ; apex of stigma yellow. The vertex and mesonotum are finely
punctured, almost shining.

Length 3 lines.

The largest of the species of Hoplocampa. It is
most nearly related to H. brevis, Klug, which, however,
is smaller by a line ; the mesonotum is spotted with


red ; sheath pale, the nervures paler and the antennae

According to Westwood the ? oviposits in the
apple bloom. The larva then takes to the young
apples, inside of which it lives. When the apples
become as big as walnuts they fall to the ground,
carrying the grubs along with them, which then creep
out, and enter the ground where they pupate, this
taking place at the end of June and beginning of July.
A similar account has been given by Dr. Ebrard de
Bourg and Delacour de Beauvais (cf. Kaltenbach, 1. c.).

This may be (and no doubt is) a common species in
gardens, but I have only seen Stephens' specimens
(from Hertford) and a specimen taken by Mr. Joseph
Chappell in the Manchester distinct. West wood's
observations were made at Hammersmith.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany, France,


Tenthredo ferruginea,~Pz., F. G.,90, fig. 9; Lep., Mon., 115, 337.

Hylotoma ferruginea. Fab., S. P., 27, 24.

Tenthredo brunnea, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 16 ; Htg., Blattw.,

277, 38.

Selandria ferruginea, Ste., 111., vii, 47, 7.
HopLocampa ferruginea, Thome., Opus., 277, 2; Hym. Scand., i,

201, 3 ; Andre, Species, i, 325, pi.

xviii, fig. 1 (im.) ; Cat., 41,* 1.

Reddish ; the posterior edges of mesonotum and metanotum black ;
tibiae and tarsi pale. Wings yellowish, with a broad brownish band in the
middle ; stigma blackish at base ; the apex and nervures reddish-yellow.
The vertex and mesonotum finely punctured ; mandibles piceous.

The $ bears three black marks on the mesonotum, and a smaller
one on the vertex.

Length 2 2 lines.

The puncturing on the mesonotum is much closer
and deeper than in the succeeding species ; the colour
of the body is redder, the body less shining, and the
brownish blotch in the wings affords another good
mark of separation.


Not a common species. On roses in June. Nor-
folk. Darenth (Stephens). Thornhill.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany, Hol-
land, France, Switzerland, Tyrol.

Plate XII, fig. 9.

Hoplocampa pectoralis, Thorns., Hym. Scand., i, 202, 6; Cam.,

Fauna, 27, 3 ; Andre, Species,
i,326; Cat., 41,* 7.

Antennae about the size of the head and thorax, black, the second
basal joint luteous beneath. Head black, shining ; labrum, clypeus
and two spots above the antennae, reddish-yellow; thorax shining,
black ; pronotum, pleurae and sternum, except a black spot in its
centre, luteous. Abdomen reddish-yellow, the base marked with black ;
sheath black. Legs pale reddish -yellow, the apex of posterior tibiae,
and the tarsal joints marked with fuscous. Wings hyaline, the ner-
vures pale luteous, costa and nervures at apex fuscous ; base of stigma
fuscous. $ .

Length 2| lines.

Not common. Clydesdale. London district (Marsh),
St. Albans (Marshall), Worcester.
Continental distribution : Gothland.


Hoplocampa gallicola., Cam., E. M. M., xiv, 156 ; Andre, Species,

i, 324.

Antennae a little longer than the abdomen, fuscous, paler on the
underside, the base of the first joint entirely testaceous, the third a
very little longer than the fourth, the rest of equal length and thickness,
the ninth conical at the apex. Head globular in front, the face below
the antennae pale white ; the apices of the mandibles piceous ; vertex
faintly punctured. Thorax black ; mesonotum smooth, shining ; the
edge of the pronotum, pleurae and sternum, pale testaceous. Legs pale
testaceous, the apex of the posterior tibiae and the tarsi fuscous. Wings
hyaline, the nervures and costa pale fuscous ; tegulae and stigma pale
testaceous ; tr. radial nervure received in the apical fourth of the third
cubital cellule : the first cubital cellule is nearly square, about half the
length of the lower part of the second, which is itself a little shorter
than the third on its lower side, and considerably shorter on the upper.
The first recurrent nervure is received not far from the first tr. cubital
nervure, the second a little in front of the third. .

Length 2 lines.


Readily known from the other black species by the
testaceous pleurse.

The only specimen I have seen was taken by Mr.
Ed. Parfitt in Devonshire. Mr. Parfitt believes that
it was bred from pea-shaped, woolly-haired galls found
on a species of willow. There is nothing anomalous in
a Hoplocampa being a gallmaker, for Giraud has
described* a species (H. xylostei) which forms galls on
the young branches of Lonicera xylosteum, but I am
inclined to believe that a mistake has been made in the
labelling of Mr. Parfitt's species, for the galls which
that gentleman sent me as being those of the Hoplo-
campa were undoubtedly those of a Nematus.


Tenthredo cratcegi, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 54, 18; Htg., Blattw.,

278, 41.
Hoplocampa cratcegi, Thorns., Opus., 277, 3 ; Hym. Scand., i,

201, 4; Andre, Species, i, 326; Cat.,

41,* 5.

Pale reddish-yellow ; antennae from the second segment, posterior
tarsi and the greater part of posterior tibiae, fuscous ; a small mark on
front of mesonotum, a larger one on either side, the metanotum and base
of abdomen black. Wings hyaline, costa, stigma and nervures pale

The < has the metanotum and the greater part of the dorsum of
abdomen black, while the legs are entirely yellowish.

Length 2? lines.

The antennas in this species and in alpina are longer
than in ferruginea, while the colour is paler, the meso-
notum is smooth and shining, and the stigma is uni-
colorous. Cratcegi is of a redder tint than alpina, the
colour not being so deluted ; the mesonotum shows a
trace of puncturing; the mesonotum is always distinctly
marked with black, as is also the base of the abdo-
men, the wings more iridescent, the nervures distinctly
traced, while the antennas and posterior tarsi and
apical half of tibias are distinctly fuscous. Occasion-

* Yerh. z. b. Ges. Wien., xiii, 1297, pi. 22.


ally the marks on the mesonotum become confluent.
The ocelli are placed in a minute brownish splash.

H. plagiata Klug. (1. c., p. 60), would seem to re-
semble this species (cratcegi) closely, if it be not
actually identical with it. From Hartig's descriptions
the differences between the two would seem to be that
the colour in plagiata is darker, the stigma reddish-
yellow (cratcegi has the wings clear with " blassem
Mahl "), the antenna brown, while it is half a line

Not common. Boxhill, on flowers of hawthorn
(Marshall). Norfolk, Norwich.

Continental distribution : Scandinavia, Germany,
Holland, France.


? Selandria pallida, Newman, Ent. Mag., iv, 262.
Tenthredo alpina, Zett., Ins. Lapp., 339, 4.

Hoplocampa alpina, Thorns., Opus., 278, 4; Hym. Sc., i, 202, 5 ;

Andre, Species, i, 326; Cat., 41,* 6.
cratcegi, Cam., Fauna, 26, 1.

Pale testaceous ; wings with nervures and costa milk white ; an-
tennae, posterior tarsi, abdomen at apex, one or two marks on mesonotum,
sometimes fuscous ; tibiae, tarsi and tegulae paler than the rest of the

The <$ has the tarsi and antennae devoid of the fuscous tint.

Length 2 lines.

The body is narrower than in the preceding species,
the antennae longer and thinner, the wings if anything
larger in proportion, and the saw shorter. The ocelli
are not enclosed in a black or brownish spot, the marks
on the mesonotum are generally obsolete, while as
often as not the antennas are entirely pale yellow. The
< differs from that of cratcegi in the body being
entirely of one colour.

Not common, but commonly distributed, appearing
early in June on Pyrus aucuparia. Scotland, at Brae-
mar, Altnaharra, Sutherlandshire, and in Clydesdale.
I have also seen English specimens in Mr. Marshall's
collection, bearing the name of H. pallida, Newm., but


the description given by Newman is very vague and

Scandinavia, Lapland.

PI. XIY, fig. 1.

Tenthrcdo chrysorrhcea, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 60, 31 ; Htg.,

Blattw., 278, 43; Andre,
Species, i, 324; Cat., 41,* 1.

Black, shining; apex of abdomen acuminate; legs long, slender;
mouth, belly and legs reddish -yellow ; apex of posterior tibiae and tarsi
black ; tegulse pale reddish-yellow. Terebra long, projecting, black at
apex. Wings hyaline; costa and stigma pale testaceous; nervures
blackish. The tr. radial nervure is received at the apical fourth of
third cubital cellule ; second recurrent at basal fourth.


Distinguished from rutilicornis by its larger size,
more pointed abdomen, longer and entirely blackish
antennas, yellowish belly and black posterior tarsi.

Not at all a common species. It has been taken in
the London district by Mr. J. G. Marsh.

Continental distribution : Pommerania, Holland,


Tenthredo rutilicornis, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 54, 19; Htg.,

Blattw., 278, 42.
Hoplocampa rutilicornis, Thorns., Opus, 278, 6 ; Hym. Scand.,

i, 204, 8 ; Cam., Fauna, 27, 2 ;

Andre, Species, i, 328 ; Cat., 42,*


Black ; antennse, labrum and clypeus, a spot on pronotum, tegulae,
apex of abdomen and legs pale red. Wings very large, hyaline ; ner-
vures, costa and stigma pale yellow. The body is smooth, shining, and
covered with a sparse fuscous pubescence.

The antennse have the middle joints sometimes fuscous above, and
the pronotum may want the reddish mark.

Length nearly H line.

The smallest species in the genus. The cT has the
three apical segments of abdomen reddish.


Very rare. Dairy. Galloway. Dr. Sharp. Hartig
says it appears on Prunus spinosa.

Continental distribution : Scandinavia, Germany,
France, Tyrol.


Harpiphorusj Htg., Blattw., 253.

Wings with two radial and three cubital cellules ; the first and second
of the latter receiving each a recurrent nervure. Lanceolate cellule
with an oblique cross nervure. Hind wings with only the recurrent
nervure present. Antennae filiform, nine-jointed ; the second joint
longer than the first; the third not much longer than the fourth ; the
three last abruptly shorter than the preceding. Legs moderately long ;
claws bifid. Clypeus slightly incised. The basal nervure is joined to
the cubital, a little piece from its origin, and runs parallel with the
transverse cubital ; the transverse median nervure is received a little
piece up from the middle of the cellule ; the accessory is appendiculated
in hind wing. The subcostal cellule is large. The head has the cheeks
bordered, the sutures on the vertex distinct, and there are three oval
fovese above the antennae. Mandibles short and bifid at the apex. The
eyes do not reach to the base of the mandibles.

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