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The body is small, glabrous and shining. Except
in having one discoidal cellule in posterior wings,
Harpipkorus does not exhibit any tangible differences
from Emphytus as a whole. In body- form and in the
structure of the antennas, it approaches Hoplocampa.
The genus Aneugmenus, Htg.* (type Tenthredo coronatus,
Klug), differs from Harpiphorus in having no oblique
cross nervure in lanceolate cellule, and in having two
discoidal cellules in the posterior wings. Aneugmenus,
however, I suspect must be referred to Selandria, some
of the species of which have the first transverse cubital
nervure pellucid or entirely absent, e.g., 8. temporalis
(which agrees not badly with the description of
Coronatus) and E. morio.

Six European species have been referred to Harpi-
phorus, but one or two belong in all probability to
Poecilosoma, e.g. H. vernalis, of which one or two of

* Stephens records Aneugmenus coronatus from Dover and Daienth,
but in error, for no such species (supposing the species to be Bother
than a Selandria} exists in his collection.



HAKPIPHORUS LEPIDUS. 265

the species as already noted want either occasionally
or permanently the first transverse cubital nervure.
In America Harpiphorus is more numerously repre-
sented than Emphytus, there being eleven species to
six of Emphytus.



1. HARPIPHORUS LEPIDUS.
PL XIII, fig. 4. 9 4 a, Antenna.

Emphytus lepidus y Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 277, 191; Htg.,

Blattw., 253, 25.

Fenusa lanthe, Newman, Ent. Mag., iv, 261.

Asticta lanthe, Newman, Ent. Mag., v, 484.

Harpiphorus lepidus, Thorns., Opus., 276, i ; Hym. Sc., i, 198,

1; Andre, Species, i, 242, pi.
xvii,fig.l(?); Cat., 29,* 1.

Antennae as long as the abdomen and metathorax, black or fuscous
black above, testaceous beneath. Head black, the part below the
antennae, a small spot above them, and a band surrounding the upper
part of the eyes, dull white. Thorax black, pronotum, the tegulse and
a broad band extending from them to near the scutellum, white.
Abdomen black, broadly white at the sides. Legs white, the coxae and
the basal half of femora black. Wings slightly infuscated ; costa and
stigma yellowish -white.

The j similar, but with the white markings more extended.

Length 2 lines.

Nothing definite appears to be known regarding the
life history of this species. Kaltenbach (Pfl., 222,
quoting Kirchner) says that the larva lives in the pith
of the rose; Dours, on the other hand (Cat. Syn. 17),
says that it lives under the dead leaves of oak. It has
been bred in this country from the empty galls of
Cynips Kollari (cf. Fitch, Ent. xiii, 1880, 252) so that
it would appear to be attached to oak. H. lepidus has
been found in the London district, at Glanvilles'
Wootton, Dorset, and near Manchester (Mr. Joseph
Chappell).

Continental distribution : Scandinavia, Holland,
Germany, France.



266 GENUS EMPHYTUS.

Genus EMPHYTUS.

Emphytus, King, Berl. Mag., viii, 278 ; Htg., Blattw., 245.

Wings with two radial and three cubital cellules, the first the longest
and receiving a recurrent nervure near the middle, the second receiving
the recurrent nervure close to the first transverse cubital. Basal ner-
vure parallel with the recurrent, interstitial, or received not far from the
transverse median, which is oblique, and not received in the middle of
the median cellule. Lanceolate cellule, with an oblique cross nervure.
Hind wings without transverse cubital and recurrent nervures.

Antennae short, rarely long and filiform ; the third joint not much
longer than fourth if that. Head cubital, large; eyes projecting;
clypeus incised ; labrum large, broader than long ; palpi long. Legs
long, claws bifid, patellae small ; hinder tarsi longer than tibiae. Man-
dibles short, broad, with one subapical tooth.

The body is long, cylindrical, with the abdomen cylindrical or slightly
depressed. Thorax oblong, with the sutures deep, the scutellum rounded
or triangular in front and generally punctured behind ; cenchri mode-
rately large or small.

The abdomen is rarely entirely black, more often it is banded with
red or white, entirely yellow, or marked with coloured fasciae. The legs
are banded with white, or may be three coloured. With some species
the antennae are annulated with white.

The larvae are long and cylindrical, generally
greenish on the back, lighter at the sides ; more rarely
they are covered with a white powder. They rest
with the body curled up into a ball, the tail turned up
in the centre, when not feeding. They do not spin a
cocoon, so far as is known. Most of the species bore
into stems to pass into the pupa state. Rosaceous
plants are what they feed principally upon, although a
few are attached to oak.

The genus is characteristic of the Paleearctic and
Nearctic Regions. Species are also found in Japan,
and one is known from Central America. Thirty-one
European species have been described, and six from
North America.

Synopsis of Species.

1 (2) Transverse median and second recurrent nervure interstitial ;
transverse median nervure in hind wings united with acces-
sory. Antennae short, slightly compressed at the apex, the
fifth to eighth produced beneath at the apices, the third
longer than fourth. Clypeus deeply and broadly incised.



SYNOPSIS OF EMPHYTUS. 267

Abdomen white at the base and apex and on the fifth seg-
ment. Togatus.

2 (1) Transverse median nervure not interstitial.

3 (18) Transverse median nervure received in the basal third of median

cellule ; the third and fifth joints of antennae scarcely, if so
long as fourth ; second cubital cellule much longer than
broad.

4 (13) Antennae shorter than half the body, stout, the three last joints

abruptly shorter and produced beneath at the apices ; trans-
verse median nervure received a little beyond the middle of
median cellule.

5 (12) Second recurrent nervure not interstitial ; abdomen with the

fifth segment white or red in ? .

6 (9) Tegulae white ; fifth segment white in ? .

7 (8) Mouth, edge of ponotum and coxae, black. Cinctus.

8 (7) Mouth, edge of pronotum and coxae, white. Cingulatus.

9 (6) Tegulae black.

10 (11) Femora black, white at the base. Rufocinctus.

11 (10) Femora red, black at base. Calceatus.

12 (5) Second recurrent nervure interstitial; abdomen without a

coloured band. Melanarius.

13 (4) Antennae much longer than half the body, filiform, the third,

fourth and fifth joints nearly equal in length, the third, if

I any thing, thinner than the fourth ; transverse median ner-

vure received not far from basal, and second recurrent from
first transverse cubital.

14 (17) Abdomen black, antennae white at the apex with ? .

15 (16) Apex of hinder femora and tibiae black, and basal half of

hinder tibiae white ; transverse median nervure in hind wing
interstitial. Tibialis.

16 (15) Apex of hinder femora and the whole of hinder tibiae red; acces-

sory nervure in hinder wing received a good piece in front of
transverse median. FHiformis.

17 (14) Abdomen and legs yellow; antennae entirely black in both

sexes. Serotinus.

18 (3) Transverse median nervure received in the middle of median

cellule ; second cubital cellule not much longer than broad,
about the same length as the second transverse cubital
nervure. Antennae short, the third joint distinctly longer
than fourth, which is of the same length as the fifth ; the
remaining joints shorter. Clypeus incised, but not deeply.
Claws with a minute subapical tooth.

19 (24) Abdomen entirely black.

20 (23) Legs in part white.

21 (22) Scutellum opaque, punctured ; hinder femora slightly black at

apex ; tarsi faintly fuscous at apex. Ghrossularite.

22 (21) Scutellum smooth, shining, all the femora broadly marked with

black, and apex of hinder tibiae and tarsi fuscous black.

Carpini.

23 (20) Legs black for the greater part. Tener.

24 (19) Abdomen white beneath, and with reddish marks above ; legs

more or less yellowish-white. Perla



268 EMPHYTUS TOGATUS.

1. EMPHYTUS TOGATUS.
Plate VII, figs. 2, 2 a, 2 b, Larva ; Plate XI, fig. 8, ? .

Tenthredo togata, Pz., F. G., Ixxxii, fig. 12.

Emphytus succinctus, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 279, 293 ; Ste., 111.,

vii, 89, 1 ; Htg., Blattw., 247, 1 ;

Evers., Bull. Mosc., xx, 26, 1 ;

Thorns., Opus., 273, 1 ; Hym.,

Scand., i, 88, 1; Kalt., Pfl., 582,

607; Andre, Species, i, 252;

Cat., 31,* 16; var. Steini, I. c.,

579.
Dolerus togatus, Lep., Mon., 116, 340.

Black, shining, covered with a slight fuscous pile. Antennae a little
shorter than the abdomen, the apex of the fourth and all the succeeding
joints reddish-testaceous ; the last four joints are much shorter than the
others ; the basal joint is more than double the length of the second, the
third and fourth nearly equal. Head with the frontal sutures distinct ;
the vertex is slightly raised ; the front does not project ; labrum red-
dish. Thorax considerably lengthened and narrowed in front ; tegulse
and cenchri white. Abdomen narrow at the base and sharply pointed
at the apex ; a spot at its junction with the metathorax in front of the
blotch (which is also white), a thin band on the fifth segment and a spot
at the apex, white. Saw long, half projecting. Legs : coxse, femora
and posterior tibiae at the apex, black ; trochanters and tibiae white, the
apex of tibiae and tarsi reddish. The mesonotum is very finely punc-
tured. Wings hyaline ; stigma at the base sordid testaceous ; the two
radial and upper part of the two first cubital cellules black ; costa
fuscous black. $ and $.

Length 4 5 lines.

A species easily known from all others by the inter-
stitial median and second recurrent nervures, and by
the clonded apex of anterior wings.

The larva has been recorded to feed on birch and
willow. Messrs. Fletcher and Fitch have bred it from
oak on which the larva feeds in August. For speci-
mens of the larva I am indebted to the former gentle-
man.

The larva has the upper half of the body dark olive
green, greyish white at the sides. The skin is wrinkled,
the top of the wrinkles bearing short black tubercles
like short spines. The legs white, with brown claws.
The upper part of the head is usually more or less
black ; generally there is a lighter spot at the back,
and the black portion divided in two by a light band,



EMPHYTUS CINCTUS. 269

but this may be absent. The face is pale, the mouth
brownish. At the last moult the head loses the black
colour, becoming entirely white.

Its habits are similar to the other species.

It is not uncommon in the London districts, at
Worcester, Norwich, Bristol, Devonshire and Paisley.

It has a wide Continental distribution, being found
in Sweden, Holland, Germany, France, Italy and
Russia.



2. EMPHYTUS CINCTUS.
Plate VI, fig. 4, Larva.

Tenthredo cincta, Lin., S. N., ii, 925.

togata, Zett., Ins. Lapp., 342, 16.

Empliytus cinctus, Klug, Berl. Mag., 279; Ste., 111., vii, 89,
4; Htg., Blattw., 248, 3; Bouche,
Naturg., 139 (lar.) ; Westwood, G.
Cbr., 1856, No. 25, 421; Vollenhoven,
Tidj. Ent., viii, 73-77, pi. 3 (lar., im.,
Ac.); Thorns., Op., 274, 6; Hym.,
Sc., i, 189, 2; Kalt., Pfl., 222;
Brischke, Beschr., 16, pi. iii, fig. 6 ;
Evers., Bull. Mosc., xx, 26, 2; Cam.,
Fauna, 20, 1 ; Andre, Species, i, 251 ;
Cat., 31* 17.

Dolerus cindue, Lep., Mon., 117, 342.

Antennae black, the apical joints produced on the underside at their
apices and a little attenuate; the ninth is much shorter than the
eighth and very sharply pointed ; the third is a little shorter than the
fourth. Head black, shining, covered with a fuscous down, the front
projecting; pentagonal area not distinct; palpi fuscous, labrum and
apex of clypeus sometimes pale white, generally black ; clypeus slightly
emarginated ; the head is nearly as broad as the mesothorax and con-
siderably emarginated behind. Thorax black, shining, almost glabrous,
semi-globular, narrowed in front ; sutures of mesonotum deep ; cenchri
white; scutellum rounded, finely punctured, and with two foveae in
front. Abdomen a little longer than the head and thorax, the apex
acuminate, blotch small but distinct, the fifth segment with a white
band which does not, however, reach all round ; the sheath curved,
hairy, a little projecting. Legs black, the posterior coxae at apex, tro-
chanters, base of femora and apex of all the tibiae white ; the rest of
tibias and tarsi reddish, apex of tarsi fuscous ; calcaria short. Wings
hyaline, costaand base of stigma fuscous ; the apical part of the stigma
black ; the radial nervure curved, received a little beyond the middle of
the second cellule ; the second recurrent is received a very little beyond
the first cubital, almost interstitial.



270 EMPHYTUS CINGULATUS.

(J smaller, with no white band on abdomen, the base of tibiae with no
white, and the antennas thicker.
Length 4 4| lines.

The larva feeds on the common rose, the leaves of
which it eats along the edges, and, when at rest,
remains curled up in a ball on the underside of the
leaf. The body is stout, cylindrical, but thicker on the
thoracic region than towards the tail. The head is
light brownish, yellow, or light fuscous ; a broad
brownish-black band goes from the back of the head
to the middle ; the eyes black, and mouth dark brown.
The upper part of the body is dark green ; the sides
greyish- white. The skin is wrinkled and beset with
small, shining white tubercles. Legs white, with a
black-greyish mark over each of them, and white-
brown claws.

The Iarv83 appear from July to October. The eggs
are laid on the underside of the leaves, several being
laid on the same leaf. As a rule, the larvae pupate in
the rose branches.

Cryptus emphytorum, Boie, is its parasite.

Commonly distributed, especially in gardens.

Continental distribution: Sweden, Germany, Holland,
France, Switzerland, Tyrol, Hungary, Russia and
Eastern Siberia.



3. EMPHYTUS CINGULATUS.

Tenthredo togata, Fab., S, P., 32, 15, ; nee Panz.
Dolerus cingulatus, Lep., Mon., 117, 243.

Emphyius cingulatus, Ste., 111., vii, 89, 2 ; Cam., Tr. Ent. Soc,,

1881, 564.

togatus, Klug, Berl. Mag., 280, 195 ; Ste., 111., vii,

90, 5 ; Htg., Blattw., 348, 4 (?).

neglectus, Zad., Beschr., 27.

Black, smooth, shining ; palpi, base of mandibles, labrum and clypeus,
tegulae, a broad line on basal half of pronotum, the fifth abdominal seg-
ment, the coxae (except the extreme base which is black), trochanters,
basal half of four anterior femora, the basal third of hinder femora and
the base of all the tibiae, white ; the rest of the legs pale red, save a thin
line on the four front femora, the apical three-fourths of hinder femora,
which are black, and the tarsi and apex of hinder tibiae which are fuscous.



EMPHYTUS MELANARIUS. 271

Antennae nearly as long as the abdomen, the third joint slightly shorter
than fourth. Wings clear hyaline, costa fuscous, stigma black, pale at
the base ; second recurrent nervure received close to first transverse
cubital. ? .

The <$ similar, but antennae thicker, the abdomen wants the white
band, and the four front femora are lined with black over the apical half.

Length 3 lines.

Very similar to cinctus, but smaller and more slen-
derly built, the wings clearer, the antennae longer and
thinner, the mouth, thorax and legs marked with white,
and the tarsi fuscous. The hinder tarsi, too, are longer
compared to the tibiae, while the blotch is much larger
and more distinct, being shaped like a triangle. In
cinctus it is broader, but not nearly so long nor so wide
in the middle.

Tenthredo togata, Fab., is usually regarded as iden-
tical with cinctus, but I believe it to be the present
species, with which the description agrees tolerably
well, especially with the words "ore albo," "margine
ante alas albo," which do not fit cinctus, and are parti-
cularly characteristic of cingulatus, while the other
terms used by Fabricius, " Segmento primo macula
magna dorsali," are quite descriptive of the large
blotch, and not applicable to the abdomen of cinctus ;
the same may be said (although to a less degree) of the
description of the legs, " pallidi femoribus maculis
nigris." There can be no doubt about its being the
cingulatus of Lepelletier and Stephens, only the former
has a var. " ore humerisque nigris," which probably
belongs to cinctus.

Rare compared to cinctus: Darenth, Glanvilles*
Wootton.

Continental distribution : Germany, France.

4. EMPHYTUS MELANARIUS.

Emphytus mclanarius, Klug, Berl. Mag., 282, 200; Ste., 111.,

vii, 90, 6 ; Htg., Blattw., 249, 8
Thorns., Hym. Scand., i, 192, 6 ;
Kalt., Pfl., 222 (lar.) ; Andre,
Species, i, 247 ; Cat., 30,* 7.
didymus, Thorns., Opus., 274, 4.



272 EMPHYTUS RUFOCINCTUS.

Black, shining; legs red, the extreme apex of posterior coxae and
trochanters white ; coxse and basal half of four anterior femora, with
the apex of posterior tibiae, posterior knees and tarsi, black. Wings
hyaline, costa white at base ; recurrent nervure interstitial or nearly
so. Tegulse black ; palpi fuscous ; anterior tibiae paler at base.

Length 4 lines.

The larva is stated by Kirchner to feed on the rose,
and Campoplex cerophagus, Grav., is recorded as a
parasite.

" Rare : found at Darenth Wood in July " (Stephens).

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany, France,
Tyrol.



5. EMPHYTUS RUFOCINCTUS.

Tenthredo rufocincta, Retz., Degeer, 305.

Emphytus rufocinctus, Klug, Berl. Mag., 286, 210 ; Ste., 111., vii,

91, 10; Htg., Blattw., 251,18;
Evers., Bull. Mosc., xx, 28, 10 ;
Thorns., Op., 274, 8 ; Hym., Sc.,
i, 192, 7 ; Kalt., Pfl., 222 ; Cam.,
Fauna, 20, 2; Andre, Species, i,
255; Cat., 31,* 22, cf. also,
Goed., Ins., iii, pi. 7; Reaum.,
Mem., v,pl. 12, figs. 1921 ; De
Geer, Mem., ii, 467, pi. 35, figs.
14-18.

Black, shining. Antennae as long as the abdomen, the third joint a
very little shorter than the fourth, the four apical joints much shorter
than the others, the apices produced on the underside. Tegulae black ;
blotch large. Abdomen linear, not much broader in the middle than at
base or apex, which is not pointed, the fourth to seventh segments
banded with red, sheath large, broad, curved. Legs : four anterior
coxae, trochanters and all the femora, black ; apex of posterior coxae,
trochanters and apex of femora, white ; tibiae and tarsi reddish ; the
posterior tarsi fuscous. Wings hyaline, costa and stigma black. $
and $.

Length 4^ 5^ lines.

Easily known by its elongated body, with the abdo-
men broadly banded with red, the reddish legs with
black femora and white posterior trochanters, &c.

The red band on the abdomen varies in size. Some-
times there are four red segments, in some specimens
only two. I have also seen specimens having the ante-
rior trochanters white.



KMPHYTUS CALCEATUS. 273



The larva feeds on the common rose and on
Idceus during August and September. The larvas
which I have had did not bore into pith although that
was supplied, but pupated in the earth where they
made a cell, the sides of which were neatly smoothed,
and perhaps agglutinated together, at least, the cell
held together when separated from the surrounding
earth. The other authors who have described its
transformations have also given this as its mode of
pupation, but as they would not have supplied it with
stems, the larvae may have adapted themselves merely
to the altered circumstances. It has the upper part
of the body dark greyish-green, in some cases greyish-
black, lighter in the centre of the back ; the sides, from
a little above the spiracles, white. The skin is beset
closely with little white tubercles arranged in irregular
rows. Head pale orange ; eye spots black, mouth pale
brown. The upper part of the body varies in the
intensity of the colour.

Trypkon extirpatorius, Gr., and Masicera media,
Goureau, are its parasites.

E. rufocinctus is not, I think, very common. I have
taken it in Clydesdale, Rannoch, Braemar and Bonar
Bridge. In England it has been taken in "Worcester-
shire, Devonshire, Bristol and the London district.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany, Hol-
land, France, Italy, Russia.






6 EMPHYTUS CALCEATUS.
PL II, fig. 1, Larva.

Empliyius calceatus, Klug, Berl. Mag., 213, 288; Ste., 111., vii,

91, 11; Htg., Blattw., 252, 20;
Thorns., Hym. Scand., i, 193, 8;
Cam., E. M. M., xiii, 199; Fauna,
21, 3; Andre, Species, i, 256;
Cat., 32,* 25.

Dolerus vicinus, Lep., Mon., 118, 347.

Black, half shining; mesonotum almost opaque, the third joint of
antennae a very little longer than fourth, the two middle segments of
VOL. I. 18



274 EMPHYTUS CALCEATUS.

abdomen (fourth and fifth), sometimes part of sixth, reddish -orange.
Legs of the same colour ; coxas, trochanters and base of femora (broadly)
black ; apex of anterior and the greater part of the posterior tarsi
fuscous. Mandibles piceous ; tegulae black. Abdomen longish, cylin-
drical. Blotch invisible. Wings hyaline, a little darker in the centre,
nervures and stigma black ; costa fuscous. $ and g.
Length 4 4 lines.

Var. a. Abdomen without a red band; posterior
trochanters white.

Ab. b. Posterior trochanters pale; the second cellule
as broad at the apex as it is long (in what may be
called the type the second cellule is much longer than
it is broad at the apex).

The sixth segment is sometimes, wholly or in part,
red. Em. coxalis, KL, seems to be an aberration,
with the trochanters white and the fifth and sixth
segments red.

Easily known from E. rufocinctus by its smaller
size, shorter antennae, more obscure, almost opaque
mesonotum, red femora, &c.

The larva feeds in June, July, and the early part of
August on the leaves of Spircea ulmaria. Its head is
deep black, with the oral region paler. The upper
part of the body is slaty-black, often with a greenish
tinge, the rest of the body with the legs whitish. The
skin is wrinkled and furrowed and bears a few hairs.
The spiracles are darker than the sides.

In its habits, manner of feeding and pupation it
does not differ from the other Emphyti.

E. calceatus is a common and widely distributed
Scotch species, but appears to be rarer in England.
Stephens records it from Darenth and Birch Woods,
from Dover and Bristol, and Mr. Dale takes it at
Glanvilles* Wootton, and Mr. Bridgman at Norwich.

It seems to be not very common on the Continent,
although having a tolerably wide distribution. Sweden,
Germany, Holland and France are given as habitats.



EMPHYTUS TIBIALIS. 275

7. EMPHYTUS TIBIALIS.
PI. XIII, fig. 2 ? .

Tenthredo tibialis, Pz., F. G., 62, 11, 147, 12; Fall., Mon., 41,
14.

Empliytus tibialis, Klug, Berl. Mag., 282, 209; Ste., 111., vii,
91, 9 ; Htg., Blattw., 251, 17 ; Voll.,
Tidj. Ent., ii, 143146, pi. 3 ; Zool.
S. S., 8409 (lar.) ; Thorns., Opus, 273,
2; Hym. Scand., i, 149, 9; Cam.,
Fauna, 21, 4 ; Andre, Species, i; Cat.,
30,* 2.

Black ; antenna? from the sixth joint to the apex of the ninth and
the basal half of tibiae white ; femora red, black at base and extreme
apex ; apical half of anterior, four posterior tarsi and apical half of
posterior tibiee, black ; apical half of four anterior tibiae reddish-tes-
taceous. Cenchri and blotch white. Tegulce varying from black to
testaceous. Wings hyaline ; costa testaceous ; stigma black. ?
and cf.

Length 4 5 lines.

A very variable species. The tegulaa vary from
black to testaceous almost to yellow ; the femora are
entirely reddish or broadly marked with black at base
and apex. The number of joints of antennae that are
white vary also ; sometimes the four apical are white,
or the ninth may be black, or the eighth and ninth
are black, or part of these two and rarely the whole of
the apical one are black; the anterior tarsi (usually
the first pair are black at the apex, and the second
pair quite black) are pale testaceous.

Readily known by the colour of the antennas and
legs.

The larva has been described and figured by Yan
Vollenhoven. It feeds on the oak in early summer,
resting curled up on the upper side of the leaves. It
has the segments much wrinkled ; the colour is dark
olive on the back and pale grey on the rest of the body.
Along the back is a pale longitudinal line, and the
ground colour above the legs is marked with darker
ill-defined spots. The head is on the upper surface
clear shining black, and bears some minute shining
projecting hairs. The oral region is pale with dark



276 EMPHYTTJS FILIFORMIS.

brown trophi. The legs are obscure glassy grey, the
thoracic bearing a somewhat curved brown spot, pro-
longed towards the ends ; the claws are brown ; over
each of the legs is an olive- coloured spot.

After the last moult the colour is much paler, the



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