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back brownish-green, the under side of a browner hue,
and the head obscure brown.

How and when the eggs are laid I do not know ;
the insect never appears in the spring, at least, that
is my experience ; I have always taken it late in autumn,
even as late as the second week in October. Never-
theless, Stephens says that it occurs in June and July,
the time when the larvae are found.

It is not uncommon in the west of Scotland. In
England it has been found near Worcester, Bristol,
the London district, Glanvilles 5 Wootton, Devonshire
and Norwich.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany, Hol-
land, France.


Empliytus filiformis, King, Berl. Mag., viii, 285, 223; Ste., 111.,

vii, 90, 8; Htg., Blattw., 251, 15 ;
Evers., Bull. Mosc., xx, 28,- 7;
Andre, Species, i, 246 ; Cat., 30 * 4,

apicalis, Klug, 1. c., 285, 208; Htg., 1. c., 251, 16.

Klugii, Thorns., Hym., i, 194, 10.

Black, covered with a short down. Tegulaa yellow. Legs yellowish,
apical half of anterior tarsi, posterior tarsi wholly, apex of posterior
tibias broadly and the coxa?, black ; tibia? pale at the base ; the four
apical joints of antenna and cenchri white. Wings hyaline, costa fus-
cous, stigma darker ; the nervures are pale at the base.

<^. Antennas quite black.

Length 4 4| lines.

Easily distinguished from all the preceding species
by the colour of the legs and pilose head, and from
the next species (serotinus) by the black abdomen.

This is, I believe, not a common species anywhere.
I only know of Stephens' specimens which were taken
in Darentli Wood in June and July.


It occurs in Sweden, Silesia, Holland, France and

Plate III, fig. 12, Larva.

Empliytus seroiinus, King, Berl. Mag., viii, 288, 215; Ste., 111.,

vii, 252, 22 ; Htg., Blattw., 252, 22 ;
VoU., Tidj. Ent. (2), v, 61-63, pi.
2 (lar.); Kalt., Pti., 66-4; Thorns.,
Opus., 273, 3; Hym. Sc., i, 195,
11; Cam., Fauna, 21, 5; Andre,
Species, i, 258, pi. xvi, figs. 9, 10 ;
Cat., 32 * 28.

Dolerns abdominalis, Lep., F. Fr., pi. 8, fig. 3 ; Mon., 118, 245,

Black, shining, very slightly pubescent ; palpi obscure testaceous,
irregularly marked with black at base and apex ; abdomen (except at
base), legs (except at base and apex of posterior tibise and the tarsi, with
the sheath, which are all black) yellow. Wings hyaline, costa fuscous,
stigma black ; nervures pale at the base ; tegulre and posterior calcaiia
yellow; base of tibina pale yellow; blotch and cenchri white. ? and <$.

Length 4 5 lines.

Easily known by its shining body, yellow legs and
abdomen and black antenna. E. cist us, Klug. (from
Austria), differs in having the antennne white at the
base. E. cents (recorded by Stephens from Devon-
shire, 111., vii, 92, but probably in error) has a testa-
ceous line on each side of the eyes and the pleura3

The larvse are common in June on the oaks, feeding
on the young growing leaves in the usual Emphytus
fashion. The bare cylindrical body has a light-green
ground colour, but this is obscured by a white powder
which covers the body all over ; the head is also
covered with powder, it is dark grey above and pale
yellow below the eyes, the eye spots being black. At
the last moult the powder is lost ; the body becomes
yellowish-green and very shining, the head clear yellow,
darker on the vertex. With me they pupated in the
ground without spinning a cocoon, and yielded the
imagos in September and October. The eggs must be
laid then, and remain probably unbatched till May, for


I have found newly emerged larvae on the budding
leaves then.

This is a common species in all probability, but
seems to be rare in collections, a fact no doubt owing
to the imago appearing late in the autumn (end of Sep-
tember and beginning of October : I have taken it
even on October 17th), when little collecting is done.
It is generally distributed over Scotland ; from Eng-
land I have seen specimens from Worcester, Hereford
(Chapman), the London district and Devonshire.

European distribution : Sweden, Germany, Holland,


EmpJiytus carpini, Htg., Blattw., 250, 11 ; Evers., Bull. Mosc.,
xx, 27, 4; Kalt., Pfl., 81 (lar.) ;
Thorns., Opus., 275, 12; Hyin.,
Scand., i, 196, 13 ; Andre, Species, i,
248; Cat., 30,* 8; Cam., Fauna,

Black, shining ; tegulae and legs for the greater part white ; femora
black, except at the extreme base and apex and sometimes beneath ;
coxae at base, apex of posterior tibiae broadly and hinder tarsi black ; the
four anterior tarsi fuscous. Scutellum smooth, impunctate ; vertex
and front shining, but faintly punctured. Wings subhyaline or hya-
line; costa fuscous; stigma and nervures black ; the tr. radial nervure
is received very near the second tr. cubital.

Length 2f 3 lines.

Of similar size and form to grossularice, but the coxas
are more broadly black at the base, all the femora are
almost entirely black, the apex of the hinder tibiae and
tarsi black ; anterior tarsi, and sometimes the apex of
tibiae, fuscous ; the vertex is punctured, the scutellum
smooth, shining; labrum generally black, and the tr.
radial nervure is generally received near the second tr.
cubital. The labrum is rarely pale. Another distin-
guishing point between them is that in Carpini the
last antennal joint is not longer than the eighth, while
this is the case in grossularice or nearly so.

As in the preceding species the amount of black on
the legs varies.


Kaltenbacli lias described the larva). They feed in
shady places on Geranium robertianum. There are two
generations, the one in July, August and September
feeding on the radical leaves, the second in October
and November on the other leaves, which they eat to
the thick nerves ; they feed resting on the lower side.
The young larva is pale, dirty olive-green above, the
head blackish, the vertex and mouth paler or brown.
When fully grown they are 6 1'" in length, round,
slim, beset with a few white, small, pointed spines,
which are arranged crosswise on each segment, those
on the back being the most distinct. The head is
shining black, the vertex somewhat hairy, the oral
region brownish. The upper part of the body is olive-
green to greyish-black ; the underside, legs and the
lower half of the sides, whitish ; the three last abdo-
minal segments are mostly clearer, especially with
young specimens.

Dours (Cat. Syn., p. 17) says that the larva feeds on
Sorlus aiicv^xt rut, on which plant the imago was taken
by Hartig. I have myself beaten the flies out of the
same plant, and also out of hawthorn in June.

(.'tii^iiii is a common and generally distributed
Scotch insect. I have seen many English examples,
but do not know the precise localities. Norwich
(Bridgman). A Braemar specimen in my collection
has the tegulae black.

European distribution : Sweden, Lapland, Germany,
France, Russia.


Emphytus grossularia, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 283, 202 ; Htg,,

Blattw., 249, 10; Thorns.,
Opus., 275, 11 ; Hym. Scand..
i, 195, 12; Kalt., Pfl., 261;
Tasch.,Ent. Gart.,164; Andre,
Species, i, 250 ; Cat., 31,* 13.

Black ; legs white, posterior femora at the extreme apex and the
posterior tarsi pale fuscous. Antennae short, a little shorter than the


abdomen, tliickish, the third joint nearly a quarter longer than the
fourth, the four apical joints become abruptly shorter. Head faintly
punctured, as broad as the thorax, densely pilose ; labrum whitish ;
thorax smooth, shining, slightly pubescent; scutellum almost opaque,
punctured ; cenchri small. Abdomen longer than the head and thorax ;
the segmental divisions distinct, sometimes pale; a fourth of the sheath
projects ; pilose. Legs whitish-yellow, the posterior femora above, at
the sides, and sometimes beneath, black or fuscous black ; extreme base
of cox83 and apex of posterior tibise and tarsi more or less fuscous.
Wings hyaline or subhyaline; nervures blackish; tr. radial nervure
received a little past the middle of the second cellule ; the second
recurrent is received a fourth in front of the cubital. Tegulse clear
whitish-yellow. Costa fuscous at base.
Length 2 3 lines.

The amount of black on the legs varies. The labrum
is as often black as white.

The larva is stated by Bouche (see Hartig, I.e.) and
other authors to feed on Ribes grossularia, and by the
first-mentioned author also on willows. It is greyish-
green with the three first and three last segments
"pomeranzen gelb;" and over the body are three
rows of black tubercles, each ending in a bristle. The
head is black. It is said by Bouche to pupate in the

It appears to be not uncommon in many places
in the south of England. I have never seen it in

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany, France,

Ob s. Em. gilvipes, King, is probably a variety of grossularice.


Tenthredo tenera, Fall., Acta, 1808, 29, 109.

Emphytus patellatus, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 263, 203; Ste,,

111., vii, 93, 17 ; Htg., Blattw.,
250, 12; Evers., Bull. Mosc.,
xx, 27, 5 ; Stein., Ent. Nacht.,
vi, 247.

Emphytus tener, Thorns., Opus., 275, 13; Hym. Sc., i, 196, 14;

Cam., Fauna, 21, 7 ; Andre,
Species, i, 246, and 578 ; Cat.,
30,* 5.

Black ; knees faintly, anterior tibise and tarsi obscure testaceous.
Head obscure, covered with a short black down, punctured ; mesonotum


shining, scutcllum opaque at the base. Wings subhyaline ; tr. radial
nervure is almost interstitial ; the second recurrent is received very near
the middle of the cellule; tegulse black. The antennaB are short, thick,
the joints distinctly separated, a little produced at the apices on the
underside. ? and $.
Length 2* 3 lines.

Readily distinguished from all the species by its
black legs, almost opaque head, short thick antennae,
and interstitial nervure.

The larva, according to Stein, has a bluish-green
body, clear lilac beneath and on the sides. The head
is clear brown, darker on the vertex, and with black
eyespots. Stein found the larvse in the pith of
Cirsium lanceolatum, but it is not known if they fed
on that plant.

Very common all over Scotland in June ; apparently
not very abundant in the south. Norwich (Bridgman).

European distribution : Sweden, Germany, France,

PI. XI, fig. 9 <? .

perla, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 289, 217 ; Ste., 111., vii.
89, 3 ; Htg., Blattw., 252, 24 ; Bouche,
Naturg. 140 (lar.), Kalt, Pfl., 237 ;
Thorns., Hym. Scand, i, 197, 15;
Cam., Fauna, 21, 8 ; Andre, Species,
i, 257 ; Cat., 32,* 26.
Emphytus Bohemani, Thorns., Opus., 275, 10.

Black, covered with a grey pubescence, mouth, tegula?, a broad line
on the pronotuin, a broad irregular band on the pleurae, belly, coxa&
and trochanters, white; femora and four anterior tibia? and tarsi
yellowish-white ; the femora with a reddish tinge ; the four hind
tibias and tarsi lined with fuscous ; blotch large, white. Abdomen
above reddish, the two basal segments black ; along the sides are four
triangular black marks, their pointed ends facing the centre. Head a
little punctured. Wings hyaline, costa, nervures and stigma fuscous ;
the radial nervure is received a little beyond the second cubital or

Length 2| 3 lines.

Bouche is the only author who has described the
larva. He says that it closely resembles the larva of


E. cinctus, but it wants the pale black stripe, and over
the legs there is only one row, but of larger black
spots. It is also smaller and more slender.

It lives on Rubus idceus, in the stems of which it
bores to pass the pupal state, boring into the pith to a
depth of from one to a foot and a half.

Bouche bred Ichneumon bituberculatus from it.

In Britain E. perla appears to be rare. I have
taken it at Rannoch. Mr. Bridgman takes it at Nor-
wich, Mr. Dale at Glanvilles' Wootton, Stephens records
it from Hertford, and Mr. T. Wilson has captured it
near York.


Phyllotoma, Fall., Mon. Tenth. Suec., 1829.
Heterarthus, Ste., 111., vii, 94.

Wings with two radial and three cubital cellules, the first and second
of the latter receiving each a recurrent nervure ; the second cubital as
long, if not longer, than the first ; transverse radial, and recurrent
nervures received not far from middle of cellules; transverse basal
nervure in part received in front of stigma ; transverse median usually
beyond the middle. Lanceolate cellule with an oblique cross nervure ;
there are no median cellules in hind wings ; the accessory nervure is
longly appendiculated. Stigma large.

Antenna filiform, ten to fifteen -jointed, the third joint longer than

Head broad compared to length, concave behind, the front slightly
projecting, but retreating between the antennas and the eyes, which
are prominent, oval, and placed at a distance from the mandibles.
Clypeus truncated. Mandibles weak, sharply pointed at the apex, a
slight indentation in the middle. Palpi long, maxillary with the first
joint small, second more than double its length, but a little shorter
than the third, the fourth is the longest, the sixth a little longer than
the fifth. Labial palpi have the first joint a little shorter than the
second, the three succeeding of nearly equal length, the last thinner.

The legs are longish, especially the hinder pair ; the tarsi have no
patellae, the claws bifid, somewhat dilated at the base.

The abdomen is broad, scarcely rounded on the back ; the blotch is
distinct ; the saw short and broad.

The head and thorax are black, usually more or less
marked with white; the abdomen is either black
entirely or black marked at the sides with white, or it
may be entirely luteous. The legs are white or pale
yellow, with the species having the abdomen black;


those with it luteous have pale yellow legs. The
wings are rarely hyaline, they are more usually smoky
throughout or in part.

The larvae are very similar in form and coloration.
They are depressed, flattish, broader before than
behind ; the head is small, sharply pointed in front,
almost triangular, and capable of being withdrawn to
a certain extent into the folds of the second segment.
The legs are short, squat and knob-like, the abdominal
are very slightly developed. The colour is white, the
back appearing greenish when the food canal is filled.
The head is brown, darker at the sides, around the
mouth it is reddish-brown; eye spots black; man-
dibles brown. On the back of the second segment is
a dark brown plate, rounded at the sides and divided
in the middle. On the same segment beneath is a
horse-shoe or dumbbell-shaped black plate, narrow at
the base, spreading out on both sides at the apex. On
the next two or three segments, also on the underside,
there is, on each in the centre, a round brown dot. At
the last moult these markings are cast off ; the head
is then very pale brown with darker mandibles.

In habits the larvas of the various species are as
similar as are they in form and coloration. The
female lays her eggs on the top or sides of a leaf.
When the larva escapes from the egg it eats its way
into the parenchyma, and soon eats an irregular
roundish blotch between the lower and upper epidermis,
which become so transparent that the creature inside
can be readily seen by holding the leaf to the light.
There may be only one larva in a leaf or several ; in
the latter case the blotches, at first distinct, become
in course of time united. The larvae are very cleanly
in their habits, insomuch as they open the leaf at the
edge and expell the " fass " through this opening.
When full fed they spin, attached to the sides of the
mine inside the leaf, a round, flat cocoon, usually dark
brown in colour, in which they become pupae. There
are usually two generations in the year.


A very distinct genus of small extent (there being
only seven species known) and confined to Europe.

Synopsis of Species.

1 (6) Abdomen black.

2 (5) Antennae ten to eleven-jointed, body oblong, half depressed,

black above and beneath ; pronotum and tegulas white. Legs
white. Wings for the greater part hyaline.

3 (4) "Wings with a smoky fascia in the middle, sides of abdomen

with white marks. Nemorata.

4, (3) Wings without a fascia; abdomen without distinct white

marks. Aceris.

5 (2) Antennas twelve to thirteen-jointed. Abdomen entirely black,

or white underneath. Legs pale yellow, black at the base.
Wings smoky, clear at the apex. Ochropoda.

6 (1) Abdomen luteous ; wings nearly smoky throughout ; legs luteous,

body scarcely depressed.

7 (8) Antennas ten to twelve-jointed, black at the base ; pronotum and

tegulas black. Vagans.

8 (7) Antennas fourteen to fifteen-jointed, pale at the base ; pronotum

and tegulas black. Microcephala.

PL XIII, figs. 6, 6 a, ? ; PL IV, fig. 3, Mine.

Tenthredo nemorata, Fall., Acta Holm., 1808, 47, 23.

Druida parviceps, Newman, Ent. Mag., iv, 261 ; 1. c., v, 484 ;

Healy, Ent., No. 62, 208.

Phyllotoma tenella, Zad., Beschr., 28, pi. 1, fig. 17 ; Voll., Tidj.

Ent., xviii, 3942, pi. 4.

Phyllotoma nemorata, Thorns., Hym. Sc., i, 176, 1 ; Cam.,Proc.,

N. H. Glas., ii, 317; Fauna,
23, 1 ; Tr. Ent. Soc., 1880,
77; Andre, Species, i,- 235;
Cat., 28,* 1.

Black, shining. Antennas shorter than the abdomen, ten to eleven-
jointed, fuscous beneath ; inner orbits of the eyes and face yellowish -
white ; a black line above theepistoma; mandibles piceons, palpi white.
Pronotum and tegulas white ; cenchri large, dull white. Abdomen with
the sides marked with white, usually oblong dots. Legs white ; base of
coxas and femora black. Wings hyaline at the apex, a little infuscated
at the base and with a large smoke-coloured fascia extending from the
stigma to the bottom of the wing.

Length 2 2 lines.

The cT is unknown. I have got virgin females
to lay fertile eggs, and in one experiment bred two
females (April, 1882).


The egg is deposited near the edge or tip of a birch
leaf, in which the larva lives afterwards as a solitary
miner. There are two broods in a year, the first in
June and July ; the other later on in the autumn, the
larvae being found as late as October.

It is a commonly distributed species, occurring from
the London district to the north of Scotland.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany, Hol-


Phyllotoma aceris, Kalt., Pfl., 91 ; McLachlan, E. M. M., iv,

104; Healy, 1. c., 107 ; Cam., Proc.
N. H. S. Glas., ii, 318; Andre,
Species, i, 236 ; Cat., 29,* 5.

Black, shining. Antennae ten to twelve-jointed, fuscous testaceous at
the apex. Wings half smoky ; pronotum lined with white ; tegulas
obscure white ; abdomen black, except that the edges of the segments
are sometimes faintly white, but there are no distinct dots. Legs
white, femora for the greater part black.

Length 1 If lines.

The cT I have never seen. The face has more black
on it than in nemorata, there being no white above the

The larva mines the leaves of the maple in June and
July. It is common in the London district, and pro-
bably elsewhere. At Brussels in 1877 it appeared in
great abundance, so much so that considerable damage
was done to the trees, nearly every leaf, even those
growing fifty feet up the trees, being mined by the
larvae, which curiously enough only appeared in that
district for the first time in that year. Cf . McLachlan,
E. M. M., xiv, 120.

Continental distribution : Germany, Belgium.

Plate XIII, fig. 5, <? .

Emphytus ochropodus, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 182; Htg.,

Blattw., 255, 1.
Hetcrarthrus ochropodus, Ste., 111., vii, 94.


Phyllotoma ochropoda, Thorns., Hym. Sc., i, 177, 2 ; Cam.,

Proc. N. H. S. Glas., ii, 318 ;
Andre, Species, i, 235; Cat.,
28,* 3.

Black, shining; inner orbits of the eyes, labrum, clypeus partly,
palpi and trochanters, white. Legs pale yellow, verging to testaceous ;
coxae and base of femora black. Wings dark smoky, apex hyaline.

The g has the antennae thirteen-jointed, thicker and longer than in
the ? ; the two basal joints are white, the others dull brown ; the face
has a greater amount of white than in the ? ; the pronotum, pleuree
and tegulae are clear white ; the base of coxee, trochanters, extreme base
of femora and the under side of abdomen white. Wings almost hyaline,
with a faint cloud in the middle.

Length 2^ lines.

From nemorata and aceris, ochropoda may be known
by the colour of the legs, the black tegulae and prono-
tum (in the ? ), and the greater number of joints in
the antennao.

The larva mines the leaves of the aspen (Populus
tremula) in the autumn.

Apparently a rare species. "Worcester.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany.

Plate VI, fig. 5, Larva.

Hylotoma vagans, Fall., Acta. Holm., 1808, 47, 24.

Emphytus melanopygus, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 275, 185 ; Htg.,

Blattw., 256, 4.

amaurus, Klug, 1. c., 186 ; Htg., 1. c., 265, 5.
Phyllotoma melanopyga, Kalt, Pfl., 620; Toll., Tidj. Ent., i

(2nd Ser.), 196201, pi. 8 ;
Ent., No. 102, 7074.

microcephala, Healy, Ent., No. 60, 177.

vagans, Thorns., Hym. Sc., i, 178, 3 ; Cam., Proc.

N.H.S. Glas., ii, 319; Fauna,
23, 2; Andre, Species, i, 236,
pi. xiv, figs. 5 and 6; Cat.,
29,* 6.

Antennae about the length of the abdomen, ten to twelve- jointed,
black, pilose, the two basal joints of nearly equal size, the first having a
short pedicle at the base, the third double the length of the fourth,
which is longer than the second basal ; the remaining joints to the

Eenultimate become a little shorter, the last is conical, thinner and
mger than the preceding. Head not much narrower than the thorax,
much broader than long ; eyes projecting, front depressed ; frontal and
vertical sutures distinct ; clypeus notched ; labrum semicircular, slightly
pubescent. The colour of the head is black, save the inner orbits of the


eyes and sometimes the labrum and clypeus and the space between the
antennae, which are dirty yellow. Legs yellowish, tarsi darker. Abdo-
men luteous, the apex black above. Wings smoky, tegulre black. The
has one more joint in the antennas than the ? ; they are also testa-
ceous beneath, and the abdomen has the dorsal surface black.
Length If 2 lines.

This species is very variable in coloration, some
specimens having the head and abdomen almost
entirely black. I have one 3 from Clydesdale which
is half the usual size ; the wings are almost hyaline,
and the basal half of the femora and the hinder tarsi
are black.

The larva mines the leaves of the alder, in which it
lives alone or in company with two or three others. Two
broods are met with, the autumnal one being the most
numerous. It is an abundant species everywhere.
Campoplex cerophagus, Gr., and Chrysocharis albipes,
Gir., are given by Giraud as parasites.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany, France,


Plate III, figs. 10 and 10a, Lar.; Plate II, fig. 6 6,

Emphytus microcephalus, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 275, 184 ; Htg.,

Blattw., 255, 3.
Phyllotoma microcephala, Kalt., Pfl., 581 ; Thorns., Hym. Sc., i,

179, 4; Cam., Fauna, 23,3;

Andre, Species, i, 237; Cat,

29 * 7.
melanopyga, Healy, Ent., iv, 176178 (1. h.).

Black, shining. Antennse fourteen -jointed, two basal joints dull
white ; a line round the inner orbits of the eyes, labrum, clypeus, some-
times the epistoma, mandibles at the base and palpi, white or yellowish
white. Tegulae and edge of pronotum white. Abdomen luteous, apex
more or less black, sheath of saw hairy, more or less projecting. Legs
pale luteous. Wings smoky, apex almost hyaline.

(J. Antennas fifteen-jointed, black, testaceous beneath; sides of
thorax more or less yellowish-white, face with more white than in the
? , and the dorsal surface of the abdomen is more or less black.
Length 2 2| lines.

Microcephala is easily known from vagans by having
the antennae fourteen-jointed (in ? ), with the scape
pale, the pronotum and tegulse white, wings clearer at


the apex than at the base, and the apex of the sheath
hairy, while it is bare in the alder miner.

The larva mines the leaves of various willows.
Common and generally distributed.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany, France.

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