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A monograph of the British phytophagous Hymenoptera .. (Volume 1) online

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Genus FENELLA.

Fenella, Westwood, Intr., ii, Append., 54.

Wings with two radial and three cubital cellules, the first longer than
the second, the first and second receiving each a recurrent nervure.
Lanceolate cellule petiolate. Posterior wings with no middle cellule.

Antennae ten to fourteen-jointed, the third longer than the fourth.

Eyes reaching to the base of the mandibles, which are short and thick.

The sutures on the vertex and front are deep, the
palpi are short, six-jointed, the clypeus truncated.
The basal nervure is curved; the abdomen is short,
thick, not much longer than the head and thorax. The
transverse radial nervure is either interstitial or
received in the third cubital cellule. The body is deep
black, pilose on the head and antennae ; the tibiae and
tarsi are usually lighter coloured than the femora. The
wings are more or less smoky.

The larvae are similar in form and habits to those of
Fenusa, only they are not attached to trees.

Four European species are known. The genus
would appear to be confined to Europe.

Synopsis of Species.

1(2) Wings smoky, posterior tarsi and tibise black; antennas ten-jointed.

Westwoodi.

2 (1) Wings subhyaline, tibias and tarsi white; antenna3 eleven to twelve-
jointed. Nigrita.



1. FENELLA NIGEITA.

Fenella .nigrita, West., Int., ii, Synop., 54 ; Thorns., Op., 27,
2 ; Hym. Sc., i, 280, 1 ; (Jam., P. S. N.
H. G., iii, 15 ; Andre, Species, i, 233,
pi. xiv, fig. 2(2); Cat., 28,* 1.



FENELLA WESTWOODI. 289

Fenusa pygmcca, Healy, Ent., v, 300 (1. h.) ; Kalt., Pfl., 225, 227.
Phyllotoma tormentillce, Healy, Ent., iv, 135.
Fenella tormentillce, Andre, Species, i, 233 ; Cat., 28,* 2.
Melinia minutissima, Costa, Fauna di Napoli, 41, pi. Ixvi.

Black ; mouth and antennae underneath fuscous ; knees, tibia3 and
tarsi, white ; trochanters pale fuscous. Wings hyaline, slightly infus-
cated, iridescent ; costa and stigma pale fuscous ; tegulco black, trans-
verse radial nervure received a little beyond the second tr. cubital
nervure.

Length 1 line.

The larva mines the leaves of Agrimonia Eupatoria
and Potent ilia rep tans, forming small brownish blotches,
each leaf sometimes containing, according to Healy,
fourteen larvae, but the number is generally much less.
There are two broods in the year, the first in early
summer, from which the imagos appear at the end of
June ; the second in the autumn.

The larva is white. The head light brown, with
darker mouth parts and black eye spots. Beneath, on
the second segment, is a large black mark occupying
nearly its whole extent ; on each of the three following
segments is an irregularly- shaped black mark. Above,
on the second segment, there are two large marks,
somewhat square in shape but rounded off at the outer
corner, and like the other marks black. Legs encircled
with brown. When the food canal is filled the body
has a greenish tinge, the canal appearing as a broad
green stripe. The pupa stage is passed in the ground.

F. nigrita would appear to be common in the London
district, but I know of no other habitat, although it is
no doubt of wide distribution.

Continental distribution : Scandinavia, Germany,
France, Italy.



2. FENELLA WESTWOODI, sp. n.

Black; knees, anterior tibias and tarsi sordid testaceous; wings
smoky, the apex a little clearer. Antennae ten -jointed, pilose, the third
joint scarcely a half longer than the fourth which is a very little shorter
than the fifth, two last joints subequal, the apical conical. Sutures on
vertex deep, curved, the central portion of vertex behind the ocelli raised
and separated from them by a suture. The transverse radial nervure is
VOL. I. 19



290 GENUS JFENUSA.

received a piece beyond the second cubital nervure, and in the third
cubital cellule ; the transverse median nervure is received beyond the
middle of the cellule.
Length If line.

Differs from nigriia in being larger, in having longer
antennae, in having the wings much darker, in the
transverse radial nervure being received at a greater
distance from the second transverse cubital, in the
transverse median nervure being received beyond the
middle of the cellule and in the darker legs. F. moni-
licornis, Thorns., agrees with it in coloration, but it has
fourteen- jointed antenna, and the transverse radial
nervure is interstitial. It is very like Fenusa melano-
poda in the coloration of the body, legs and wings,
and in the neuration of the latter, but it is a little
larger, has the antennge a little longer and ten-jointed,
while the third joint is not double the length of the
fourth. It, in fact, forms a connecting link to Fenusa*

Rare. Bishopton, on Birch.



Genus FENUSA.

Fenusa, Leach, Z. M., iii, 126.

Antenna nine to ten-jointed, short, thick, more rarely longish, third
joint longer than fourth.

Wings with two radial and three cubital cellules, the first and second
of the latter receiving each a recurrent nervure. Basal nervure curved
as is the first recurrent ; lanceolate cellule petiolate ; posterior wings
with no middle cellules ; accessory nervures longly appendiculated.

Body short, thick. Feet without patellas.

The head has usually the sutures on the vertex
distinct. The vertex behind the ocelli raised and
bounded by a furrow in front. The clypeus is trun-
cated at the apex. The eyes reach to the base of the
mandibles. The palpi are, I consider, six- join ted but
between the third and fourth joints is a short con-
striction which Hartig regards as the representative
of a joint. The basal joint is not much longer than
the second which is scarcely half the length of the
third; the last three do not differ much in length.



GENUS FENUSA. 291

The labial palpi are short ; the first is scarcely shorter
than the third ; the second is nearly three times longer
than the third ; the last is nearly as long as the pre-
ceding three. The mandibles are short, thick, the
apical tooth distinct, and there is a blunt subapical
one.

The larvas are similar in form and habits to those
of PhyUotoma, only no cocoon is spun in the mine.

The body colour is black ; the legs are also usually
black, ^relieved with white, or they may be testaceous
entirely. The wings are never hyaline; they being
more or less smoky. The stigma is large and projects
a little from the costa ; it is usually fuscous.

This is a genus of small extent ; the three cubital
cellules place it alongside PJiijllotoina and Fenelln,
with which the species agree in the form and habits
of the larvaB ; but undoubtedly it has strong affinity
with one section of Blennocampa as already pointed
out (p. 230). The difference in the number of joints
in the antenna readily distinguishes it from Phyllotoma
and Heptamelus ; but it is not so easily distinguished
from Fenella ; in fact, the only distinction seems to be
that Fenella has more than nine joints in the antennae
(the number in Fenusa being nine).

The genus is confined to the Palaearctic and Nearctic
regions. Eight European and two North American
species have been described.

06s. The genus Kaliosyphinga, Tiscbbein (S. E. Z., vii, p. 79, 1846),
is no doubt identical with Fenusa. In most of the species of Fenusa,
but especially with pumila and melanopoda (with either of which the
description of K. Dohrnii, so far as it goes, agrees), there is at the base
of the lanceolate cellule an upturned nervure or spurious nervure (for it
is much fainter than the regular nervures), whioh is joined or nearly
joined to the anal nervure, thus giving the appearance of their being a
contracted lanceolate cellule, which is the only distinction (the posses-
sion of a contracted in opposition to the petiolate lanceolate cellule of
Fenusa} between Kaliosyphinga and Fenusa.

The Genus Messa, Leach; (Z. M., iii, 126), is said to be founded on
Fenusa hortulana, but in error, for Messa is stated to have one radial
and four cubital cellules. It was probably founded on a small Nematus.
Stephens' type is a Blennocampa.



292 TEN USA MELANOPODA.



Synopsis of Species.

1 (4) Tegulaa white, legs for the greater part white.

2 (3) Pronotum and pleurae black. Pygmcea.

3 (2) Pronotum and pleura white. Hortulana.

4 (1) Tegulas black.

5 (8) Legs testaceous, antennae longish.

6 (7) Transverse radial nervure received in middle of second cubital

cellule; frontal sutures invisible. Pumilio.

7 (6) Transverse radial nervure nearly interstitial ; frontal sutures

deep. Betulce,

8 (9) Legs white, antennas longish. Albipes.

9 (8) Legs for the greater part black. Antennae short.

10 (13) Transverse radial nervure received beyond second transverse

cubital in third cubital cellule.

11 (12) Antennae not thickened towards the apex, third joint more than

double the length of fourth. Melanopoda.

12 (11) Antennae perceptibly thickened towards the apex; third joint

not more than double the length of fourth. Pumila.

13 (10) Transverse radial nervure received before the apex of the

second cubital cellule, nearly touching the second transverse
cubital. Ulmi.



SECTION 1. Frontal sutures distinct. Transverse basal
nervure touching costal. Transverse radial nervure
received in the third cubital cellule or nearly joined
to the third cubital. Legs mostly for the greater
part black, seldom testaceous. Antennce mostly
short.

1. FENUSA MELANOPODA.
PL II, figs. 6 and 6 a, Larva.

Fenusa nigricans, Thorns., Hyni. Sc., i, 184, 1.

Phcenusa melanopoda, Cam., P. N. H. S. Glas., iii, 6; Fauna,

22, 1 ; Andre, Species, i, 231 ;

Cat., 28,* 10.

Glossy -black ; antennas shortly pilose, a little curved, as long, if not
longer, than the thorax ; the first joint large, globose, with a pedicle
at the base ; the second nearly as long as the first, not so globose ;
third more than double the length of the fourth ; the rest to the eighth
getting a little shorter ; ninth conical, thinner and longer than the
eighth. Head scarcely narrower than the thorax, smooth, covered with
a fuscous -black pubescence ; sutures distinct, moderately deep ; labrum
and mandibles piceous; palpi fuscous. Thorax shining, smooth,
scarcely pubescent; sutures very distinct; cenchri obscure. Breast
smooth, shining. Legs : all the knees, and four anterior tibia? and tarsi



FEXrSA PUMELA. 293

obscure yellowish-white, verging into testaceous ; tarsi slightly darker ;
spurs short. Abdomen short, apex truncated obliquely ; sheaths of
saw glabrous, a little projecting ; blotch broad. Wings blackish, with
deep black costa, stigma and nervures; costa dilated towards the
stigma ; first radial cellule much broader and longer than the second ;
first cubital longer than the second, which is twice wider at the apex than
at the base, and angled where it receives the second recurrent nervure.
Transverse radial nervure curved, received a good piece past the second
transverse cubital ; first recurrent received in the middle of the first
cubital cellule ; the second about a fourth of the length of the cellule
from the first transverse cubital nervure.
Length If line.

The larva mines the leaves of the common alder.
The head is black, as are also the legs for the greater
part. Above, on the second segment, is a broad,
black plate, divided in the middle. Below, on the same
segment, is a large black plate, which is small and
truncated at the base, but spreads and curls out at
the apex, retreating again in the middle, the sides being
curved ; on the third and fourth segment is a small,
black, round dot. At the last moult the markings
are cast off. The larvae are found from July to Sep-
tember, or even October, there being apparently two
broods in the year. Common and generally dis-
tributed.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany, France.

Obs. Thomson adopts the name of Nigricans, Klug, for this species,
but the description of the latter is very ambiguous : " Brownish-Black ;
antennae as long as the abdomen; labrum and tips of mandibles
testaceous ; legs pale testaceous, with dusky trochanters ; wing scales
yellowish ; wings hyaline, with nervures and stigma brownish." Length
2 lines. Hab. Sweden (Hartig, Blattw., 259). Thomson himself thinks
that the nigricans, Klug, may have been a Blennocampa with only
three cubital cellules, but we have no evidence of this, so I believe it
best to re-name the present species.



2. FENUSA PUMILA.

Tenthredo pumila, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 120, 190; Htg.,

Blattw., 259, 3.

pygmcea, Zett., I. L., 340, 11.
Fenusa pumila, Ste., 111., vii, 41 ; Thorns., Opus., 272, 2 ; Hym.

Sc., i,186, 2; Cam., P. N. H. S.

Glas., iii, 8, 2; Fauna, 22, 2 ;

Andre, Species, i, 231, pi. xiv, fig.

10; Cat., 118,* 9.



294 FENUSA PUMILA.

Fenusa fuliginosa, Healy, Ent., iii, 225.

Aphadnurus tantellus, Costa, Fauna di Napoli, 41, pi. Ixvi, fig. 6.

Black, shining; knees, tibiae and tarsi pale testaceous. Antennas
short, slightly thickened towards the apex ; the third joint not more
than double the length of the fourth.

The $ similar, but with thicker antennae, sometimes paler on the
under side than above, and with the hinder tibiae suffused with black.

Length 1 line.

Smaller than the preceding ; the head scarcely so
pilose, the wings of a lighter tint; posterior tibiae
rarely black, tarsi paler ; antennae shorter, thickened
towards the apex, the third joint not more than double
the length of the fourth ; the joints more globose, not
so sharply cut off from one another ; and the frontal
sutures scarcely so deep.

The larva, when young, has the body white, with a
greenish tinge on the back, caused by the food shining
through the food canal ; the head pale brown. On the
ventral surface of the second segment is a black dumb-
bell shaped mark, and in the centre of the third and
fourth is a round black dot. The feet are encircled
with black ; the abdominal ones entirely white,
Before the third moult the head is darker coloured ;
on the dorsal surface of the second segment is an
oblong, black mark, usually divided in two by a pale
line in the centre. On the ventral surface of the second
segment is an irregular black plate ; and on the third,
fourth, fifth and sixth there is, in the centre, a black
dot, these dots being, however, frequently absent from
the two last mentioned segments. At the last moult
the body loses the markings, and becomes of a yellowish-
white colour, with a pale brown head. Length about
5 lines.

It lives on the leaves of the birch, preferring, as Mr.
Healy has remarked, a variety with woolly leaves.
There are usually from four to ten in a single leaf,
each mine being at first separate, but in course of time
they become united. There are two broods ; the first in
June and July, the second in August to October. The
pupa state is passed in the earth without the protection
of a cocoon. The pupa is white.



FENUSA ULML 295

Common in birch woods in May and June, and again
in the autumn.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany, France,
Italy, Russia.



3. FENUSA ULMI.

Fenusa ulmi, Sundeval, Forhandl. red de Skand. Naturforsk.,
Christiania, 1847, 240, 241 ; Healy,
Ent., v, 297 ; Kalt., Pfl., 539 ; Cam.,
P. N. H. S. Glas., iii, 9, 3 ; Fauna,
22, 3 ; Andre, Species, i, 230 ; Cat.,
28,* 8.
intermedia, Thorns., Hym. Sc., i, 186, 3.

Black, shining. Antennae short, stout, covered with a stiff pile ; two
first joints together equal in length to the third, which is twice longer
than the fourth, the remaining joints to the eighth shorter, the ninth
joint conical, longer than the preceding. Head a little narrower than
the thorax, scarcely pubescent, shining, smooth, sutures moderately
distinct; labruin and mandibles piceous; palpi dark testaceous.
Thorax shining, smooth, glabrous; teguhe black. Abdomen short,
conical, thick, smooth, semi- truncated at the apex; blotch large,
sheaths of saw exserted. Legs : femora, coxae and trochanters black ;
apical half of the two anterior femora, knees, tibia? and tarsi, dark
testaceous. Wings faintly smoky ; first radial cellule a little smaller
than the second, second cubital cellule more than double the width of
the base at the apex, angled where it receives the recurrent nervure.

<$ similar, but with thicker and longer antennae, the joints from the
fourth being perceptibly thicker than the basal ones.

Length ij line.

Ab. Four posterior tibiae and tarsi black.

Ulmi is not unlike the two preceding species, but
has the frontal sutures less distinct, the wings a good
deal clearer, and otherwise is easily separated by the
position of the transverse radial nervure which almost
touches the second transverse cubital.

The larva is white, with the head pale brown, darker
at the sides ; mouth reddish-brown ; legs encircled
with brown. Beneath, on the second segment, is a
black oblong plate, sometimes with a dot on either
side ; there is a small, black, central dot on each of
the following segments, but the dots are often absent
on the posterior segments. When full fed it is
yellowish-white. Length 5 lines.



296 FENUSA HORTULANA.

It mines the leaves of Ulmus montana and U.
campestris, several larvse living on the same leaf. Mr.
Healy says there is but one brood in England, namely,
In May and June ; but as I have captured the flies in
August there is probably an autumnal as well as a
spring brood.

Brischke (Schr. ges. Konig., xi, 71) records Perilissus
pictilis, Holmgr., as a parasite.

Common in England and Scotland.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany, France,
Russia.



4. FENUSA HORTULANA.

Tenthredo hortulana, King, Berl. Mag., viii, 187 ; Htg., Blattw.,

258, 1.
Fenusa hortulana, Cam., Proc. N. H. S. Glasg., iii, 96 ; Andre,

Species, i, 231 ; Cat., 27,* 1 ;

Fletcher, E. M. M., xviii, 127.

Antennae a little longer than the head and thorax, black above, pale
testaceous beneath ; the joints distinctly separated, slightly projecting
at the apices beneath ; pilose ; the third joint more than double the
length of the fourth. Head smooth, shining, covered with a short pile ;
the sutures distinct ; antennal fovea large but shallow ; apex of clypeus
semi-truncated ; labrum large, rounded at the apex ; labrum and
clypeus white; mandibles brownish at the tips; eyes lead coloured
thorax, tegulse, pronotum and pleurae broadly whitish-testaceous ; the
pronotum whiter than the sides of the breast ; sternum and the lower
fourth of the sides black. Abdomen short and broad ; the ventral seg-
ments a little whitish at their junction ; sheath of saw projecting, hairy
and curved. Legs whitish- testaceous ; the base of coxae black. Wings
almost hyaline ; costa and stigma fuscous ; second cubital cellule not
much longer than first, and a very little longer than third, but
much narrower at the apex than the third ; transverse radial nervure
nearly interstitial ; second recurrent received a little in front of the
middle of the second cubital cellule. The cenchri are obscure; the
blotch is very small.

Length If line.

The larva has been found by Mr. J. E. Fletcher to
blotch the leaves of Populus nigra in July.

Seemingly a rare insect. South of England, Wor-
cester.

Continental distribution : Germany, France (?).



FENUSA PYGMJ1A.



SECTION 2. Frontal sutures indistinct. Transverse
basal nervure not touching costal. Legs for the
greater part white or testaceous. Transverse radial
nervure received usually before the third transverse
cubital. Antennai longish.

5. FENUSA PYGM^A.

Tenthredo pygmcea, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 121 ; Zett., I. L., 340,

11, <$ ; Htg., Blattw., 259, 4.

Fenusa pygnicea, Ste., III., vii, 41, 3; Thorns., Opus., 272, 3;

Hym. So., i, 186, 4; Cam., P. N.
H. S. Glas., iii, 10, 4 ; Fauna, 22,
4; Andre, Species, i, 229; Cat.,
27,* 5.

Black ; antennae nearly as long as the abdomen ; the two first joints
large, the third scarcely double the length of the fourth, the rest
gradually, but slightly, decreasing in length; covered with a stiff
microscopic down. Head very smooth, shining, with a faint scattered
down ; tegulse white ; face covered with a sparse scattered pubescence ;
frontal sutures invisible ; eyes greenish. Aodomen a little longer than
the head and thorax ; apex rounded ; saw largely exserted. Legs : coxae,
trochanters and the greater part of the femora black ; knees, tibiae and
tarsi clear white. Wings half smoky, clearer at the apex ; first radial
cellule a little shorter than the second; first cubital cellule shorter
than second, which is double the width at the apex that it is at the
base, and angled where it receives the recurrent nervure. Radial
nervnre received about a fourth of the length of the second cellule in
front of the second transverse cubital nervure.

The $ is unknown to me.

Length H line.

Pi/f/mcea closely resembles a Ibipes, but differs from it
in the black femora, white tegulae, shorter antennae, and
longer second cubital cellule. From hortulana 9 with
which it agrees in the white tegulae, it is easily separated
by the black pleurae, longer antennae, and black femora.

* Larva white. Head light brown, darker at the
sides ; eye spots black ; mouth reddish-brown. On
the second ventral segment is a large black plate
occupying the whole segment, except a small portion
at the edges and apex ; on the third there is, across the
centre, a large black band, and on the fourth there is
a small, somewhat spindle-shaped, black band. The
back of the second segment is black, except at the
edges ; sometimes this black portion is divided down



298 FENUSA ALBIPES.

the centre by a faint white line. Length about 4
lines.

It blotches the leaves of the oak in the autumn, one,
two, or three living in a single leaf.

Gryptocentrus incisulus, Ruthe, is recorded by
Brischke as its parasite.

Apparently not common. Occurs in the London
district and Norwich ; in Scotland it has been taken
in Clydesdale and at New Galloway.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany.



6. FENUSA ALBIPES.
Plate XIII, figs. 7, 7 a, ? .

Phcenusa albipes, Cam., E. M. M., xii, 131 (1875) ; P. N. H. S.
Glas., iii, 11, 5 ; Andre, Species, i,
. 232; Cat., 27,* 2.
Fenusa albipes, Cam., Fauna, 22, 5.

Black, shining, covered sparsely with a very short pile, only visible in
certain lights. Antennaa a little longer than the body, slightly pilose ;
the third joint longer than the fourth. Legs entirely white ; posterior
tarsi and tips of anterior faintly fuscous. Wings smoky ; costa, ner-
vures and stigma black; transverse radial nervure received a little
past the middle of the second cubital cellule. Sheath largely
exserted. $ .

Length 1| line.

Very rare. Taken in Cadder Wilderness on 20th
August on a rose bush.



7. FENUSA PUMILIO.

Fenusa putnilio, Htg., Blattw., 259, 5; Thorns., Hym. Sc., i,
187, 5 ; Cam., Fauna, 22, 6.

rubi, Boie, S. E. Z., 1848, 340.

puinila, Waeles, Zool. (1856), 5074 ; West., Ent. Ann.

(1862), 129; Healy, Ent., v, 211, 212.

Phcenusa pumilio, Cam., P. N. H. S. Glas., iii, 11, 6 ; Andre,
Species, i, 231, pi. xiv, fig. 3 ; Cat., 27,*
7.

Black, shining, scarcely pubescent. Antennae longer than the abdo-
men, moderately thick, pale fuscous beneath and covered with a short
Eile. Head narrower than the thorax, very smooth, shining, glabrous ;
ibrum piceous, palpi testaceous. Thorax smooth, shining, covered



FENUSA PUMILIO. 299

with a microscopic pile ; tegulae black. Abdomen about the length of
the head and thorax ; apex more or less truncated, sheath hairy ; blotch
very large. Legs whitish-testaceous ; base of coxae black ; apexofcoxee,
trochanters and basal half of femora more or less obscured with black
or fuscous ; apex of tarsi fuscous. Wings smoky, hyaline at the apex ;
nervures deep black, stigma large ; first radial cellule triangular,
smaller than the second ; transverse radial nervure received a little past
the middle of the second cubital cellule ; first cubital cellule nearly
double the length of second, and having near its apex a conspicuous,
round, black horny point ; second not much longer than broad, angled
where the recurrent nervure is received.

The is similar in coloration ; the antennas are a good deal thicker
and slightly compressed, the third joint scarcely longer than the fourth
(in the $ it is perceptibly longer), and the femora have usually more
black on them.

Length If line.

Differs from betulce in its shorter antennas, perfectly
smooth head, the smoky wings hyaline at the apex and
in the position of the transverse radial nervure. From
the descriptions of Hartig and Thomson it seems to
vary considerably in coloration. The former author
describes it as having the mouth, antennse, abdomen
and legs dark brown, with the knees, tibiae and tarsi



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