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pale brownish-yellow, while Thomson states that the
antennas are fuscous beneath, and the palpi, knees,
tibiae and tarsi, whitish-testaceous. A British specimen
in my collection has a brownish splash across the
mesonotum.

Common and generally distributed.

The larva is dirty white ; the head pale brown,
darker at the sides; mouth dark brown; eye spots black;
the thoracic legs are banded with brown, the abdo-
minal marked posteriorly with a semicircular black
mark, and the anal pair are surrounded with black.
On the back the second segment is black or brownish-
black, and sometimes on the third and fourth there is
a narrow band ; beneath the second segment is dark
brown ; there is an irregular band on the third and
fourth, and on the fifth and sixth a round dot, but
these are frequently absent. At the last moult the
markings are cast off. Length from 9 to 10 lines.

The larvae mine the leaves of Rubus fruct icosus and
R. idceus, to the latter of which they often do such



300 FUN USA

great injury that the bushes do not produce a proper
supply of fruit for two or three years. The first brood
occurs in July and August, a second is met with from
September to the end of October. Zaddach mentions
that they mine the leaves of Geum urbanum, and Kal-
tenbach (Pfl., 512) that " the larva lives in the green,
hard, projecting leaf- galls on Salix aurita," where it
passes the winter, emerging as a fly in July. This
last observation is no doubt erroneous.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany, France,
Italy, Russia.



8. FENUSA

Fenusa leiula, Zaddach, Beschr., 29; Cam., P. N. H. S. Glas.,
iii, 13 ; Fauna, 23, 7 ; Andre, Species,
i, 232; Cat, 27* 3.

Phyllotoma mellita, Newman, Healy, Ent., v, 1 7.

Black, shining; covered with a fuscous pile, especially on the head
and thorax. Antennae longer than the head and thorax ; the joints
thicker at the apex than at the base, distinctly separated from one
another ; the first with a conspicuous petiole at the base, and truncated
at the apex ; third longer than the fourth ; the rest shorter ; the ninth
conical, thinner, and longer than eighth. Head scarcely narrower than
the thorax ; face densely covered with a fuscous pubescence ; sutures in
the vertex distinct ; frontal f ovese large and moderately deep ; the
central round, the lateral longer and thinner ; labrum testaceous ; palpi
fuscous. Thorax black, shining; tegulse testaceous. Abdomen
shining, as long as the head and thorax, covered with a fuscous pile,
which is shorter than that on the head and thorax ; apex truncate ; the
blotch invisible, saw projecting, sheath very hairy. Wings faintly
fulvous-coloured, if anything clearer at the apex; first radial cellule
longer than the second ; transverse radial nerviire nearly if not quite
interstitial ; second cubital cellule not much shorter than the first, the
sides above straight, not curved, in length not much longer than broad ;
at the lower end of the first cubital cellule is a small black dot. Legs
yellowish-testaceous, coxae, trochanters, and base of femora black;
hinder tarsi fuscous. ? .

Length 2 lines. ]

Larva white; head pale brown, darker at the sides,
mouth reddish-brown; eye spots black. The second
segment above bears a shield-like black plate ; beneath
there is a large black plate on the same segment, and
on each of the third fourth, fifth and sixth is a small
dot ; along the sides are a number of black dots ; a



GENUS HEPTAMELDS. 301

large one on the second, three on the third, and four
on the others, the last being smaller than those in front.
The thoracic legs are banded with black; the abdo-
minal have above a small black band ; and the anal
two are broadly marked with the same colour. The
penultimate segment sometimes bears in the centre two
small black dots. The number of dots varies a good
deal, they are often absent from the fifth, sixth, and
penultimate, and along the sides some individuals have
more and others less than usual. When full-fed the
markings are cast off.

The pupa is yellowish-white.

The larvas live gregariously often to the number of
seven or eight in a single leaf in the leaves of the
birch, appearing first in June and again in the autumn.

Brischke (Schr. ges. Konig.,xi, 71) records as para-
sites PcrlJissus macrophygus. Holm., P. sulcatus, Holm.,
and P. vertical-is, Brischke.

Common from Sutherlandshire to the south of
England.

Continental distribution : Germany, France.



Genus HEPTAMELUS.

Melicerta, Steph., 111., vii, 94 (?).

Heptamelus, Holiday, Nat. Hist. Rev., 1855, 60.

Ccenoneura, Thorns., Opusc. Ent., 270.

Antenna seven to eight-jointed, densely pilose, somewhat thickened
towards the apex, second joint not transverse, double the length of
first ; third a half longer than fourth ; last longer than preceding,
conical at apex.

Wings with two radial and three or four cubital cellules, of which the
second and third receive each a recurrent nervure. Lanceolate cellule
with an oblique cross nervure. Posterior wings with two middle
cellules.

The transverse basal nervure is curved and is received
a good piece before the cubital, and is nearly joined
to the transverse median, which again is joined to the
oblique nervure in lanceolate cellule. The first trans-
verse cubital nervure is represented by a mere stump at



302 GENUS HEPTAMELUS.

either end ; the second cubital cellule is a little longer
than the fourth ; the third is smaller than either, is
narrow at the base, wider and angled where the trans-
verse radial and second recurrent nervures are received,
namely, a little before the middle of the cellule, and
nearly opposite each other ; the apex is wider than the
base, but is not dilated. In the transverse radial and in
the two transverse cubital nervures, is a bulla which
occupies the greater part of the nervures ; there is a
small one at apex of first recurrent, and which extends
to more than half of the third cubital cellule along the
cubital nervure, and a larger one is on the second
recurrent. The accessory nervure in hind wings is
longly appendiculated. The recurrent and transverse
cubital nervures are received close to each other, almost
united.

The sutures on the vertex are deep, but do not reach
to the back of the head. The ocelli form a triangle
and the lower one is situated in a deep depression.
Below each of the antennae is a deep, but not very
large fovea. The clypeus is small and shortly incised.
The palpi are long, the labial four and the maxillary
six-jointed. The first joint of the latter is small, the
second much longer, and a little longer than the third,
which is about the same length as the fourth ; the
fifth is shorter than the fourth ; the sixth is nearly as
long as the second. The mandibles are short, thick,
the apical joint acute, and there is a short, sharply
projecting subapical tooth, which is clearly separated
on either end. The sutures on the mesonotum (includ-
ing that in centre of middle lobe) are deep; the
scutellum is widest in the middle, the base being more
angled and narrower than the apex ; the sutures
bounding it are deep and wide. The legs have the
calcaria of moderate length; the claws are almost
bifid; the metatarsus is as long as the succeeding
joints together; the tarsi are a little longer than the
tibias ; the patellae are absent. The sheath of the saw
largely projects.



HEPTAMELUS OCHROLEUCUS. 303

The larva is unknown.

This is a very distinct genus, easily distinguished
from every other. Its affinities appear to me to be
with the Phyllotomides on the one hand and Atlialui
on the other, although it is very distinct from
both.

It is only known from Europe.



HEPTAMELUS OCHROLEDCUS.

PI. XIII, figs. 8, ? , 8 a, Antenna; PL XVIII, fig. 9,

Saw.

Melicerta ochroleucus, Ste., 111., vii, 94 (?).

Heptamelus ochroleucus, Haliday, Nat. Hist. Rev., 1855, ii, 60,

pi. ii, fig. 1.
C&noneum Dahlbomi, Thoms., Opus., 271, 1 ; Hym. Sc., i,

182; Cam., E. M. M.,

xi, 108, J ; Fauna, 22 ;

Andre, Species, i, 238 (pi.

xv, fig. IP); Cat., 29,* 1.

Black or fuscous black ; head, thorax, antennas and costa covered
with long pale hairs; the two basal joints of antennas testaceous
legs pale testaceous, the apex of posterior tibiae and tarsi fuscous.
Wings hyaline ; costa testaceous ; stigma fuscous-black, pale at the
base ; tegulas white. ? .

Ab. ? . Antennas black, a small spot on mesonotum and sternum
dull reddish ; the middle of abdomen above the lower part of the sides
and belly dull reddish.

(. Mouth pale; two basal joints of antennas pale testaceous, the
rest fuscous. Pro- and mesonotum, the metapleurse and sternum red-
dish ; abdomen pale testaceous with black or fuscous-black transverse
bands above, metanotum and base of abdomen black. Wings with
nervures, costa and stigma reddish-yellow.

Length 2i 2$ lines.

The two varieties of the ? are about equally com-
mon, but the first does not appear to have eight-
jointed antennas as it has in Sweden ; the eighth joint,
however, is somewhat longer and more sharply pointed,
the point being constricted giving the appearance of
two joints. The quantity of red on the thorax and
abdomen of the second variety varies, as do the black
abdominal bands on the 3 .

Common in two or three places in Clydesdale.
North Yorkshire (Marshall). County Down, Blarney



304 GENUS ATHALIA.

(Cork), Kerry (Haliday). It seems to be attached to
birch, and appears in June, July and August.

Sweden is the only Continental country from which
it has been recorded.



Genus ATHALIA.

Athalia, Leach, Z. M., iii, 126.

Wings with two radial and four cubital cellules, all angled where the
recurrent or transverse nervures are received. Basal nervure jointed
to cubital; transverse median received not far from base of cellule.
Lanceolate cellule with an oblique cross nervure. Posterior wings with
two middle cellules ; the recurrent and transverse cubital nervures
received close to each other ; accessory nervure longly appendiculated ;
costa and stigma thick ; there is no costal cellule owing to the thickness
of the nervures.

Antennce short, distinctly thickened from the fifth joint to the apex,
almost clavate, ten to eleven-jointed, the third joint double the length
of fourth.

Head without sutures; eyes large, oblong, converging; clypeus trun-
cated at the apex ; labrum large, somewhat triangular. Mandibles
large, with a subapical tooth.

The body is short, broad, the wings large, broad.
The feet are stout, with simple claws, and spines which
are not one-third of the length of the metatarsus. The
tarsi longer than the tibise, and with the patella3 of
moderate size. The abdomen is not much, if longer
than the head and thorax ; the blotch is distinct.

The ground colour is luteous, with the head, an-
tennae and thorax more or less black ; usually the
tibiae have the apices of the joints black. The wings
have a yellowish tinge, or are hyaline ; the stigma and
costa are black.

The larvae are cylindrical, thick compared to their
length, bare or ornamented with tubercles. The
ground colour is black or slate, sometimes marked with
white dots ; the skin is more or less wrinkled. A
single cocoon is spun in the earth. Their food plants
are Cruciferce, Scrophularice, and possibly Clematis.

This genus is apparently confined to the old world,
where it has a very wide range, not only occurring all
over the Palasarctic region, but also in the Oriental



SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES. 305

and Ethiopian as far south as the Cape. Two of the
species have also an extensive distribution, namely, A.
*/>/tiarum, which is found almost everywhere in Europe,
in Japan and India, and A. rosce, which extends south
to the west coast of Africa.

It is a most distinct and natural genus, not readily
confounded with any other, and having, it may be,
however, only superficial resemblances to widely
different groups. The antennae, for instance, resem-
ble those of Allantus, except that they have more
than nine joints. In coloration it mimics some of
the Hylotomce, e.g. H. rosce. In the position of the
basal nervure, in the shortness of the spurs, and in the
form and habits of the larvae it agrees with the Selan-
(li'utdes, while the number of joints in the antennae
would seem to ally it to the Phyllotomides, and the
angled cubital cellules and general arrangement of the
nervures agree best with Heptamelus. From the
paucity of species and their wide distribution, as well
as from their want of very nearly related forms, it
would seem as if the genus was a very old one.



Synopsis of Species.

1 (2) Mesonotum smooth, shining, glabrous, breast, pleura and
underside of the antennae luteous. Ancilla.

(1) Mesonotum densely pubescent.

3 (10) Abdomen entirely luteous, clypeus small, mouth white.

4 (9) Tarsi annulated with black.

5 (6) Middle lobe of mesonotum and underside of thorax luteous.

Spinarum.

6 (5) Middle lobe of mesonotum black.

7 (8) Scutellum luteous in ? ; sternum luteous, tarsal joints luteous

at the base ; third joint of antenna3 more than double the
length of fourth. Scutellarice.

8 (7) Scutellum black in ?; sternum black, base of tarsal joints white;

third joint of antennas not more than double the length of
fourth. Rosce.

9 (4) Tibiaa partly and tarsi entirely black. Lugens.
10 (2) Abdomen with the basal segment black, clypeus broad, luteous.

Annulata.



Vt)L. I. 20



306 ATHALIA ANCILLA.



1. ATHALIA ANCILLA.

Atkalia ancilla, Lep., Mon., 22, 63 ; Ste., 111., vii, 43, 5.

glabricollis, Thorns., Opus., 268, 5 (1870); Hym. Scand.,

i, 171, 1; Cam., Proc. N. H. S.
Glas., iii, 129; Fauna, 16, 1;
Andre, Species, i, 285 ; Cat, 36,*
6.

rosa, Cam., Sc. Nat., ii, 197199 (lar.).
Phyllotoma annulata, Fall., Mon., 28, 3.

Tenthredo liberta, Klug, Germar's Beise nach Dalmatien, 257,

333.

Smooth, shining, glabrous, reddish -luteous. Head, antennae, meso- and
metanotum, the apex of posterior tibiae and the tarsal joints at the apex
(the four anterior slightly), with the apex of sheath, black. Mouth and
palpi white ; the antennae from the second joint are pale testaceous on
the underside. Wings hyaline, yellowish at the base ; the nervures and
costa at the base are yellowish, for the rest black ; stigma black ; tegulse
luteous; blotch large, clear white. ? and <^.

Length 3| 4 lines.

Larva. Head small, partly retracted into the second
segment, deep shining black and covered with a short
pile. Legs black ; the abdominal ones with the tips
white and the anal (which are small) entirely so. The
upper part of the body is lead coloured ; below the
spiracles it is pale white. The skin is much wrinkled
and folded, and beset with small tubercles. At the
last moult the mouth is whitish, and the body becomes
of a pale slate colour. Length 6 to 7 lines.

The pupa is pale white.

The larva is of the same habits as its better known
congener Spinarum, and affects like it cruciferous
plants, Erysimum, Sisymbrium, &c., and, as will be
seen from the description, does not differ materially
from it. I have met with full-fed larvae at the end of
July, and from some collected then have reared the
perfect insects at the beginning of September, but
others belonging to the same batch did not change till
the following spring. Having only once found the
larvse I cannot say whether they are double brooded
or not, nor if they are injurious to turnips.

Glabricollis is not an uncommon insect (commoner,
I should say, than spinarum) in June. I have taken it



ATHALIA SPINARUM. 307

in Clydesdale, Dumfriesshire, Rannoch and Sutherland-
shire ; have seen specimens from Berwickshire, Aber-
deen, and in England it has occurred in the London
district, Glanvilles' Wootton, Norwich, Gloucester,
Worcester and Manchester.

On the Continent it has been recorded from Sweden,
Lapland, France and Dalmatia, and no doubt it is
very generally distributed over the north and north-
west. I have seen a good many German specimens.



2. ATHALIA SPINARUM.
Plate XIV, fig. 2, ? ; Plate III, fig. 11, Lar.

Tenthredo spinarum, Fab., S. E., ii, 110, 20 ; Klug, Berl. Mag.,

viii, 127, 1 ; Zett., I. L., 339, 3.
centifolia, Pz., F. G., 49, 18.
colibri, Cbr. B., 434, pi. 50, fig. 1.

Hylotoma spinarum, Fab., S. P., 26, 21.

Phyllototna spinarum, Fall., Mon. Tenth., 27, 1.

Athalia spinarum, Leach, Z. M., Ill, 126 ; Dbm., Prod., 62, 9 ;

Claris, 16 (lar.) ; Yarrell, Proc. Z. S.,
ii, 67; Ste., 111., vii, 42,1; Curtis,
B. E., 617 (details); Farm., Ins.,
37, pi. B (lar., &c.) ; West, Int., ii,
102 ; Evers., Bull. Mosc., xx, 34,
1 ; Voll., Tidj.Ent., 109, 111, pi. 9
(im., lar., &c.) ; Zool. S. S., 9067 ;
Tasch., Ent. Gart, 150, 63, figs. 36
and 37 (im. and lar.); Newport
Prize Essay ; Fraunf. Verb. z. b.
Ges., 1866, 839; Thorns., Hym.
Scand., i, 173, 2 ; Kalt., Pfl., 32,
36, 41 ; Andre, Species, i, 287, pi.
xvii, figs. 2, 4 and 5 ; Cat., 36,* 5.

spinarum, var. Orientalis, Cam., Tr. Ent. Soc., 1877, 90.
c&ntifolia}, Lep., Mon., 24, 71 ; Ste., 111., vii, 42, 2.

Luteous, covered above with a dense whitish pubescence. Antennas,
head (except the mouth, which is white and covered with a whitish
pubescence), the mesonotum at the sides, metanotum, apex of tibiaB and
the joints of the tarsi at the apex, black. In front of the mesonotum
the black colour forms a triangle, the base being in front, and there is a
faint luteous spot in the centre of the metanotum. The scutellum is
luteous. Sheath of saw black at the apex and very hairy. Wings hya-
line, with a fuscous tinge at the apex and yellowish at the base ; ner-
vures (except at the base, where they are yellowish), costa and stigma
deep black, the latter is luteous at the extreme base; tegulae luteous ;
palpi pale testaceous ; the upper edge of the pleurae below the wings is
black ; the mandibles piceous ; the blotch is large, pale yellow.



308 ATHALIA SPINARUM.

The $ lias the two basal joints of the antennae entirely, and the other
joints beneath, pale luteous ; the face below and surrounding the
antennas and the inner edge of the eyes white.

In the ? the antennee are often pale luteous or brownish on the
underside.

Length 3 4 lines.

Beadily known from the other species of the group
by the yellow markings on the mesonotum.

The eggs are oval, whitish and semitransparent.
They are laid along the leaf margin on the underside
embedded in the epidermis. About 250 to 300 are
deposited by a single ? . According to Newport
sometimes only one egg may be laid on a leaf, but not
unfrequently as many as eight, ten, fifteen, or even
twenty, according to Curtis; when a number is de-
posited on the same leaf they are arranged along the
margin at irregular intervals. The same excellent
observer says that when only a few eggs are laid on
the leaf they are generally placed on the leaflet at the
base of the leaf and seldom at the apex. The fly does
not deposit her eggs indifferently on all the leaves of
the plant, but usually on the second set, " or four leaves
after the cotyledonous leaves," and never on the coty-
ledonous leaves themselves. Neither are they laid on
the inner or youngest leaves, which have their surfaces
rougher than the outer ones.

According to most observers the eggs are invariably
laid in the hottest part of the day and when the sun
is shining.

When first laid the egg is scarcely visible, there
being no trace of it apparent beyond a slight elevation
of the cuticle, and this is often so slight that it is only
by extracting the egg itself that its presence becomes
apparent. Within twenty-four hours the elevation has
increased while the egg has become more opaque. By
the second day it has still further increased, and the
depression in which the egg is situated widens so that
a free space equal to its own width surrounds it on
both sides. This continues to expand and the egg
bec'omes still more opaque, and the future larva is seen



ATHALIA SPINARUM. 309

curled up in a semicircular form inside. On the fifth
day it escapes.

This is about its normal rate of progress if the
weather be warm, but if, on the other hand, it be wet
and cold, the development is retarded considerably,
taking six, seven, or even twelve days, according to the
temperature. If the weather be very unfavorable many
of them are destroyed.

When developed, the larva eats its way through the
shell, and then through the part of the leaf which
encircles the eggs. It eats at first the upper epidermis,
the portions eaten out being noticeable as little brown
patches, which are " partial perforation of the leaf
covered with the round cuticle of the upper surface."
When it quits the egg it is about half a line long, and
of a whitish colour with a black head. According to
Newport it does not eat the egg shell which remains
in the cavity. In three days it is double its original
length. At this period, according to the same author,
if it has to descend to the ground to search for a more
suitable leaf or for any other reason, it aids its descent
by means of a silken thread which it attaches to the
leaf and drops down by its aid. When older it does
not possess this faculty. It moults for the first time
on the fifth day after leaving the egg. In all it moults
three times, each at an interval of from five to seven
days before it becomes fully fed and is ready to form its
cocoon.

After leaving the egg the larva is white with two
black dots on the head; but soon the body becomes
darker and the head quite black. When the larva is
about fully grown the head is narrower than the second
segment, shining black, and covered with a few short
hairs. Each of the body segments is divided into
several folds, and smooth and shining, without any
hairs. The upper part to the spiracles is black, on
each side is a longitudinal slate-coloured spot ; then a
row of black, mostly double oblong spots. The legs
are slate-coloured ; the abdominal legs are black



310 ATHALIA SPINARUM.

splashed with grey ; they are almost hid by the over-
hanging folds of the body.

The pupa is greyish-white.

The cocoon is oval and is formed of grains of earth
closely agglutinated together. Externally it is rough ;
internally smooth and shining.

The larva eats night and day, and seems to delight
in the hottest sunshine, in which it basks curled up on
the upper surface of the leaf. It lives as a larva about
nineteen days.

There are usually three broods in the year ; the first
appears in early summer, the second at the end of
July and beginning of August ; these become developed
at the middle of September, and give issue to another
brood which feed on sometimes to the end of
October.

Although the larva is principally known from the
ravages it commits on the turnip, yet it also feeds on
other cruciferous plants such as Sinapis arvensis,
Barbarea and Sisymbrium. Indeed, Sinapis is pro-
bably the natural food plant, and according to Newport
it prefers it even to the white turnip. The last-
mentioned author has found them on Sinapis in great
abundance, feeding upon the leaves and flowers.
Newport says also, that if there be any charlock in the
same field with the turnip, the larva will attack the
former plant first ; and if there be plenty of the weed
they will stick to it and leave the turnips alone.

The flies make their appearance in May, then in
July, August and September with the second and third
broods. According to Curtis they live from twelve
to fourteen days. They fly in the sunshine and fre-
quent flowers, showing a preference for roses, accord-
ing to some authorities. Hence the species was named
Gentifolice by Panzer. When touched or alarmed
they tuck the antennae and legs close to the body and
drop to the earth, where they remain motionless until
the danger has passed away. During cloudy weather
they remain seated on the underside of the leaves,



ATHALIA SPINARUM. 311

frequently four or five being seen on the same
leaf. Curtis says that they are preyed upon by
swallows.

Newport remarks that the flies proceed in flights
across the fields or district in which they may be
located. Thus, he once noticed them very busily
ovipositing in a field. On the second day there were
scarcely any left on that part of the field where they
were first observed ; they were then at work in the
middle. By the third day they had proceeded still
further, and on the fourth they had reached the
opposite end of the field from which they started. It
is suggested by Newport that the whole of the eggs
are not laid in one day, but may take three or four a
very likely supposition considering that each female



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