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lays about two hundred and fifty.

The larva of this Athalia is known to farmers by
the name of the " black palmer," " black canker,"
" black slug," or " nigger." The first published
account of its ravages in Britain is contained in a
paper by W. Marshall in the ' Transactions of the
Royal Society ' for 1783. According to this writer
the larva had committed very great ravages in the
year before that, and he mentions also that it had been
equally injurious in 1760. Yarrell says that it was
abundant again in 1818, while from 1833 and onwards
it did very great damage.

There seems to be some reason for believing that
the insect may have originally come over from the
Continent, for Marshall says that they first made their
appearance -on the eastern coast; they were observed
to alight in clouds and were found afterwards heaped
up on the shore in some places to a depth of two
inches. They abound during warm and dry sum-
mers ; cold and wet ones checking their spread very
effectively.

Various remedies have been recommended for
checking the ravages of the larvae. Spreading quick-
lime and the refuse of gas works has been used, and in



312 ATHALIA SPINAEUM.

some cases, with benefit, especially if before they are
applied the turnips be dragged over by a rope so that
the larvae may fall to the earth. It has also been
found very beneficial to turn a flock of ducks into the
fields; these birds eat the larvae readily and have in some
cases saved the crops ; but, on the other hand, feeding
on the larvae tends to injure the ducks, as they suffer
much from diarrhoea and become very emaciated. It
has been suggested by Newport that if when the flies
have appeared and are about to lay their eggs, the
turnips be well watered daily or twice daily with sea
water, or with water mixed with salt, this will tend
to destroy the eggs.

The larvae are preyed upon by a thread-worm,
Mermis albicans, a Dipteron, Meigenia bisignata, and by
the Hymenoptera, Bassus atkaliaeperda, Curtis, Try-
phon succinctus, Grr. ; Tryphon marginellus, GT. ; Peri-
lissus lutescens, Holmg. (teste Brischke) ; Mesoleius
armillatorius, Gr. ; M. ciliatus, Holmg. ; Tryphon
brachy acanthus, Gr. (Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., 1878) ;
Perilampus splendidus, P. violaceus.

The species appears to be generally distributed over
England, being, however, apparently rare in the north.
It does not seem to have been very injurious of late
years, a fact no doubt owing to the system of rotation
of crops. In Scotland it has not, so far as I can learn,
been ever very injurious. Mr. James Hardy tells us
that a black Athalia larva was once rather destructive
in Berwickshire, but it was got rid of by an application
of quick lime. It is more than possible that damage
attributed to Spinarum may in reality have been caused
by the very similar larva of A. glabricollis.

Spinarum is found all over the Palaearctic region,
extending eastward into Japan. The Japanese speci-
mens have the black on the thorax broadly divided in
the middle. In India a form occurs differing from the
European variety in having the costa at the base, the
basal joints of the antennae and the epistoma luteous ;
the thorax is black only behind the scutellum ; there is



ATHALIA SCUTELLARLffi. 313

also a yellowish mark on the metanotura and the wings
are not yellowish = var. Orientalis, Cam.



3. ATHALIA SCUTELLAEI^I.
Plate III, fig. 9, Larva.

Athalia scutellarice, Cam., B. M. M., xvii, 66 (1880) ; Andre,

Species, i, 581 (Suppl.).

Luteous, pilose ; the head (except the apex of clypeus and the labrum,
which are white), meso- and metanotum (except the apex of middle lobe
of mesonotum and the greater part of the scutellum, which are luteous)
and the upper half (in some cases only the third) of pleura, black. Legs
luteous, the apices of the four posterior tibiaB and the joints of all the
tarsi broadly annulated with black. Antennae black, eleven -join ted,
testaceous on the under side. Wings hyaline, nervures, costa (save at
extreme base, where they are testaceous) and stigma black. $ similar,
but with the mesonotum entirely black.

Length 2 2 lines.

Allied to A. rosce, but distinguished by its smaller
size, more pilose body, luteous sternum and scutellum
in the ? , by the third cubital cellule being shorter in
proportion to the second and at the same time wider
at the base, by the third joint of the antenna3 being
more than double the length of the fourth, which is not
the case with rosce, while the tar sal joints at the base
are of the same colour as the rest of the legs, and not
whitish as in the commoner species.

The larva is of a deep velvety black colour. On the
sides at the top are twelve white tubercles which are
longer than broad; over the legs there is a row of
larger and more oval tubercles of the same colour,
while above these on the abdomen there is a row of
smaller white tubercles situated above the space sepa-
rating the larger ones below them, this middle row of
tubercles being of the same shape as those on the top.
The head is deep black and covered with a moderately
long pile ; the legs are fuscous-black, the abdominal
ones white or dirty-white. The skin is rough and of
a velvety texture.

The larvae feed on Scutellarice galericulata in the



314 ATHALIA KOS^E.

autumn, and spin in the earth cocoons of silk mixed
with grains of sand. The images appear at the end
of June.

The only locality I know of is Gloucester, where the
Iarva3 were found by Mr. Allan Harker, who obligingly
sent them to me.



4. ATHALIA

Tenthredo rosa* Lin., F. Sc. Ed., ii, 1555 (1776) ; S. N. (xii), 925,
30 ; Klug, BerL Mag., viii, 128, 2 ; Htg.,
Blattw., 284, 2 ; Zett., Ins. Lap., 338, 2.

Phyllotoma rosce, Fall., Mon., 28, 2.

Hylotoma annulata, Fall., Aeta, 1807, 205, 13.

Athalia bicolor, Lep., Mon., 23, 69.

rosce, Ste., 111., vii, 43, 7 ; Dbm., Prod., 64, 10, pi. 1, figs.

3643 ; Evers., Bull. Mosc., xx, 34, 2 ;
Thorns., Opus., 267, 2; Hym. Sc., i,
173, 3; Cam., P. N. H. S. Glas., iii,
130, 207 ; Fauna, 16, 3 ; Andre, Species,
i, 289; Cat., 36,* 8.

cordata, Lep., Mon., 22, 64 (?) ; Ste., 42, 3.

lineolata, Lep., 22, 65 (?) ; Ste., 43, 4.
Blanchardi, Brulle, Hym., iv, 663, pi. 46, fig. 6.

Antennae, head and thorax black; mouth white; tegulse, pro thorax
and abdomen reddish-yellow. Legs pale reddish- testaceous, paler at
the base ; the apex of the tibiae and the joints of the tarsi annulated
with black; apex of sheath black. Wings yellowish-hyaline, costa luteous
at base, the rest of it with the stigma black. $ and $.

Length 2| 3 lines.

The pleurse and sternum are frequently marked to a
greater or less extent with yellow patches. There may
be only a small yellow spot on either the one or the
other of these parts, or both may be almost entirely
yellow, the black being visible only in obscure splashes.
With this light-coloured form the under surface of the
antennae is generally yellowish, so that it has a general
resemblance to A. glabricollis.

With the dark form the anterior legs have the black
annulations very distinct, but all gradiations are found

* In the Linnean Collection Rosce is represented by ancilla and
spinarum, Rosce auct. not being in the collection at all. As a whole, the
Linnean description agrees best with ancilla.



ATHALIA LUGENS. 315

until in the light variety the black has disappeared
entirely.

A. rosce is an exceedingly common species, and is
found everywhere in Britain in June and July. It is
very fond of frequenting flowers, and appears to have
a special fancy for those of Ajuga reptans. This latter
circumstance was first pointed out to me by Mr. James
Hardy, and I have since verified it myself. According
to J. Scheffler (quoted by Taschenberg, Ent. Gart., p.
152), the larva feeds on Sedum album, but no details
are given.

The species has a very wide Palasarctic range, and
it is found also on the west coast of Africa. The spe-
cimen from the latter locality (in the British Museum)
has the breast and pleuras quite black, and the wings
yellower than is usual with northern specimens, but
otherwise does not differ.



5. ATHALIA LUGENS.

Tenthredo lugens, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 128, 3 ; Htg., Blattw.,

285, 3.
Athalia abdominalis, Lep., F. Fr., pi. 13, fig. 2 ; Mon., 23, 68 ;

Ste., 111., vii, 44, 10 (?) ; Bouche, S.

E. Z., xii, 290; Kalt., Pfl., 3.
lugens, Ste., 111., vii, 44, 9 ; Dbm., Prod., 66, 11 ; Thorns.,

Op., 267, 3; Hym. Scand., i, 174, 4;

Cam., P. N. H. S. Glas , 111, 131 ;

Fauna, 16, 4 ; Andre, Species, i, 286 ;

Cat., 35,* 1.

Antennae, head, pronotum in front, meso- and metanotum and base
of abdomen, black ; tibia? and tarsi fuscous-black ; the edge of pronotum,
pleurae, sternum, tegulas, abdomen and coxae, femora and anterior tibia3
behind, luteous. Wings blackish ; nervures, costa and stigma deep
black ; the costa paler at the extreme base. Apex of sheath black.

The (^ has the mouth white ; the two basal joints of antennae beneath
are pale testaceous ; the tibiae are broadly luteous at the base, and the
tarsal joints more or less pale at the base, especially with the anterior
pair.

Length 2 3 lines.



The only information we have of the early stages of
this insect is that given by Bouche (1. c.). He states
that the ? bores into the young branches and leaf-



316 ATHALIA ANNUL ATA.

buds of Clematis erecta, and deposits her eggs therein.
In course of time the larvae cause a bladder-like swell-
ing, wherein the brown-headed creatures live until
they are about half fed, a period extending from four-
teen to twenty days ; after this they become external
feeders, become of a brownish-green colour, and devour
the leaves for fourteen to twenty days more, when,
reaching maturity, they drop to the earth, where they
pass the winter.

If these observations refer to lug ens, it is certain
that it must have some other food plant besides Cle-
matis, since the saw-fly is found in districts where the
plant is not native, nor occurs at all. The matter
stands in need of re-investigation.

Lug ens is a not uncommon species in Britain. It
has been found in Clydesdale, the midland counties,
Worcester, Gloucester, Glanvilles* Wootton, Devon-
shire and the London districts.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany, Hol-
land, France.



6. ATHALIA ANNULATA.

Tenthredo annulata, Fab., S. E., ii, 110, 22; King, Berl. Mag.,

viii, 89, 4 ; Htg., Blattw., 285, 4.
Athalia annulata, Ste., 111., vii, 44, 8 ; Dbm., Prod., 66, 12, pi. 2,

fig. 44 (lar.); Lep., Hon., 24, 70;

Thorns., Opus., 267, 4; Hym.,

Scand., i, 174, 4; Cam., P. N. H.

S. Glas., Ill, 131; Evers., Bull.

Mosc., xx, 34, 3; Kalt., Pfl., 471 ;

Andre, Species, i, 286 ; Cat., 36,* 7.
Hylotoma annulata, Fab., S. P., 23, 26.

Reddish-luteous. Thorax covered with a dense silky pubescence ;
scutellum almost glabrous; the antennae, meso- and metathorax, the
upper part of the first abdominal segment, sheath, the base of coxae,
apex of posterior tibias and tarsi, more or less black ; mouth pale red.
Wings hyaline, the basal half yellowish ; costa luteous at the base, the
rest with the stigma and the nervures at the apex black. $ and <^.

Length 3 3| lines.

This species differs from all the others in the reddish
colour of the mouth. Some of the forms of rosce



ATHALIA ANNULATA. 317

resemble it, but the above peculiarity, the black first
abdominal segment, the coxaB black at the base, with
the almost black posterior tarsi, readily separate the
two. Most of the English specimens that I have seen
have the base of the posterior tarsal joints luteous, the
middle joints are blackish at the tips from the second
joint, and the anterior faintly fuscous at the apex.
According to some of the describers the posterior tarsi
are entirely black, but I have never seen a specimen
with them entirely of one colour. I have seen some
Continental specimens with scarcely any black, the
apical joints being only faintly fuscous.

Kaltenbach relates (1. c.) that he found the larva of
annulata in July, and again in September and October
on Veronica beccabunga, the leaves of which it eats on
the underside. He describes the larva as being dull
black, whitish at the sides, and as spinning a cocoon in
the earth. A larva answering to this description I
have found myself on Veronica in Clydesdale, but
unfortunately did not succeed in rearing it.

Dahlbom, on the other hand, says that he received
from Drewsen its larva, which according to him fed on
the turnip. It is stated to have been of a glaucous
colour and beset with distinct tubercles, which are well
shown in Dahlbom' s figure which was taken from a
specimen preserved in spirit.

Annulata is the rarest of the British species of
Athalia. I have seen a specimen from "Worcester and
a few from Grlanvilles' Wootton. The perfect insect
is stated by Kaltenbach to frequent in summer the
flowers of Heradeum.

It has a wide European distribution, being found in
Sweden, Germany, Holland, France, Hungary and
Russia.






EXPLANATION OF ABBREVIATIONS.






ABBBEVIATIONS USED IN THE REFERENCES TO
SERIALS AND TRANSACTIONS OF SOCIETIES.



Am. Nat. The American Naturalist (Salem).

Ann. Ent. Belg. Anuales de la Societe Entomologique de
Belgique (Brussels).

Ann. Mus. H. N. Annales du Musee d'Histoire Naturelle
(20 vols., Paris, 1802-13).

Ann. N. H. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (London).

Ann. Sci. Nat. Annales des Sciences Naturelles (Paris).

Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. Annales de la Societe Entomologique de
France (Paris, 1832, et seq).

Arch.f. Nat. Archiv fur Naturgeschichte (Berlin).

Arch. Ver. Mecklerib. Archiv des Vereins der Freunde der
Naturgeschichte in Mecklenburg.

Berl. Mag. Magazin der Gesselschaft naturforschender Freunde
zu Berlin (Berlin, 1807, et seq).

B. E. Z Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift (Berlin, 1857,
et seq).

Bull. Ent. Ital. Bullettino della Societa Entomologica Italiana
(Florence).

Bull. Nose. Bulletin dela Societe Imperialedes Naturalistes de
Moscow, 1847, et seq.

Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. Bulletin des Stances de la Societe Entomolo-
gique de France (Paria).

G. R. Ent. Belg. Comptes rendus des Seances de la Societe
Entomologique de Belgique (Brussels).

G. B. Ver. Regensb. Correspondenz-Blatt des Zoologisch-
mineralogischen Vereins in Regensburg (Ratisbon).

C. B. Ver. Rheinl. Correspondenz-Blatt des Naturhistorischen
Vereins der preussischen Rheiulande und Westphalens (Bonn).

Canad. Ent. The Canadian Entomologist (Montreal).

E. M. M. The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine (London,
1864, etseq).

Enc. Mefh Encyclopedic Methodique (10 vols., Paris, 1789
1825).

Ent. The Entomologist (London).



320 EXPLANATION OP ABBREVIATIONS.

Ent. Ann. The Entomologist's Annual (London, 1856 1874).

Ent. Mag The Entomological Magazine (5 vols., London,
183338).

Ent. Nachr. Entomologische Nachrichten (Katter ; Putbus,
1876, et seq).

Ent. Tidskr. Entomologisk Tidskrift po foran Staltande af
Entomologiska Foreningen i Stockholm (Stockholm).

Deutsche E. Z. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift (Berlin),

Feuill. Nat. Feuilles des jeunes Naturalistes (Miilhausen) .

Germ. Zeit. Q-ermar's Zeitschrift fur die Entomologie (5 vols.,
Leipzig, 183944).

Guer. Mag. Zool. Guerin-Meneville's Revue et Magasin de
Zoologie, d'Anatomie comparee et de Palaeontologie (Paris, 1831,
et seq) .

J. B. Ver. ZwicTcan. Jahresbericht des Vereins fur Naturkunde
zu Zwickan.

J. J3. Zool. Sect. Westf. Ver. Jahresbericht der Zoologischen
Section fur das Etatjahr 1877 78 des westfalischen Provinzial-
vereins fur Wissenschaft und Kunst.

Lin. Ent. Linnsea Entomologica ; published by the Entomolo-
gical Society of Stettin (16 vols., Berlin and Leipsic, 1846-66).

Loud. Mag. London's Magazine of Natural History (9 vols.,
London, 182936).

M T Munch. Ent. Ver. Mittheilungen des Miinchener Entomo-
logischen Vereins (Munich).

M T Schw. Ent. Ges. Mittheilungen der Schweizerischen
Entomologischen Gessellschaft (S chaff hausen).

Nat. Hist. Rev. The Natural History Review ; a Quarterly
Journal of Science (Dublin and London).

Ofv. Ofversigt af Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens
Forhandlingar (Stockholm, 1845, et seq.).

Proc. Amer. Ent. $00. The Proceedings of the American Ento-
mological Society (Philadelphia).

Proc. Lin. Soc. Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean
Society of London (1857, et seq.).

Proc. jy. If. S. Glas. Proceedings of the Natural History
Society of Glasgow (1868, et seq.).

Rep. E. Soc. Ont. Report of the Entomological Society of Ontario.

R. Z. Revue et Magasin de Zoologie pure et appliquee (Paris).

S. . z. b. Wien. Sitzungsberichte der Zoologisch-botanischen
Gesellschaft in Wien (Vienna).

8. E. Z. Stettiner entomologische Zeitung (Stettin, 1840, et seq.).

ScJir. ges. Danz. Neueste Schriften der Naturforscher ider
Gesellschaft zu Danzig.

Schr. ges. Konig. Schriften der K. physikalisch-okonomischen
Gesellschaft in Preussen (Konigsberg).

Scot. Nat. The Scottish Naturalist (Perth and Edinburgh).

Sv. A jfiT. Handl. Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps Akademiens
Handlingar (Stockholm, 1780, et seq.).



EXPLANATION OP ABBREVIATIONS. 321

Term, fuzetek. Termeszetrajzi fiizetek : az allat-noveny-azvany-
es toldtan Korebol (Peste).

Tr. Amer. Ent. Soc. Transactions of the American Entomo-
logical Society (Philadelphia).

Tr. Ent. Soc. The Transactions of the Entomological Society
of London (1834, et seq).

Tr. Lin. Soc. The Transactions of the Linnean Society of
London (1791, et seq.).

Verh. pr. Rheinl. Verhandlungen des iiaturhistorischen Vereins
der preussischen Rheinlande und Westphalens (Bonn, 1844, et
seq.).

Verli. Wien z.-b. Ver., and Verh. z.-b. Qes. Verhandlungen des
zoologisch-botanischen Vereins in Wien; afterwards Kaiserlich-
Konigliche zoologische-botanische Gesellschaft (Vienna, 1852, et
seq.).

Wiener Ent. Zeit. The "Wiener Entomologische Zeitung
(Vienna) .

Z. ges Naturw. Zeitschrift fur die gesammten Naturwissen-
schaf'ten (Berlin).

Zool. The Zoologist (London, 1843, et seq.).

Zool. Am. Zoologischer Anzeiger (Leipzig).

Z. wiss. Zool. Zeitschrift fur wissenschaftliche Zoologie (Leipzig).



ABBREVIATIONS OF AUTHORS' NAMES, SEPARATE
WORKS, Ac.

Andre , Species. Andre (Ed.). Species des Hymenopteres
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Bouche, Naturg. Bouche (P. F.). Naturgeschichte der Insecten,
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Puppen (Berlin, 1834).

rischke* s Abbild.Rr\schke (C. GL A.). Abbildungen und Be-
schreibun^en der Blattvvespen Larven (Berlin, 1855).

Br. and Zad. Brischke (C. G. A.) and Zaddach (Or.). See
Serials, ante.

BrulU, Exp. Mor. Brull^ (A.) (the Entomological portion of).
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Brulle, St. Farg. Hym. Brulle (A.). St. Fargeau's Histoire
Naturelle des Insectes ; Hymenopteres (vol. iv, by Brulle, Paris,
1846).

Cam. Cameron (Peter). See Serials, ante.

Cam., Fauna. Cameron (Peter). The Fauna of Scotland, with
special reference to Clydesdale and the Western District. Hymen-
optera (Glasgow, 1876).

Cam., Cat. Cameron (Peter). A Catalogue of the British Ten-
thredinidae (Glasgow, 1876).

VOL. r. 21



322 EXPLANATION OF ABBREVIATIONS.

Christ, Hym. Christ (J. L.). Naturgeschichte, Klassification
und Nomenclatur der Insecten von Bienen, Wespen, und Ameisen-
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Costa, Fauna. Costa (A.). Fauna di regno di Napoli (Naples,
1861).

Cur., B. E. Curtis (John). British Entomology (16 vols.,
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Cur., Farm. Ins. Curtis (John). Farm Insects; being the
Natural History and Economy of the Insects Injurious to the Field
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Dalm., An. Ent. Dalman (J. W.). Analecta Entomologica
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Dim., Clavis. Dahlbom (A. G-.). Clavis Novi Hymenopterorum
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Dbm., Consp. Conspectus Tenthrediuidum, Siricidum et Orys-
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Dim., Onych. Dahlbom (A. G-.). Onychia och Callaspidia, Tvenne
for Skandinaviens Fauna Nya Insekt-Slagten, Norande till Gallaple-
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Dbm., Prod. Prodromus HymenopterologiaB Scandinavicse (Lund,
1836).

Dbm., Skand. Rym. F. Skandinavisk Hymenopter-Fauna (Lund,
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De Geer, Mem. Degeer (C.). Memoires pour servir a 1'histoire
des Insectes (Holm, 1752 78).

Don., B. Z Donovan (E). The Natural History of British
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Dours, Cat. Dours (A.). Catalogue Synonymique des Hymeno-
petres de France (Amiens, 1873).

EC. Economy.

Evers. Eversmann (Ed.). See Serials, ante.

Fab., E. 8. Fabricius (I. C.). Entomologica Systematica (4
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Fab., M. I. Fabricius. Mantissa Insectorum (2 vols., Copen-
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Fab., 8. E. Fabricius. Systema Entomologia3 (Flensburg and
Leipsic, 1775).

Fab., 8. I. Fabricius. Species Insectorum (2 vols., Hamburg and
Kiel, 1781).

Fab., S. P. Fabricius. Systema Piezatorum (Brunswick, 1804).

Fall., Mon. Fallen (C. F.). Monographica Tenthredinetarum
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Fallen, 8pecim. Hym. Fallen (C. F.). Specimen novum Hymeno-
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Fonsc. Fonscolombe (E. L. J. H. B. de, Baron). See Serials, ante.

Forst., Nov. Spp. Ins. Forster (J. E.). Nova3 species Insec-
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Forst. Forster (Arnold). See Serials, ante.



EXPLANATION OF ABBREVIATIONS. 323

Fourc., E. P. Fourcroy (A. F.). Entomologia Parisiensia
(2 vols., Paris, 1785).

Frisch, Bexclir. Frisch (J. L.). Beschreibung von allerlei
Insecten in Deutschland (Berlin, 172038).

Geqf., H. J. Geoffrey (E. L.). Histoire abregee des Insectea
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Oir. Giraud (J.). See Serials, ante.

GmeL, S. N Gmelin (I. F.). Caroli a Linne Systema Naturaj,
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Htg Hartig (T.). See -Serials, ante.

Htg., Blattw. Hartig (T.). Die Familie der Blattwespen und
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Illig., Rossi, F. E. Illiger (I. C. W.). Fauna Etrusca, siatens
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Im. Imago.

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Karsch (F.) See Serials, ante.

Kirby, Fauna. Kirby (Wm.). Fauna Boreali Americana.

Kirby, Int. Kirby (W.) and Spence (W.). An Introduction to
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Kirchner, Cat. Kirchner (Herp.). Catalogus Hymenopterorum
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Al. Klug (J. C. F.). See Serials, ante.

Kl.,Jahrb. Jahrbiicher der Insecten Kunde (Berlin, 1834).

L, Ent. Mon. Entomologische Monographien (Berlin, 1824).

A7., Sir. MoDographia Siricum Germaniae atque generum illis
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Lar. Larva.

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