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A monograph of the British phytophagous Hymenoptera .. (Volume 1) online

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antennae, of which the third is the largest, and by the basal nerve being
received in the first cubital cellule.

VOL. I. 5


Analytical table of the Genera.

1 (19) Wings with one radial cellule.

2 (7) Antennae with only three joints.

3 (4) Fore wings with an appendicular cellule, hinder tibiae with a

spine. <? with simple antennae. Hylotoma.

4 (3) No appendicular cellule in fore wings, nor spine on tibiae. $

antennas cleft.

5 (6) Lanceolate cellule petiolate. ScUzocera.

6 (5) Lanceolate cellule contracted. Cyphona.

7 (16) Antennae 9-jointed.

8 (11) Lanceolate cellule contracted.

9 (10) Third cubital cellule receiving the second recurrent nervure.


10 (9) Second cubital cellule receiving the second (and first) recurrent

nervure. Camponiscus.

11 (8) Lanceolate cellule petiolate.

12 (13) Hinder tarsi broadly expanded and flattened. Crcesus.

13 (12) Hinder tarsi simple.

14 (15) Wings with three or four cubital cellules, if three the first

receiving both recurrent nervures. Nematus.

15 (14) Wings with three cubital cellules, the second receiving both

recurrent nervures. Cryptocampus.

16 (7) Antennae serrate, with more than 9-joints, $ antennae flabellate.

17 (18) Lanceolate cellule divided by an oblique cross nervure.


18 (17) Lanceolate cellule contracted in the middle. Monoctenus.

19 (1) Wings with two radial cellules.

20 (47) Fore wings with three cubital cellules. Tibiae not spined (83).

21 (32) Antennae clavate, 5-6-jointed.

22 (25) Antennae 5-jointed.

23 (24) Posterior coxae toothed, blotch absent, body hairy. Trichiosoma.

24 (23) Posterior coxae not toothed, blotch present, body not hairy.


25 (22) Antennae 6-jointed.

26 (27) Lanceolate cellule with a straight cross nervure. Clavellaria.

27 (26) Lanceolate cellule contracted.

28 (31) First cubital cellule receiving the two recurrent nervures, eyes

diverging beneath.

29 (30) Abdomen with a white band at the base. Zartea.

30 (29) Abdomen without a white band. Abia.

31 (28) First cubital cellule receiving only one recurrent nervure, eyes

converging. Amasis.

32 (33) Antennae 7-8-jointed, not clavate. Ccenoneura.

33 (44) Antennae 9-jointed.

34 (41) With three cubital cellules, first receiving a recurrent nervure.

35 (36) Lanceolate cellule petiolate. Fenusa.

36 (35) Lanceolate cellule with oblique cross nervure.

37 (38) No middle cellule in hind wings. Emphytus.

38 (37) One middle cellule in hind wings.

39 (40) Costa and stigma white, antennae with third and fourth joints

subequal. Harpiphorus.


40 (39) Costa and stigma black or fuscous, third joint of antennae dis-

tinctly longer than fourth. Poecilosoma (in part).

41 (34) First cubital cellule receiving no recurrent nervure, two middle

cellules in posterior wings.

42 (43) Lanceolate cellule with oblique cross nervure. Dolerus.

43 (42) Lanceolate cellule petiolate. Dineiira fiwoula var.

33) Antennae 10-16-jointed.

46) Lanceolate cellule petiolate. Fenella.

45) Lanceolate cellule with an oblique cross nervure. Phyllotoma.


46 .

47 (83) Wings with four cubital cellules.

48 (51) Second cubital cellule receiving both recurrent nervnres.

49 (50) Lanceolate cellule petiolate. Dineura.

50 (49) Lanceolate cellule contracted. Hemichroa.

51 (48) Second cellule receiving only one nervure.

52 (53) Antennae 10-jointed, subclavate. Athalia.

53 (52) Antennae 9-jointed, mostly filiform.

54 (55) Lanceolate cellule petiolate. Blcnnocampa.

55 (61) Lanceolate cellule contracted.

56 (57) Antennae short, thick, mesonotum not marked with white.


57 (56) Antenna long, filiform, mesonotum and metanotum with white

marks. Syncerema.

58 (61) Lanceolate cellule open, without cross nervure.

59 (60) Body short, thick, costa thickened and dilated before stigma.


60 (59) Body longish, cylindrical, costa not dilated. Strongylogasier.

61 (69) Lanceolate cellule with an oblique cross nervure.

62 (63) Hind wings with no middle cellule. Taxonus.

63 (64) Hind wings with one middle cellule.

6i (65) Eyes reaching to base of mandibles, abdomen black.

Eriocampa in part.

65 (64) Eyes not reaching to base of mandibles, abdomen spotted with

white. Poecilosoma.

66 (63) Hind wings with two middle cellules.

67 (68) Eyes reaching to base of mandibles. Eriocampa in part.

68 (67) Eyes not reaching to base of mandibles. Strongylogaster in part.

69 (61) Lanceolate cellule with a short perpendicular nervure or shortly


70 (73) Posterior coxae large, reaching to fourth abdominal segment.

71 (72) Antenna setaceous, longer than abdomen, pleurae broadly

marked with white. Pachy protasis.

72 (71) Antennae short, thick, pleurae seldom marked with white.


73 (70) Coxae of normal size, not reaching to fourth abdominal seg-


74 (77) Antennae shorter than the head and thorax, thickened at the

apex, never filiform or setaceous.

75 (76) Eyes reaching to the base of the mandibles. Allantus.

76 (75) Eyes not reaching to the base of the mandibleo. Sciopteryx.

77 (74) Antennae longer than the head and thorax, filiform or setaceous,

seldom fusiform.

78 (79) Blotch absent, stigma white and fuscous, or entirely white,

scutellum and post-scutellum white. Tenthredopsis.

79 (78) Blotch distinct, stigma black or green ; post-scutellum not

white. Tenthredo.


80 (53) Antennae multiarticulate, posterior tibise spined.

81 (82) Antennae with not more than eighteen joints, dentate, posterior

tibise with three spines. Tarpa.

82 (81) Antennae with more than eighteen joints, filiform, posterior

tibise with three spines. Lyda.

83 (20) Wings with three cubital cellules, antennae 12 -jointed, the third

joint very long. Pinicola*

Tribe (sub-family] . TENTHREDINA.

Tenthredinides. Antennae 9-jointed. Wings with two radial and four
cubital cellules, the second and third receiving each a recurrent
nervure. Lanceolate cellule subcontracted, or with a perpendicular,
and more rarely with an oblique cross nervure. Basal nervure received
at a distance from the cubital. Hind wings with two middle cellules.
Mandibles acute, large, with two or three large teeth, besides the large
apical one. Calcaria as long as half of the metatarsus. Larvae ejecting
a black or brownish liquid from the mouth.

Dolerides. Antennae 9-jointed. Wings with two radial and three
cubital cellules, the second cubital the largest, and receiving two
recurrent nervures. Basal nervure received at a distance from cubital.
Lanceolate cellule with an oblique cross nervure. Hind wings with
i;wo median cellules.

Selandriades. Antennae 7- to 15-jointed. Wings with two radial
and three or four cubital cellules. Lanceolate cellule petiolate or open,
with an oblique cross nervure, or contracted. Basal nervure joined to
the cubital. Hind wings rarely with two median cellules, often with
one only or none. Spurs short. Mandibles weak, short, without
distinct teeth on the sides.


The Tenthredinides have longish, narrow bodies, the abdomen being
longer than the head and thorax, somewhat depressed above, and, as a
rule, broadest in the middle. The antennae are either long and fili-
form or short and subfusiform at the apex ; in the latter case the third
joint is much longer than the fourth. The head is much broader than
long, concave behind, and to a less extent in front. The eyes are large
and projecting, seldom reaching to the base of the mandibles. The
clypeus is large, and generally deeply incised; labrum orbicular.
Mandibles large, curved, and toothed. Legs long, coxae of normal size,
or so large as to reach the fourth abdominal segment. Spurs at least
as long as half of the metatarsus, and generally longer than that.
Hinder tarsi longer than the tibiae. Patellae very well developed;
claws large, bifid.

Wings with two radial and four cubital cellules. Costal cellule
distinct, with a cross nervure. Radial nervure curved, usually received
towards the middle of the third cubital cellule. The second and third


cubital cellules receive each a recurrent nervure. The basal nervure is
straight, and runs parallel with the first recurrent ; it is always received
in the costal cellule before the first cubital nervure, with which it
never unites. Lanceolate cellule more or less subcontracted, or more
usually with a straight, and more rarely an oblique cross nervure. The
hind wings with two median cellules ; the cubital and recurrent nervures
-are widely separated.

The larvae have twenty-two legs. They are cylin-
drical, generally of uniform colour, or greenish above,
and pale at the sides ; or, more rarely, they may be
ornamented with dots on the sides or along the back.
Many change colour before pupating, which they do in
the earth, in a cocoon or in a cell formed of earth.
They are principally attached to herbaceous plants,
comparatively few feeding on trees. As a rule they
rest rolled up in a spiral, and when alarmed eject a
brownish or blackish liquid from the mouth.

The most constant marks of distinction between this
tribe and the Sehiii<1i-i"(l?s consist in the position of
the basal nervure, in the spurs being always as long
as half of the metatarsus, and in the more strongly-
toothed mandibles.

The species of this sub-tribe are common in the
Palsearctic and Nearctic regions, rarer in the Oriental,
and would seem to be absent from Central and South
America, as well as from the Australian region.

Synopsis of Genera.

A. Coxae small.

a. Antennae long, filiform, rarely fusiform.

1. The third joint of antennas considerably longer than the

fourth ; posterior wings with two median cellules in
both sexes ; blotch distinct. Tenthredo.

2. The third and fourth antennal joints sub-equal; blotch

indistinct ; posterior wing with the transverse cubital
and recurrent nervures at edge of wing in $ . Antennae
long, filiform.

Lanceolate cellule with a straight nervure. Two median
cells in both sexes. Accessory nervure in posterior
wing shortly appendiculated. Tenthredopsis.

Posterior wing with no median cellule in $ t two in 9.
Lanceolate cellule contracted. Syn&rema.

b. Antennae short, thickened. Accessory nervure at apex in

posterior wing slightly appendiculated. Eyes converging ;
labrum rounded at apex. Allantus.


Eyes not converging, not placed near the base of mandibles.

Apex of labrum incised. Sciopteryx.

B. Coxae large, reaching to the apex of the third abdominal segment.

Antennae long, filiform ; thorax on the sides and breast more or

less white. Pachy protasis.

AntennsB short, thick; thorax rarely, and if so but slightly,

marked with white. Macrophya.

Tenthredo, Section 5, Htg., Blattw., 303.
Tenthredopsis, in part, Thorns., Andre.

Wings with two marginal and four submarginal cellules.

Lanceolate cellule subcontracted, or more usually with a straight
cross nervure. Posterior wings with two median cellules in both sexes,
the radial cellule not appendiculated.

Antenna short, rarely longer than abdomen ; filiform or setaceous,
rarely thickened at the apex ; bare, except the thick, ovate, basal joint,
which is pilose, the third joint more than a third (generally) longer
than the fourth.

Legs long, claws bifid ; hinder trochanter reaching to the apex of the
second abdominal segment. In some species the $ has the hinder
tibiae and tarsi thickened and flattened.

Head long, broad, somewhat cubital.

Clypeus deeply incised, rarely truncated at apex, the apical comers
acutely pointed, sometimes projecting.

Labrum large, oval, or quadrangular at the apex.

Abdomen slightly depressed above, thickened in the middle at the
sixth segment, sharply or bluntly rounded at the apex. Blotch dis-

Scutellum generally raised, sometimes pyramidal, rarely flat. Man-
dibles long ; the apical tooth long, curved ; the second blunt, widely
separated from first ; the third generally split in the middle into two-
blunt projections. Labium with the two outer lobes broad, rounded
externally, square above. Maxilla with the inner lobe bulging out
roundly at the lower (exterior) side, narrowed into a sharp, curved,
tooth-like projection at the apex; outer lobe bluntly ovate at apex,
narrowed slightly at the sides.

In coloration the species belonging to this genus show
considerable diversity. Generally they have mixtures of
black and red, or black and yellow, with antennae either
entirely black or with the apical joints white or entirely
yellow. Mixtures of green and black are also common >
while some of the East-Indian forms are splendidly
metallic, green, or blue. With most species the wings
are hyaline, but these organs are sometimes yellowish,
more rarely blackish or bluish.


The males, as a rule, do not differ much in colora-
tion from the females. With some species, however,
it is considerably lighter (T. zonata) ; parts whicli are
quite black in the female being yellowish or red in the
male. Some males have the legs lined with black (T.
fit, &c.), others have the abdomen black, while it is
banded with red in the other sex.

The geographical distribution of this genus is very
wide. The species are very numerous in the Palae-
arctic, Oriental, and Nearctic regions, occurring in all
their subregions. They are absent from the Neo-
tropical, Australian, and Ethiopian regions.

The green species are temperate or northern forms,
yellowish temperate or tropical, while the blue or green
metallic species inhabits warm or tropical regions.

There are some sixty European species, and sixty-
seven (including, probably, some pertaining to Tenihre-
dopsis) are recorded from the United States and Canada
by Cresson in his " Catalogue of the Tenthredinida3 and
Urocerida3 of North America." (Trans. Am. Ent.
Soc., viii, 1880.)

Obs. It must be confessed that the differences
between Tenthredo, as here defined, and the next genus,
are not very great. The most certain distinctions
consist in the deeply emarginated clypeus, the short,
thick antennas, having the third joint always consider-
ably longer than the fourth, the mesonotum usually
punctured, and the hinder wings having always two
distinct middle cellules.

In Tenthredopsis, as here restricted, the species have
the antennas long, thin, filiform, with the third joint
about the same length as the fourth ; the cheeks are
well developed, the eyes do not reach to the base of the
mandibles ; clypeus truncated, or if incised, only to a
very slight extent, while we have the difference,
although not a constant one, in the posterior wing of
the c?. "We have, furthermore, a uniformity in the
body form and coloration. The entire body is smooth,


shining, the head and thorax bear white markings,
while the blotch is invisible, a character which easily
separates it from the other species placed in the genus
by Thomson.

Thomson defines the three genera thus :

d, Gense distinctse; oculi nempe mandibularum basin hand attin-

e. Alse superiores cellula lanceolata breviter constricta.


ee. Alse superiores cellula lanceolata nervo transverso brevi
perpendicular! instructse ; inferiores cellula humerali
breviter appendiculati. Perineura.

dd. Gense nullse; oculi nempe convergentes mandibularum
basin attingentes. Also inferiores cellula humerali haud
appendiculata. Mesonotum punctulatum. Tenthredo.

Besides " instabilis," Thomson includes in Tenth/re*
dopsis T. viridis, punctulata, scalaris, gibbosa, and late-

I cannot accede to this arrangement. It seems to
me that as thus constituted Tenthredopsis is a very
artificial arrangement, and that the characters derived
from the form of the cheeks and of the slightly appen-
diculated posterior wings can scarcely be regarded as
of primary importance ; indeed, the latter is a very
inconstant character, occurring in very widely sepa-
rated species. With T. scalaris, for example, the
cellule is, with most of my specimens, scarcely appen-
diculated, and in two or three specimens it is com-
pletely interstitial. Similarly, the difference between
" gense nullge" and gense distinctae" is merely com-
parative, and intermediate forms exist. Undoubtedly
the gibbosa section forms a connecting link between
the "instabilis " group and Tenthredo proper, but with
the slight exceptions mentioned above, the species
agree very well with Tenthredo. The green species
placed in TentJiredopsis by Thomson have so many
affinities with olivacea, mesomela, &c., that I do not
see how they can be placed apart without violating
many affinities. Besides, as thus constituted by Thom-
son, Tenthredopsis is a very heterogeneous genus, the
two groups composing it instabilis on the one hand,


and nY/V/x, &c., on the other differ in the form of
the mouth, antennae, and in the posterior wings in the
c?, while one section has the blotch, the other being
without it. But, in point of fact, there does not
appear to be any absolute distinction between the two
groups, and they can only be retained apart as a
matter of convenience.

Analytical table of Species.

1 (2) Antennso entirely yellow. Flava.

2 (14) Antennae with the apical joints white.

3 (10) The fifth joint black, a double white mark over hinder coxae.

4 (5) Scutellum white. Solitaria.

5 (4) Scutellum black.

6 (7) Stigma distinctly white at the base. Livida.

7 (6) Stigma not white at the base.

8 (9) Apex of abdomen black ; tegulae black. Coryli.

9 (8) Apex of abdomen red; tegulse red. Colon.

10 (11) Third joint of antennas white, a single spot over hinder coxae.


1 1 (10) Fifth joint white, no white spot over coxae.

12 (13) Tegulae white, pleurae more or less rufous. Rufiventris.

13 (12) Tegulae and pleurae black. Balteata.

14 (31) Antennae entirely black.

15 (18) Abdomen banded with red.

16 (17) Inner orbits of the eyes white ; two spots over posterior coxae.


17 (16) Inner orbits of the eyes black ; one spot over hinder coxae.


18 (15) Abdomen entirely black, legs red.

19 (24) Clypeus white, hinder legs for the greater part red.

20 (23) One or two marks over hinder coxae ; pronotum white.

21 (22) A single spot over hinder coxse, legs red. Dispar.

22 (21) A double spot over hinder coxse, legs yellowish. Scotica.

23 (20) No white mark over coxae, pronotum black. Atra.

24 (19) Clypeus black, posterior legs entirely black. Mandibularis.

25 (28) Abdomen and legs yellowish.

26 (27) Scutellum, tegulse, and hinder tarsi for the greater part yellow.


27 (26) Scutellum, tegulse, and hinder tarsi for the greater part black.


28 (25) Abdomen and legs green.

29 (30) Pleurae and breast green. Mesomela.

30 (29) Pleurae and breast black. Obsoleta.

31 (38) Antennae green beneath, body and legs green.

32 (33) Cheeks indistinct, accessory nervure in posterior wings inter-

stitial ; hinder tarsi with the black continuous. Olivacea.

33 (32) Cheeks distinct, accessory nervure appendiculated, tarsi annu-

lated with black.
31 (37) Pleurae without a black stripe, tarsi annulated with black.


35 (36) Vertex slightly, sutures of mesonotum, and a row of small

black dots along the upper sides of abdomen black.


36 (35) Vertex, mesonotum, and back of abdomen broadly black.


37 (34) Mesopleura with a black splash, transverse radial nervure

interstitial, posterior tarsi entirely black. Picta.

38 (31) Antennae testaceous beneath, abdomen with a reddish band.

39 (40) Sides of abdomen yellow ; third cubital cellule short ; legs

entirely red. $ with the pleurse white. Lateralis.

40 (39) Sides of abdomen not yellow ; legs lined with black ; third

cubital cellule long. $ with the pleurse black. Gibbosa.

SECTION 1. Mesonotum punctured. Humeral cellule in
hind wing not appendiculated. Cheeks indistinct.

Antennae entirely and legs and body for the greater part yellow.
Scutellum sharply peaked ; pleurse finely tuberculate. A white
spot over posterior coxse (Species 1).


Tenthredo flava, Scop., Ent. Car., 731; Andre, Species, i, 444,
pi. xxi,fig.2; Cat., 58,* 42.

poecilocJiroa, Schr., En., 324, 654 ; Vill., Lin. Ent., 50.

Havicornis, Fab., E. S., ii, 113, 31 ; S. P., 31, 9 ; Fall,

Acta, 1808, 61, 22 ; Klug, Berl. Mag.,
viii, 189, 132; Pz., F. G., Hi, fig. 2;
Rossi, F. E., 711 ; Vill., Lin. Ent.,
73; Lep., Mon., 75, 224; Htg.,
Blattw., 311, 48 ; Evers., Bull. Mosc.,
xx, 54, 31 ; Thorns., Opus., 303; Hym.
Scand., i, 271.

luteicornis, Fab., E. S., ii, 113, 32; S. P., 31, 10; Pz.,

F. G., Ixiv, fig. 1 (var.) ; Evers., BulL
Mosc., xx, 54, 32.
Allantus flavicornis, Ste., 111., vii, 64, 21.

Pale yellow ; clypeus, labruni, mandibles, and a spot over the poste-
rior coxse, white ; head, pleura3, sternum, legs at the base and the four
apical segments of the abdomen, black.

The $ similarly coloured, but with a black line over the posterior
femora. Wings yellowish, infuscated at the apex.

Length 6 7 lines.

Ab. a. Thorax black above.

b. Posterior only, or the whole of the femora
black (luteicornis).

According to Kaltenbach (Pfl., 269), the larva feeds


in shady places during July and the beginning of
August on Aegopodium Podagraria. It is bare, lemon-
yellow to cinnamon-brown in colour, with numerous
oblique lateral stripes proceeding down the sides from
a central darker stripe on the back, there being one
stripe on each segment ; while before the last moult
each segment bears two oblique rows of minute white
tubercles. On the vertex is a dark brown longitu-
dinal mark ; an arched line goes also from the eyes in
front, ending on the top in a trident, and behind each
eye is an elliptical brownish ring.

A variable species in so far as the relative propor-
tion of the yellow and black colour is concerned.

The only British specimens that I have seen
recorded are those mentioned by Stephen's in his
{ Illustrations. 5

They are stated to have been taken near Plymouth.

The species on the Continent is tolerably common,
and occurs in Scandinavia, Germany, Hungary,.
France, Switzerland, Italy, and Russia.

Antennae long, compressed, a very little thickened at the apex
the apex of 6th, the 7th and 8th white two white marks over
posterior coxce. Pronotum black. Abdomen black or red at
apex or middle. Mesonotum and pleura opaque, punctured
(Species 25).


Tenthredo livida, Lin., F. ST., 1557 ; S. N. ii, 925, 33 ; Fab., E. S.,
ii, 116, 46; Fab., S. P., 33, 21; Panz.,
F.G.,52,fig.6; Schr.,En.,326,657; Klug
Berl. Mag., viii, 183, 122 ; Lep., Mon., 83,
243; Htg., Blattw., 312, 55 ; firm., Bull.
Mosc., xx, 55, 37 ; Kalt., Pfl., 304 (lav.) ;
Thorns., Hym. Scand., i, 275,10; Cam.,
Fauna, 11, 1; Andre, Species, i, 448;
Cat., 56,* 25.

carpini, Panz., F. G., 71, fig. 19.

albicornis, Fourc., E. P., 22 ; Geof ., H. J., ii, 282, 22.

maura, Fab., E. S., ii, 116, 44; S. P., 19 ; Lep., F. Fr.,

pi. 3, fig. 7 ; Mon., 79, 235 ; Fall., Acta
Holm., 1808, 55, 11.


Tenthredo annularis, Sclir., En., 325, 655 ; Vill., Lin. Ent., 51.
V Upundata, Kl., Berl. Mag., viii, 124; Htg., Blattw.,

312 53
Allantus lividus, Ste., 111., vii, 66, 28. '

aterrimus, Ste., 1. c., 66, 27.

Upunctatus, Ste, 1. c., 67, 31.

Black ; apex of sixth joint of antennae, the seventh, eighth, and base
of ninth, clypeus, labrum, mandibles, two spots over posterior coxa3,
white ; apex of mandibles piceous ; palpi white, pilose ; mesonotum
opaque, punctured. Legs : coxae, trochanters, and femora more or less,
apex of tibiae and posterior tarsi more or less black; part of femora,
tibiae almost wholly, and apex of tarsi, livid red ; anterior knees, tibia?,
and tarsi livid white in front. Pleurae finely punctured. Abdomen
black, the middle and apex frequently red. Wings hyaline, costa and
stigma fuscous, the latter livid white at the base (having a greenish
tinge when fresh) ; tegulae black. Sheath of saw largely projecting,
reddish in the middle.

The $ has the abdomen entirely reddish-testaceous beneath, and for
the greater part above ; the anterior legs are livid white in front, the
rest red, more or less lined with black above.

Length 5 6 lines.

From the succeeding species livida is distinguished
by the colour of the stigma, longer antennae, more
pubescent mesonotum and pleurae, and more pilose

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