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head ; the legs are more marked with black, and of a
livid, not clear red ; the red on the abdomen is paler,
less distinctly and more irregularly spread over the
.segments.

In coloration it varies exceedingly ; the white on
the antennae is irregularly distributed over the apical
joints; the legs and abdomen are very often quite
black (this ab. being I believe the bipunctata of Klug),
fuscous black, or pitchy. Generally the apex (the three
apical segments) is red ; but sometimes it is black,
pitchy, or testaceous. The legs have usually the coxae,
trochanters, the whole of posterior femora, the two
anterior femora at the base, the apex of posterior tibiae
.and tarsi black, but occasionally they show red, and in
rarer cases are quite black. The wings have some-
times a fuscous tinge.

The larva, according to Kaltenbach, feeds during
September and October on Lonicera racemosa and
xylosteum. It is one inch long, bare, pale yellow,



TEXTHREDO C011YIJ. 77

mottled with black, and with an orange-coloured
head. Tt pupates in the earth.

The flies are very common in June and early in
July, appearing often on the flowers of the rasp. It
is found everywhere in abundance in Scotland, but
does not seem to be equally common in England,
although generally distributed there.

On the Continent it occurs in Scandinavia, Ger-
many, Hungary, Holland, France, Italy and Russia to-
the Ural Mountains.



3. TENTHREDO CORYLI.

Tenthredo coryli, Panz., F. G., Ixxi, fig. 8 ; Fab., S. P., 34, 22 ;
Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 182, 120;
Lep., Mon., 78,230; Htg.. Blattw.,
313, 57; Von Siebold, S. E. Z.,
1845,325; Andre, Species, i, 446 ;
Cat. 57,* 30.
? biguttata, Htg., Blattw., 313, 58.

Black ; four apical segments of the antennae more or less, two large
spots above posterior coxa3, clypeus, labmm, base of mandibles and
palpi, clear white; the three middle segments of abdomen testaceous-
red. Legs pale red, coxa3, trochanters, posterior femora, the anterior
more or leas, at the base and the joints of posterior tarsi annulated
with black ; anterior femora at the apex, tibiae and tarsi livid white.
Mesonotum and pleura? punctured, opaque. Wings hyaline, costa and
stigma pale fuscous.

The <J has the breast whitish-yellow the abdomen whitish yellow
beneath, with the first, second, eighth and ninth, and the base of the
others above black (teste Andre).

Length 5 5f lines.

The amount of black on the legs and the intensity
of the red colour on the legs and abdomen vary.

Easily known by the short, rather thick antennas,
the ninth joint of which is white throughout, and by
the red band on the middle of the abdomen.

Apparently a rare insect ; Stephens records it from
the London district. It does not occur in Scotland.

Germany, France, Holland, Switzerland, Hungary,.
Russia are the continental countries from which it has.
been recorded, and it is rare everywhere.



78 TENTHREDO COLON.

4. TENTHREDO COLON.
PL 1, fig. 9, larva.

Tenthredo colon, King, Berl. Mag., viii, 182, 121; Htg.,

Blattw., 312, 56; Evers., Bull.

Mosc., xx, 55, 38; Thorns., Hym.

Scand., i, 276, 12 ; Kalt., Pfl. 251 ;

Toll., Tidj. Ent., xviii, 4349, pi. 5

(lar. &c.); Cain., Fauna, 11, 2;

Andre, Species, i, 445 ; Cat., 57,*

27.
Allantus colon, Ste., 111., vii, 67, 29.

Black, shining ; sixth, seventh, eighth, and the greater part of the
ninth joint of antennae, mouth, and two spots over posterior coxae
white. Legs reddish, coxae, trochanters, and the posterior femora
sometimes black at the base and apex, posterior tarsi annulated with
black, anterior legs pale white in front. Abdomen black, red at the
apex (generally the three apical segments). Wings hyaline, costa pale
fuscous, stigma blackish-fuscous, tegulae red.

The $ has the seven apical abdominal segments red, all the femora
lined above with black, and the coxae below, trochanters, and extreme
base of femora whitish. In the only <? I have the two apical joints of
the antennae are white.

Length 4| 5 lines.

Among other differences colon may be known from
livida by the shorter, less excavated front, the antennal
joints are not so much produced at the apex, the sixth
being moreover quite white, and the tegulse are red-
dish. Compared with coryli it has the antennse longer,
and black at the extreme apex; the front is more
excavated, and the head more shining.

It is rather a variable species. The legs are some-
times quite red, with the base of the coxse and
trochanters white ; or the latter may be black, and a
shorter or longer black line over the femora ; the
tegulse vary from clear red to fuscous, and the number
of abdominal segments that may be red varies ; occa-
sionally, too, specimens are met with having the anal
segment blackish.

The larva has been described by Kaltenbach, and
by Yollenhoven, who has given good figures of the
larva and imago.

According to these observers the larva feeds during



TENTHREDO SOLITARTA. 79

September and October on Circcea lutetiana and on the
fuchsia. It feeds generally in the evening, devouring
the leaves, flower and fruit. The head is honey-
yellow, shortly and thinly pubescent, with a black spot
on the vertex, this spot being generally divided in
two. The body is pale brownish-yellow, marked above
with darker brown lines, proceeding from the centre
of the back to the sides in the direction of the tail,
there being also a dorsal line of the same colour.
The sides and legs are dirty white. On the second
segment is, on each side, a blackish mark. The whole
body is covered with numerous pointed, clear tubercles,
each ending in a hair. The cocoon is spun in the
earth, the imago making its appearance in May and
June.

It does not seem to be a common species in Britain.
Dr. Sharp has taken it in Scotland, at Thornhill, and
Stephens records it from the London district.

Its European distribution is wide, being found in
Sweden, Germany, Holland, Italy, Hungary, and
Russia (Casan district).



5. TENTHREDO SOLITARIA.

Tenthredo solitaria, Scop., Ent. Car., 281, 738 (1763). <J .

Schr., En., 326, 658 (1781) (in part) ; Vill.,
Lin., Ent., 51.

fagi, Pz., F. G., lii, fig. 14 ; King, Berl. Mag., viii,

186, 126; Htg., 312, 52; Evers., Bull.
Mosc., xx, 55, 36 ; Thorns., Hym. Scand.,
i, 276, 11.

pellucida, King, 1. c., 187, 127, <J; Htg., 1. c., 311,

51.

maura, Andre, Species, i, 462 ; Cat., 56,* 24.
Allantus solitarius, Ste., 111., vii, 66, 26.

Black, sliming; clypeus, labrum, mandibles, the sixth (except at
extreme base), seventh, and eighth apical joints of antennae, scutellum
and two large spots over posterior coxae, white. Legs : trochanter pale,
posterior femora almost wholly black, middle black above, pitchy
beneath, anterior black behind, whitish in front ; anterior tibia3 white
in front with a black line behind, middle black, for the greater part
pitchy-testaceous in front, posterior pair reddish between, except at
the apex, which is black ; anterior tarsi testaceous, whitish in front,
posterior black. Wings hyaline, costa and stigma fuscous, the latter



80 TENTHEEDO VELOX.

being darker in the middle. Vertex, shining, pubescent ; pleurae ancf
mesonotum almost opaque.

The $ has the four middle segments of the abdomen livid testaceous,
white in the middle above and beneath, and the anterior legs are of a
clearer white in front, while the posterior tibiae are lined with black
behind ; there is only one white spot over posterior coxae, and the wings:
are a little clouded at the apex.

Length 6| 7 lines.

The nearest ally of solitaria is perhaps T. albi-
cornis, F. (not a British species), but the latter is
readily known from it by having the three apical
joints of antennae entirely white, the fourth being
black, the clypeus and labrum are black and the
mandibles white, the scutellum black, while the tibise
and tarsi are testaceous. The $ of albicornis has a
distinct appendicular cellule in the posterior wing.

T. solitaria seems to be confined to the southern
counties in England, and is not uncommon in June
(on flowers according to Stephens) in the London
districts, Kent, Surrey, &c. It has a wide European
distribution, being found in Scandinavia, Holland,
Germany, France, Switzerland, Italy, and Russia, to
the Ural range.



Antennas short, third joint in part, and the succeeding joints
entirely underneath, and the apical altogether white. A single
spot over posterior coxae. Pronotum, tegulse, and abdomen
black. Legs reddish, black above. Mesonotum and pleurae
opaque, finely punctured. Stigma black (Species 6).

6. TENTHEEDO VELOX.
Plate VIII, fig. 6, c?.

Tenthredo velox, Fab., S. P., 34, 24; Klug, Berl. Mag., viii,
185, 123 ; Lep., Mon., Ill, 323 ; Htg.,
Blattw., 312, 54; Cam., Fauna, 11,
3; E. M. M., xvi, 248; Andre,
Species, i, 449 ; Cat., 56,* 23.
ab. Nigro-lineata, Cam., Sc. Nat., iv, 11.

Allantus Ste., 111., vii, 68, 32.

Black ; clypeus, labrum, and base of mandibles, a single spot over
posterior coxae, apex of the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth beneath, and
seventh, eighth, and ninth (except at extreme apex) entirely white.
Legs red, coxae and trochanters and base of femora, apex of posterior



TENTHREDO RUFIVENTRIS. 81

tibiae and tarsi, the anterior tibiae behind, and the joints of the tarsi in

Sart black ; anterior tibiae and tarsi livid white in front. Wings short,
yaline; costa and stigma black. Vertex and abdomen shining;
mesonotum opaque, punctured ; vertex finely punctured, shortly pilose.
Mandibles brownish at apex.

The 3 has the abdomen from the third segment red ; the whole of
the femora and the four anterior tibiae and tarsi are broadly lined with
black above. The antennae have all the apical joints black on the upper
side.
Length 4 5 lines.

Ab. Nigro-lineata, Cam. All the femora and the four
anterior tibise and tarsi broadly lined on the upper
surface with black. 9 and 3 .

The amount of black on the legs and of white on
the antennae varies a good deal.

The black body, reddish legs, and single white spot
over the posterior coxae, will serve to distinguish this
species, which is tolerably common in Scotland, from
the south to Sutherlandshire, but seems not to be so
common in England, where, according to Stephens, it
has been taken in Birch Wood.

The species does not apparently inhabit Scandinavia,
but is met with in Germany, Holland, Switzerland,
and Italy.



Antennae short, fifth, sixth, and seventh joints more or less
white. Eyes and pronotum marked with white. No white mark
over posterior coxae. Pleurae finely tuberculated, pilose. Eyes
small, not touching clypeus. Legs red, femora lined with black.
Abdomen shining, bronzy, mostly reddish (Species 7 and 8).

7. TENTHEEDO RUFIVENTRIS.

Tenihredo rufiventris, Pz., F. G., 65, fi. 5; Fab., Ent. S., ii,

116, 45; S. P., 33, 20; Fall.,
Acta Holm., 56, 12 ; Klug, Berl.
Mag., viii, 180, 118 ; Lep., F. Fr.,
pi. 4, fig. 3; Hon., 86, 245; Htg.,
Blattw., 313, 60 ; Thorns., Hym.
Scand., i, 277, 15 ; Cam., Fauna,
11, 5; Andre, Species, i, 456;
Cat., 56,* 22.

rufipennis, Fab., S. E., ii, 116, 45.

conspicua, Kl., Berl. Mag., viii, 180, 117; Htg.,

Blattw., 313, 61 ; Andre, Species,
i, 461 ; Cat., 56,* 21.
VOL. I. 6



82 TENTHREDO BUFIVENTEIS.

Allantus rufiventris, Ste., 111., vii, 65, 23.

conspicuus, Ste., 1. c., 65, 24.

laticinctus, Ste., 1. c., 65, 22.

Black ; face, mouth, inner orbits of the eyes, tegulse, a line on the
pronotum, fifth apical joint of the antennae partly, sixth and seventh
wholly white ; the two apical joints fuscous ; pleura?, breast, abdomen
for the most part and legs reddish; posterior coxas, four posterior
femora above, and anterior slightly at the base, black. Front strongly
punctured, brassy, shining, slightly pubescent; mesonotum opaque,
slightly punctured ; pleurse strongly and roughly punctured ; breast
covered with a very short pile. Abdomen shining, smooth, brassy.

The basal segment of the abdomen is always black, but the succeed-
ing segments vary in the intensity and amount of red which they
bear ; the pleurse are sometimes quite red, often there is only a faint
splash of that colour, the same being the case with the sternum ; the
white on the antennae varies in clearness, and the colour on the face
varies from white to reddish- white. The coloration of the coxse and
of the other parts of the legs varies also. The wings are almost
hyaline, but with a faint brownish tinge ; stigma pale testaceous. ?
and (?.

Length 5 6 lines.

This is a larger species than balteata. The tegulse
are white, the head and breast not so densely pubescent,
and more deeply punctured ; the pleurse are splashed
with red; the two last joints of antenna are fuscous,
the stigma pale testaceous, and the abdomen redder
and with a more bronzy tinge.

The aberration with only the two basal segments of
the abdomen black is the T. conspicua, Kl. The 3 is
rare compared to the other sex.

A tolerably common species, appearing in woods
during the latter part of June and in July. I have
taken it in the Glasgow districts, in Perthshire, Inver-
nessshire, Ross-shire, and Sutherlandshire ; have seen
specimens from Braemar, Berwickshire, and Dumfries-
shire, also from Newcastle (Bold), Norwich (Bridg-
man), London districts, Dorsetshire, Devonshire (Par-
fit t), Gloucester, and Worcester.

On the Continent it occurs in Scandinavia, Germany,
Holland, France, and Italy.



TENTHREDO BALTEATA. '83



8. TENTHREDO BALTEATA.

Tenthredo lalteata, King, Berl. Mag., viii, 181, 119; Htg.,

Blattw., 313, 59 ; Thorns., Hym.
Scand., i, 277, 14 ; Cam., Fauna,
11, 4 ; Brischke, Ent. Nacht.,
1880, 56 ; Andre, Species, i, 447 ;
Cat., 57,* 29.
soror, Zett, I. L.

Allantus lalteatm, Ste., 111., vii, 66, 25.

Black ; face with the inner orbits of the eyes, apex of fourth, the
fifth to ninth antennal joints beneath, and edge of pronotum white ;
abdomen beneath, and the second to the seventh and eighth above, with
the legs reddish. Femora lined with black above, cenchri large, dis-
tinct ; tegulae black. Wings hyaline ; costa and stigma pale fuscous,
the latter darkest. The vertex and mesonotum are opaque, punctured ;
vertex covered with a short grey pile, pleura slightly and breast densely
pubescent ; the face is sparsely covered with long hairs.

The has the tegulae white, the tibiae narrowly lined with black
above, the coxae and trochanters black only at extreme base and apex,
and the third joint at the apex and the whole of the fourth antennal joint
are white on the under side.

Length 5 5| lines.

The white on the face is often spotted with black
dots, and the red on the abdomen is frequently very
obscure. The larva, according to Brischke, feeds on
the bracken (Pteris aquilina).

One of the commonest species of the genus. It
appears in June and early in July, and abounds from
Devonshire to Thurso. Its continental distribution
is co-extensive with that of rufiventris.



Antennae black, moderately long. Eyes converging. Mouth
white. Pronotum black, or lined with white ; sometimes a white
mark over posterior coxae. Abdomen entirely black, or with the
middle segments red. Legs red, the posterior marked with
black. Posterior tarsi compressed and thickened (Species 3
to 14).



84 TENTHEEDO LACHLANIANA.

9. TENTHEEDO LACHLANIANA.
PI. VIII, fig. 1, ? ; la, antennas; 1&, head.

Tenthredo lachlaniana, Cam., Fauna, 12, 6 ; Andre, Species, i,

453; Gait., 56,* 16.

Black; mandibles, clypeus, labrum, inner orbits of the eyes; a
triangular spot between the antennae; tegulse, edge of the pronotum,
and two spots over the posterior coxse, whitish-yellow ; third, fourth,
and fifth abdominal segments red, as are also the apices of the four
anterior femora, and the tibiae and tarsi. The thorax is opaque, head
and abdomen shining. Wings hyaline ; costa and stigma pale fuscous.

What I regard as the $ has the antennae longer, the colour of the face
is the same, only the white is wider round the eyes. The legs are red,
same a black line over the femora, and the coxae in part behind. The
breast is reddish, and there are two yellow streaks on the pleurae ; the first
going from near the tegulae to the middle coxae, the second is short and
more curved in form, and nearly joins the first at its lower end. The
scutellum has two small yellow marks behind, and the abdomen is
entirely red beneath, black on part of the first and the two last
segments.

Length 5 6 lines.

This species is no doubt confounded with monilidta,
from which, however, it may be readily known by
having the inner orbits of the eyes and the posterior
femora quite black ; the markings on the head, thorax,
and abdomen are white, not yellow, and the posterior
tarsi and apex of tibige are not marked with black. In
rnoriiliata, too, the tegula3 are reddish, in the present
species white, which has also two marks over posterior
coxaB instead of one as in Klug's insect.

In one of my Scotch specimens the red abdominal
band is very obscure, and two others have only one
side of the pronotum white.

Three specimens were taken by myself at Rannoch,

in June, and another by Dr. Sharp at Braemar ; the

$ I took near Gloucester. I have also seen a German

specimen taken by Prof. Zeller, and Andre records

it from Finland and Switzerland.



TEXTHREDO MONILIATA. 85



10. TENTHREDO MONILIATA.

Tenthredo moniliata, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 205, 153; Htg.,
Blattw., 306, 27 ; Evers., Bull. Mosc.,
xx, 47, 15 ; Thorns., Hym. Scand., i,
275, 9; Andre, Species, i, 458; Cat.,
55,* 10.

Black ; clypeus, labrum, palpi, mandibles, a line on pronotum and a
mark over the posterior coxae yellowish-white, the three or four middle
segments of the abdomen and legs red; the coxae, trochanters, pos-
terior femora above, the apex of posterior tibiae and the greater part of
posterior tarsi, black ; tegulae reddish, or reddish-white. Wings hyaline,
costa and stigma fuscous. Abdomen long, cylindrical, a third longer
than head and thorax. $.

Length 6 6 lines.

This species shows considerable variation in the
size of the abdominal ring as well as in the quantity
of black on the femora. T. plebeja, KL, differs from
innniliata in having the legs entirely reddish. As it
has red tegulae I suspect it is only a variety of the
latter. T. trabeata, Kl., is readily known by having
the three middle abdominal segments red above and
yellow at the sides, while the anterior tibia3 are white
in front and the hinder pair wholly white, except a
narrow ring at base and apex. The femora are, for
the greater part, black.

Thomson describes the of moniliata as being
similar to the ? , but this is, I think, doubtful. I
believe the $ of moniliata is T. poecila (Klug), Evers.,
Bull. Mosc. xx, 48, 17. Eversmann describes moni-
li'it.a, ? , and poecila differs from it and agrees with
the c? of lachlaniana exactly in the same points in
which moniliata ? agrees with and differs from
lachlaniana ? ; that is to say, there is only one spot
over the hind coxae, and the mouth only is white.
Otherwise poecila differs from lachlaniana $ in having
only the front femora lined with black, and there is
only one yellow line on the pleurse.

Seemingly rare. Taken by Mr. McLachlan at
Aberlady in June.



86 TENTHREDO DISPAE.

Continental distribution : Tyrol, Germany, Sweden,
Eussia.



11. TENTHBEDO DISPAR.
PL XVI, fig. 1, Saw.

Tentkredo dispar, King, Berl. Mag., viii, 206, 154; Htg.,

Blattw.,-306, 27; Evers., Bull.
Mosc., xx, 13, 47 ; Cam., P. N.
H. S., Glas., iii, 89 (la.) ; E. M.
M., xiii, 198; Cam., Fauna, 12,
8 ; Andre, Species, i, 454 ; Cat.,
55 * 8.
atra, Thorns., Hym. Scand., i, 274, 1 (in part).

Allantus dispar, Ste., 111., vii, 68, 34.

Black ; clypeus, labrum, mandibles, a line on the pronotum, and a
spot over the posterior coxae white; legs red; coxse, sometimes the
trochanters, apical third of posterior tibise and tarsi black. Tegulse
reddish, frequently black; palpi pale testaceous. Antennae scarcely
the length of abdomen, middle joints not thicker than the third and
fourth, the apical thinner. Head densely covered with short hair;
mesonotum and pleurae opaque, alutaceous. Head and abdomen
shining. Wings hyaline, apical half of costa testaceous; stigma
black.

The <? has the white band on pronotum broader, there is a white line
below the eye; the 2 5 abdominal segments are reddish, femora
banded with black above, and the posterior tibiae have only the basal
third reddish.

Length 5 5 lines.

There is sometimes a pale streak in front of anterior
legs ; the trochanters and base of femora are often more
or less black, and posterior tibiae nearly all black ;
pronotum devoid of white, and the tegulaa vary from
red (the normal colour) to black, while there may be
one or two marks over the posterior coxa?.

The larva I have found in July and August feeding
on Scabiosa succisa. It has the head black, except
the face, which, with the sides, is green ; the eye spots
black, or rather they are placed in the black coloured
part of the head. The body is dark green, the folds
of the skin being marked with black, and across the
back there are darker green stripes proceeding from the



TENTHREDO SCOTICA. 87

edges to the centre, but still remaining apart ; below
the spiracles the sides are of a lighter green colour, and
the legs are similarly coloured. Across the skin there
are whitish raised clots there being two rows of these
to each segment and on the head are a few scattered
hairs. Length 13 14 lines.

When alarmed or touched in any way, it rolls itself
up into a ball, and ejects a brownish liquid from the
mouth. When full fed it becomes of a glassy light
green colour, and pupates in the earth without spinning
a cocoon (at any rate in my breeding box). It simply
formed a hole neatly smoothed on the inner side in the
earth.

Dispar I find everywhere in Scotland. The only
English locality I know is that mentioned by Stephens,
Darenth Wood, where it is said to be common. On
the Continent it is found in Scandinavia, Germany,
France, Switzerland, Hungary, and Russia.



12. TENTHREDO SCOTICA.
PL XVI, fig. 2, Saw.

Tentliredo scotica, Cam., E. M. M., xviii, 193 (1882).

Black ; clypeus, labrum, a line round the lower part of the eye, one
on the pronotum, two spots over the posterior co~s.se, the apical three-
fourths of the under side of the front coxae, and an irregular spot on
the apex of the two hinder ones, white. Legs with the coxse for the greater
part black, the rest pale yellow save the extreme apex of the hinder
tibiae and the tarsi, which are dull fuscous. Wings almost hyaline,
costa dull red ; stigma black. $ .

Length 5f lines.

Similar to dispar in size and form, but having
(apparently) the antennas and metatarsus shorter, the
head more opaque and punctured, and otherwise dif-
fering in the colour of the face and legs. The saw
also differs. Bare, taken near Dumfries in June.



TENTHEEDO ATRA.



13. TENTHREDO ATRA.
PI. VIII, fig. 5. PI. XVI, fig. 3, Saw.

Tenthredo atra, Lin., F. Sv., 1554 ; S. N., ed. xii, 924, 26 ; Geof.,
Ins., ii, 283, 24 ; Pz., P. G., 52, t. 7,
65, t. 7 ; Fab., E. S., ii, 117, 49 ; S. P.,
34, 26; Lep., Mon., 80, 237; Spin.,
Ins. Lig., i, 57; King, Berl. Mag.,
viii, 207, 155 ; Lep., Mon., 80, 237 ;
Htg., Blattw., 306, 25; Evers., Bull.
Mosc., xx, 47, 12 ; Thorns., Opus., 303,
4 ; Hym. Scand., i, 274, 7 (in part) ;
Andre, Species, i, 440 ; Cat., 55,* 2.
fuscipes, Gmel., S. N., v, 2667.

Allanlus ater, Ste., 111., vii, 68, 33.

Black ; mouth white, legs reddish, apex of posterior tibiae and tarsi
black. Wings hyaline, apex of costa reddish ; stigma black ; tegulse
reddish.

The $ has abdomen generally 2 5 segments broadly red, and the
femora lined with black.

Length 5 6 lines.

Atra bears a very considerable resemblance to dispar
from the darker varieties of which it is not always
easy to separate; Generally it may be distinguished
from dispar by the absence of white on the pronotum
and over the posterior coxse, the wider, if not so deep,
incision in the clypeus, and the apex of the posterior
tibiae not being so largely marked with black. The 3
has only the posterior femora lined with black, while
that of dispar has the tibiae also marked with black.

The imago is stated by Hudow (Stett., Ent. Zeit.,
xxxii, 386) to lay its eggs in the thick midrib of the
leaves of the alder, and Dours (Cat. Syn., 23) says
that the larva lives on the gooseberry and willow, but
this is probably merely a conjecture on his part.

It is stated also by Andre to feed on the alder
during July and August. He describes it as having
the body obscure green marked with black in the folds



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