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of the skin, and there are also two rows of whitish
tubercles on each segment ; the back is marked with
splashes of a more obscure green, the sides and the


lower part are of a clearer green ; the head is black,
with the face and sides green. At the last moult the
whole body becomes of a pale vitreous green. As usual
it pupates in the earth.

Atra does not seem to be very common. I have
three Scotch examples, one from Rannoch, one from
Braemar, and another from Altnaharra, Sutherland-
shire. In England it occurs at Worcester, Devonshire,
and Stephens mentions Darenth and Coombe Woods
as habitats, while I have a specimen from the South
of Ireland.

Its continental distribution is very general, being
found in Scandinavia, Germany, Holland, France,
Switzerland, Italy, and Russia.

Obs There are certain species related to atra not yet found in
Britain which may be here mentioned, the more especially as some of
them are perhaps only varieties of atra or dispar. T. procera, Kl., is a
good species. It has the same coloration as dispar, that is to say, with
white, or rather red, on pronotum and over posterior coxae ; but it may
be at once distinguished by its greater size, longer wings, and much
longer and thinner antennae. T. rufipes, Kl., is probably only a variety
of dispar, with the posterior tibiae and tarsi reddish. T. caligaior
(Klug), Evers. (Bull. Mosc., xx, 47, 14), appears only to differ from atra
in its larger size, about a line over the normal size of atra.

It may be added that all the forms have frequently
the mouth spotted with brown or black, while the
amount of black on the base of the legs and tarsi and
tibiae varies a good deal.


Tenthredo mandibularis, Pz., F. G-., xcviii, fig. 9 ; Fab., S. P.,

34, 27 ; Klug, Berl. Mag., viii,
208, 158 ; Lep., Mon., 112, 325 ;
Htg., Blattw., 305, 22 ; Andre,
Species, i, 440 ; Cat., 55,* 3.

Allantus mandibularis , Ste., 111., vii, 69, 35.

Black ; mandibles, and a spot over the posterior coxae white ; four
anterior legs red, except at base ; half shining, pleurae opaque, dis-
tinctly punctured ; antennae longer than the abdomen, the middle joints
thickened. Wings hyaline, very slightly suffused with yellow ; costa
pale reddish ; stigma black. Posterior spurs pale. ? and $ .

Length 6 lines.


Easily known from all the other species of the
genus by the longish antennae, thickened in the
middle, and by the black posterior legs and mouth.

It is not a common species, and appears to be
confined to the southern countries. Stephens records
it from Darenth Wood, and Mr. C. W. Dale tells me
that he has it from the New Forest.

It is found in Germany, Sweden (according to Dahl-
bom, but Thomson does not mention it), Denmark,
France, and Switzerland.

Antennae black, the sixth, seventh, and eighth joints thick-
ened. Mouth, abdomen, and legs marked with yellow. Meso-
notum shining; scutellum raised, oval; pleurae half shining,
finely punctured in the middle, pilose. Abdomen cylindrical.
Clypeus not very deeply incised. (Species 15 and 16).

PI. VIII, fig. 2, c? ; 2 a, claws ; 2 b, face.

Tenthredo maculata, Fourc., E. P., ii, 6 ; Andre, Species, i, 459,

Cat., 57,* 36.

zonata, Pz., F. G., Ixiv, fig. 2 ; Lep., Hon., 74, 222 ;

Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 133;
Htg., Blattw, 310, 47 ; Evers.,
Bull. Mosc., xx, 53, 30; Cam.,
Fauna, 13, 10.

cincta, Schaef, Icon., 56, fig. 2.

equestris, Pz., F. G., cvii, fig. 6.

succincta, Don., B. E., xiii, 17, pi. 441, fig. 2.
latizona, Lep., F. FT., pi. 3, fig. 4 ; Mon., 74, 223.
unifasciata, Fourc., E. P., ii, 7.

Allantus zonatus, Ste., 111., vii, 64, 20.

Black ; shining, somewhat pilose, clypeus, labrum, mandibles, palpi,
edge of pronotum, tegulse and scutellum, yellow. Legs yellow ; coxae,
femora, and apices of the tibiae and basal joint of the posterior tarsi
black. Abdomen black, fourth, fifth, and the ninth segment at its apex,
pale yellow. Wings hyaline, faintly clouded at the apex, costa and
stigma black.

The $ is pale yellow, with the head (except the mouth), meso- (ex-
cept scutellum) and metathorax, a mark over the basal abdominal seg-
ment, the apical abdominal segments, and a line over the femora,
tibiae, and tarsi black, the black on the anterior femora being only over
the apical third and that on the middle pair on the apical half. The
line over the tarsi is somewhat interrupted. The tarsi are covered on
underside with close, thickly-pressed hair.

Length 6 7 lines.


This insect is known from licincta by its much
larger size, yellow scutellum, anal segment having
only a very small patch of yellow, the yellow posterior
tarsi, there being only a black band on the apex of the
metatarsus ; the clypeus is not so deeply notched,
patellae are much more strongly developed, antennas
are longer in proportion, and not so much thickened
at the apex, and the pubescence on the head is much
longer and thicker.

The coloration in the ? is tolerably constant, but
in the 3 it varies considerably, especially on the
thorax and legs ; in some individuals only the sternum
is black, while in others the pleurae are more or less
of that colour ; so also the femora may be either quite
black or with only a slight irregular black line, and
the abdomen may be entirely yellow or with a black
patch at the base and apex. The tibiae, too, vary in
the same way as the femora.

Maculata does not seem to be a very common insect.
I have taken it on oak near Glasgow ; it is met with
in Darenth Wood, and some other metropolitan situa-
tions, also in Devonshire. It is found towards the
end of June and beginning of July.

Nothing definite is known about the larva, although
Dours (Cat. Syn., 24) says that it feeds on the oak.

It occurs in Germany, Hungary, France, Switzer-
land, Italy, and Kussia.


Tenthredo licinda, Lin., S. N., 9, 25, 31 ; Fallen, Acta Holm.,
1808, 52, 8 ; Klug, Berl. Mag., viii,
191, 134; Htg., 310, 46; Evers.,
Bull. Mosc., xx, 53, 29; Thorns.,
Opus, 303, 2 ; Hym. Scand., i, 272, 2 ;
Cam., Fauna, 13, 11 ; Andre, Spe-
cies, i, 442; Cat., 57,* 37.

cincta, Pz., F. G., Ixiv, fig. 2; Fab., S. P., 29, 3 ; Lep.,

F. Fr., pi. 5, fig. 3 ; Hon., 91, 263.

vaga, Fab., S. P., 37, 41.

semicinda, Scbr., En., 331, 665.
Allantus cinctus, Ste., 111., vii, 64, 19.


Black ; pilose, clypeus, labrum, base of mandibles, second, third at
the side above, and the three apical abdominal segments more or less
above, yellow. Legs yellow, base of coxae, femora, apical third of pos-
terior tibiae and the tarsi black. Wings hyaline, clouded at the extreme
apex, costa and stigma black. Pleurae opaque, pilose, front smooth,

The ( has the body beneath and the sides yellow, so also are the
coxae and the legs underneath ; the hinder tibiae are black throughout

Length 5 5| lines.

The antennas have the five apical joints distinctly
thickened and shaped not unlike those of Allantus.
The four anterior legs have generally the coxae and
trochanters black, and the femora have a yellow line ;
but it is rather a variable species in this respect.

Possibly its nearest ally is T. trabeata, Kl. (which
is not British), which differs from it in having a broad
reddish band, white at the sides, on the middle of the
abdomen, the tegulae and a line on the pronotum
yellow ; the antennae are not thickened at the apex,
while the four anterior tibiae and tarsi have a black
line behind, and the posterior tarsi are only annulated
with black.

Bicincta is not uncommon in woods (frequenting
flowers, according to Stephens) at the end of May, in
June, and beginning of July. It is found near
Glasgow, in Berwickshire, Newcastle, Manchester,
Worcester, Gloucester, Devonshire, Glanvilles' Woot-
ton, in the metropolitan neighbourhood, at Dover and

It is extensively spread over Europe, inhabiting
Scandinavia, Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Holland,
France, Switzerland, Tyrol, and Russia.

Body for the greater part black above, green at the sides and
beneath ; legs lined with black above. Antennae short, black,
thickened at apex. Clypeus slightly emarginated. Stigma
black. Mesonotum opaque, strongly punctured. (Species 17
and 18).



Tenthredo mesomela, Lin., F. S., 1549 <? ; Fall., Acta, 1808, 98 y
28 ; Thorns., Hym. Scand., i, 272, 4 ;
Cam., P. N. H. S., Glas., iii, 90; E.
M. M., xii, 199 (laiO ; Fauna, 13, 13 ;
Andre, Species, i, 460 ; Cat., 58,* 48.

viridis, King, Berl. Mag., viii, 191, 135 (nee viridis,

Lin.) ; Htg., 310, 45 ; Evers., Bull.
Mosc., xx, 52, 28.

interrupta, Lep., Moil., 86, 249, F. Fr., pi. 4, fig. 5.

hebraica, Fourc., E. P., ii, 363.

marginata, Christ., Hym., 438.

scalaris, Thorns., Opus., 303, 3.
Allantus viridis, Ste., 111., vii, 69, 37.

Antennae black, shorter than the abdomen ; basal joint nearly three
times the length of the second ; fifth, sixth, and seventh slightly thick-
ened ; ninth oblong, thinner and shorter than the eighth. Head black,
shining, finely punctured, covered with a longish pale down ; face from
below the antennal fovea, as well as the lower parts of the orbits of the
eyes, greenish -white ; mandibles blackish, palpi greenish ; antenna
fovea deep, oblong ; clypeus roundly emarginated. Mesonotum black,
opaque, deeply punctured ; tegulae, pronotum, pleurae, sternum, scutel-
lum, post-scutellum, and a spot behind, greenish- white ; pleurae marked
with a black oblique line ; pleural sutures black ; scutellum smooth,
shining, raised; cenchri small. Legs greenish- white ; femora and
tibiae above, posterior tarsi and apex of tibiae almost entirely, and the
joints of anterior tarsi annulated with, black ; calcaria black, pale at
the base. Wings hyaline, the apex somewhat fuscescent, costa and
stigma black. Abdomen longer than the head and thorax ; the dorsal
surface, except at the sides, black, the juncture of the segments, and
blotch, sides and belly greenish -white. Sheath projecting, hairy, its
apex black.

c? smaller ; there is only a somewhat triangular black mark on each
of the abdominal segments, and the whole of the legs are lined with
black above throughout. Sometimes the abdomen has the dorsal surface
entirely black.

Length 5 6 lines.

This insect has frequently been confounded with
T. viridis, from which it may be easily distinguished
by its black antenna, more strongly punctured
mesonotum, black stigma, and shorter and thicker
antenna3. The same well-marked characters separate
it from the much smaller T. picta.

The larva feeds in the autumn months on various
species of Ranunculus, Heracleum, and, I think also,
on Veronica. When at rest it lies rolled up in a ball


on the underside of the leaf, from which it drops to
the ground on the slightest approach of danger ; and
it ejects from the mouth a dirty brownish liquid when
alarmed. It eats irregular holes in the centre of the
leaves, and more rarely along the sides. Its head is
deep shining black ; mouth parts pale ; upper parts of
the body deep black ; the lower part of the sides pale,
spotted irregularly with brown. Legs white, claws
black. The skin is covered with small white tubercles,
each ending in a short hair. When full fed it becomes
olive green. It pupates in the earth, forming a cocoon
of the earth. Length 12 lines.

The perfect insect is found everywhere, from Orkney
southwards, during June and July on the flowers of
Compositce, Ranunculus, &c. It is very carnivorous.

It abounds from Scandinavia to Italy and the Ural


Tenthredo obsoleta, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 192, 135; Htg.,
Blattw., 310, 44 ; Thorns., Hym. Scand.,
i, 272, 4; Cam., Fauna, 13, 12; Evers.,
Bull. Mosc., xx, 52, 27 (??); Andre,
Species, i, 454, Cat., 58,* 46.

Black ; clypeus, labrum, two spots above antennae, tegulse, edge of
pronotum, two lines on pleurae, scutellum, two small marks behind it,
the abdomen beneath and at the sides greenish- white. Legs greenish-
white ; a line on coxae, a line over the femora, tibiae and tarsi black ; the
anterior tarsi have only the apices of the joints black. Antennae not
much longer than the head and thorax ; vertex densely covered with long
hairs ; mandibles piceous -black. Wings sub-hyaline, scarcely darkened
at the apex ; costa and stigma black, the former being pale at the ex-
treme base ; the latter paler on the lower side.

The $ I have not seen, but it is stated by Thomson to be similarly
marked to the female.

Length 5 lines.

Very like mesomela, but differs in having the pleurae
and sternum black, except one or two green splashes
on the former ; antennae much shorter and thicker at
the apex, the last joint being shorter in proportion to
the eighth ; wings are clearer and scarcely darker at
the apex than at the base ; the whole insect, too, is


shorter and of a slighter build. The part of the head
above the clypeus is black except two small green
marks above the antennas.

From T. arctic a, Thorns, (which is not British), it
may be known by the completely green scutellum;
artica having also the posterior tarsi largely white
beneath, the pleura? black, and breast green behind.

Obsoleta seems to be much rarer than mesomela, but
probably it will be confounded with that species. I
have only seen one or two specimens from Fossil
Marsh, near Glasgow.

The only continental localities I have noted are
Lapland, Silesia, Gottengen, and Russia, if Eversrnann
be correct.

Body olive-^reen, slightly marked with black above. Antennae
and legs lined with black on the upper side. Antennae long,
not thickened at apex. Eyes converging, not reaching to base
of mandibles. Clypeus deeply incised. Thorax smooth,
shining. (Species 19).


Tenthredo olivacea, King, Berl. Mag., viii, 193, 137 ; Htg.,
Blattw., 309, 42 ; Thorns., Hym. Scand., i,
273,6; Cam., Fauna, 13, 14; Andre,
Species, i, 459 ; Cat., 58,* 45.

Pale olive-green, antennae above, some lines on the vertex, sutures of
the mesonotum, a line in the centre of the front lobe of the same, and
at the sides in front of metanotum, one on the upper part of the legs
and the dorsum of abdomen black. Antennae as long as the abdomen,
thin ; apices of the mandibles brownish-black ; vertex slightly hairy ;
mesonotum finely punctured, and covered with a very short pile. Saw
large, projecting, extreme apex of sheath black. Wings hyaline, costa
and stigma greenish ; nervures black. The anterior tarsi only annu-
lated with black. $ and ? .

Length 5 5 6 J lines.

Ab. Dorsum of abdomen without any black.

The black markings on the antenna, head, thorax,
and abdomen vary in intensity.

Easily known from the other green species of
Tenthredo by the olive-green colour. From punctulata
and scalaris it may also be readily separated by the


black on the posterior tarsi being continuous, while
the other two species have the joints annulated.

A very common species in the north, but does not
seem to occur farther south than the midland counties
of England. In Scotland I usually capture it on birch,
and have taken it at an elevation of upwards of 2000

It is met with in the middle and south of Sweden,
in Silesia, Austria, and France.

SECTION 2. Mesonotum smooth, unpunctured. Humeral
cellule in hind ivings appendiculated. . Cheeks distinct.

Green, marked witli black. Antennae long, thin, lined with black
above. Clypeus deeply emarginated. Stigma green or pale.
Legs lined with black above. (Species 20 22).


Tenthredo punctulata, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 185, 139; Htg.,

Blattw., 309, 40 ; Kalt., Pfl. 431
and 582, Cam., Fauna, 13, 15.

Allantus punctulatus, Ste., 111., vii, 69, 36.

Perineura punctulata, Thorns., Hym. Scand., i, 270, 11 ; Andre,

Species, i, 437, Cat., 52,* 2.

Green; antenna on the upper side, the sutures on vertex; sutures
of the head behind ; sutures of mesonotum and pleurae ; a row of small
dots (two to each segment) along the edge of the abdomen above, the
sheath at the apex, a narrow line on upper side of femora, tibiae and
joints of the tarsi at their apices, as well as the apex of posterior tibiae
all round, black. Antennae filiform. Wings hyaline ; costa and stigma
green. The mandibles are brown at the apex ; the vertex pilose. <J
and ?.

Length 4^ 5^ lines.

Ab. Apical half of the abdomen blackish above.

Easily known from viridis by the greenish abdomen
with the black lateral spots, the smaller black marks
on the head and mesonotum, less projecting front and
thinner antennae.

The larva, according to Kaltenbach, is 8 10'" long,
green, bare, with a yellowish head. It rests in Sep-


tember on and under the leaves of the ash, in which it
devours holes. Elsewhere* in his book the same
author says that Letzner found the larvse on the
Biesengeberge at an elevation of 4000', on bushes of
Salix limosa, the leaves of which they destroyed.
They fed also on Salix aurita and 8. silesiaca.

The pupa state is passed in the ground.

Punctulata is more or less abundant everywhere in

Continental distribution : Sweden, France, Holland,
Switzerland, Germany, Italy.

PI. VIII, fig. 4, Saw.

Tenthredo mridis, Lin., S. N., Ed. xii, 924, 27 ; Fab., S. E., ii, 113,

Pz., F. G., Ixiv, fig. 2 ; Don., B. E., xiii, 23, pi.

444; Lep. Hon., 85, 247.

scalaris, KL, Berl. Mag., viii, 194, 138 ; Htg., Blattw.,

309, 41 ; Evers., Bull.Mosc., xx, 51, 25 ;

Cam., Fauna, 13, 16; Stein, Ent.

Nacht.,vi, 248 (lar.).
Perineura viridis, Thorns., Hym. Sc., i, 269, 9; Andre, Species,

i, 437, pi. xxi, fig. 4, 5, and 11 ; Cat.,

52,* 4.

Perineura scalaris, Thorns., Hym. Scand., i, 269, 10.
Allantus scalaris, Ste., 111., vii, 70, 38.

Green, with a yellowish tinge ; antennae on the upper side ; an oblong-
oval mark on the vertex, surrounding the ocelli, with two small green
marks in its centre ; mesonotum, with the exception of two pairs of
green marks in front; scutellum, a line in front of post-scutellum; a
small mark behind cenchri ; abdomen broadly in the centre, a line above
the femora and tibiae, apex of tibiae, and of the joints of tarsi black.
Mandibles green, black at the apex. Wings hyaline, nervures fuscous
black, stigma and costa green.

<? similar, but with the green marks on the mesonotum wider, the
black band on the abdomen much thinner and interrupted, and antennae

Length 5 6 lines.

A species very variable in coloration, especially in
the relative amount of black with which it is marked.

* Under the name of pundata, presumedly a mistake.
VOL. I. 7


An aberration is sometimes seen with the abdomen
entirely green.

Not unlike T. picta, but much larger ; the mark on
the vertex is much smaller and distinctly separated ;
the green marks on the mesonotum are larger ; there
is a pair in front of the scutellum and behind it which
are not found in picta ; the black band on the abdomen
is narrower, there is no black on sternum, the tarsal
joints are only annulated with black; and the radial
nervure is always received not far from the middle of
the third cellule, never interstitial.

One of our commonest species, appearing in June
and July; often met with on Umlelliferce, which they
frequent more for the purpose of killing other insects
than to eat the pollen.

The larva is described by Stein as having a dirty
olive-green body, varied with a series of darker or
clearer spots, and bearing on each segment two trans-
verse series of tubercles ; the head is greyish-green,
obscured with black, and pilose. It lives from
August to October on the leaves of sundry willows
(Salix alba, vitellina, &c.), eating from the edge of the
leaf to the midrib, and only during the night. It
pupates in the earth. Dours (Cat., 23) says that it
feeds also on birch.

Viridis is probably one of the widest distributed
species in the genus, being found all over the Palee-
arctic region including Japan.

06s. Thomson (1. c.) separates T. viridis, L., from T. scalaris, Klug,
by the greater extension of the black colour on the vertex, mesonotum
and dorsum of abdomen, by its shorter antennae, less developed patellae,
and by the suture of meso-pleurse being lined with black. I have never
been able to distinguish two forms, and thought at one time (as did
also van Vollenhoven) that Thomson's viridis was picta> Klug, but he
gives the same size to viridis as scalaris, while the latter is a couple of
lines larger. In the Linnean Collection viridis is represented by two
specimens^ a ? picta and a $ scalaris.


PI. VIII, fig. 7, j .

Tenthredo picta, Klug,Berl. Mag., viii, 195, 140; Htg., Blattw.,
309, 39 ; Evers., Bull. Mosc., xx, 51,

Perineura picta, Andre, Species, i, 435 ; Cat., 52,* 4.

Allantus pictus, Ste., 111., vii, 39, 70,

Tenthredo viridis, Cam., Fauna, 14, 17.

seesana, Rudow, S. E. Z., 1871, 388.

Pale green ; antennas a little sliorter than the abdomen, black, pale
green beneath, except with the second joint which is entirely black.
Head black, face from above the antennas, inner orbits of the eyes to
near the ocelli, where it (the green mark) terminates in a club-shaped
mark on each side ; two spots above the antennae, connected with the face,
and the outer orbits of the eyes to near the top, light green ; covered
with a longish, whitish pile except on the vertex ; mandibles brownish -
red ; palpi pale green. Mesonotum black ; two pairs of spots, one behind
the other, green. Pronotum, pleura and sternum (except a brown-black
mark on its centre) light green. Scutellum, post-scutellum and cenchri
of the same colour. Legs green, a black line over the femora, tibiae and
tarsi, and the apex of the tibia all round, black. Sometimes the tarsi
are entirely black. Wings hyaline, iridescent, stigma green, generally
fuscous at the apex ; transverse radial nervure interstitial, or received
in the fourth cubital cellule. Abdomen black above except at the edges ,
apex, and junction of the segments, which as well as the belly, are green.
The ventral segments are irregularly spotted with black. ? and .

Length 3| 3 lines.

The larva according to Andre is greenish-yellow,
with black legs (claws?), and the skin covered with
brown, hair bearing tubercles. It feeds on the alder,
on the leaves of which the ? lays her eggs on the

Easily known by its small size (for the group), black
head, and broad black band on breast.

Not very common, appearing in marshy places in

I have seen specimens from Sutherlandshire, Brae-
mar, Glasgow, Worcester, Glanvilles' Wootton, and the
London districts. Stephens gives Darenth Wood and
Dover as localities.

It is found in Sweden, Germany and Eussia.

Ols.It may be noted that the green colour in the costa and stigma
is very fleeting, and hence the stigma is frequently quite white, white


often the dissolved green colour spreads over the neighbouring parts of
the wing.

Antennae short, pale on the underside, stigma pale at the base,
clypeus truncated at the apex. Abdomen banded with red.
Legs reddish. Hinder tarsi shorter than tibiae ; cubital and
recurrent nervures in hind wings straight. Body small.
(Species 23 and 24.)


Tenthredo lateralis, Fab., S.E., ii, 118, 71 ; S. P., 35, 29; Pz., F.
G., Ixxxviii, fig. 16 ; Lep., Mon., 79,
233 ; Fall., Acta, 1808, 100, 31 ; Kl.,
Berl. Mag., viii, 212, 167; Htg.,
Blattw., 304,17 ; Evers,, Bull. Mosc.,
xx, 46, 10 ; Cam., Fauna, 14, 19.

Allantus Ste., 111., vii, 71, 41.

Perineum Thorns., Opus., 302, 6 ; Hym. Scand., i, 268,
7; Andre, Species, i, 417, Cat.,
53,* 17.

Body short, black, shining, inner orbits of the eyes, tegulae, pronotum
and abdomen at the sides, yellowish-white ; the third, fifth, and part of
sixth abdominal segments above, and legs reddish. Antennae as long
as the abdomen, above black, underneath pale testaceous. Head pilose
in front. Trochanters yellowish-white; extreme apex of posterior tibiae
and tarsi black ; anterior tarsi fuscous. Wings hyaline, costa testaceous ;
stigma fuscous; the third cubital cellule not much longer than the

The $ has the face from below the antennae, the belly, and thorax
beneath, yellow, with a black mark on the pleurae, and the legs are lined
above with black. Sometimes, too, the orbits of the eyes are pale behind.

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