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The third cubital cellule seems to be shorter than in the ? . I have one
specimen from Braemar with the costa and stigma yellowish -white, and
the dorsum of abdomen of the same colour, with a pale brown mark on
each segment. The line on the legs too is very narrow.

Length 3| lines.

A common species in May and early in June, gene-
rally among herbage. I have often seen it on Veronica.
I have examined specimens from Clydesdale, Man-
chester, Gloucester, Worcester, Glanvilles' Wootton,
Devonshire, London district, and Norwich. Stephens
records it from Bristol.

It abounds in Scandinavia, Germany, Holland,
France, Switzerland, Hungary, Italy, and Russia.


PL VIII, fig. 8, ? .

Tenthredo gibbosa, Fall., Acta, 1808, 64, 26.

aucuparia, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 202, 168; Htg.,


juvenilis, Lep., F. Fr., pi. 6, fig. 5 ; Mon., 99, 279.

gibbosa, Cam., Fauna, 14, 18.
Allantus aucuparite, Ste., 111., vii, 71, 42.
Perineum gibbosa, Thorns., Opus., 302, 5.

solitaria, Thorns., Hym. Scand., i, 268, 8; Andre,

Species, i, 418 ; Cat., 53,* 18.

Black, shining; pronotum and tegula3 yellowish-white, the three or
four middle segments of the abdomen and legs reddish, coxae, tro-
chanters, apex of posterior femora, tibiae and tarsi black. Antennae
testaceous on the underside ; labrum and palpi white. Wings hyaline,
costa and stigma fuscous, pale at the base; the tr. radial neryure is
received near the middle of the cellule, or a very little beyond it ; the
third cubital cellule is longer than the second.

The 6 has the femora lined above with black.

Length 3| lines.

Distinguished from lateralis by the absence of the
white lateral band on the abdomen, by the legs being
black at the base, the eyes not surrounded with white ;
the third cubital cellule distinctly longer than the
second, and by the tr. radial nervure being received
near the middle of the cellule. With the <? it is only
the femora that are lined with black above and the
pleurae and breast are not white.

This species is equally common with lateralis, and
makes its appearance about the same time. It is found
in Braemar, Clydesdale, Berwickshire, Worcester,
Devonshire, the new Forest, Darenth and Coombe
Woods, Norwich.

On the Continent it has been recorded from Scan-
dinavia, Germany, Holland, France, Switzerland, Italy,
Tyrol, and Hungary.



Tenthredopsis, Costa, Fauna di Napoli, 98 (1861).

Tenthredo, Auct.

Perineum, Thorns., Andre, in part.

Wings : lanceolate cellule with a very short perpendicular nervure ;
accessory nervure in posterior wing appendiculated. In the male the
transverse nervures in the posterior wings are usually situated along
the outer edge of the wing, all being united together with the accessory
nervure, so that thus there are no middle cellules. This arrangement,
however, is not always constant, the transverse cubital especially being
seldom out of its normal position in the centre of the cellule.

Antenna long, filiform, the third and fourth joints subequal.

Clypeus truncated at the apex, seldom incised.

The mandibles are weak, with only one short subapical tooth. The
body is longish, smooth, shining, impunctate, except very rarely on the
pleurse. On the thorax the scutellum and post-scutellum are always
white. The blotch is never present.

The species of Tenthredopsis are very similarly
marked; the ground colour differs in being black or
yellow ; but whatever it may be there are (so far as I
know) some white markings on the mesonotum, and
the stigma is either of two colours, white at the apex,
black or fuscous at the base, or entirely white. "When
the ground colour is black the abdomen has, as a rule,
the apex, or the middle, marked with red ; the general
colour of the legs being also red. All the species are
very variable in coloration ; so variable, indeed, that by
Klug and Hartig they were all regarded as varieties of
one species which the former author named instabilis.

The separation of the species is difficult owing to
their great uniformity in form and sculpture, and the
consequent difficulty of finding structural characters of
any importance which can be used in specific discrimi-
nation. In the form of the saw we have an excellent
character for separating the females, but it is difficult
of examination and fails us with the males. Much
remains to be done in the way of assigning the males
to their proper partners; while we are completely
ignorant of the earlier stages of all the species.

I do not know if the species of Tenthredopsis occur
beyond the European subregion of the Paleearctic


Synopsis of species.

1 (27) Body for the greater part black.

2 (5) Abdomen red at the apex.

3 (4) Legs entirely red. Cordata.

4 (3) Hind legs for the greater part black. Femoralis.

5 (8) Abdomen entirely black.

6 (7) Legs red. Microcephala.

7 (6) Legs for greater part black. Caliginosa.

8 (20) Abdomen red in the middle.

9 (14) Pronotum and coxae entirely black.

10 (11) Posterior femora black. Nigricollis.

11 (10) Legs red.

12 (13) Antennso short, hinder knees black, the red on abdomen not

spotted with black. Ignobilis.

13 (12) Antennae longish, the red on abdomen spotted with black,

knees black. Nigronotaia.

14 (9) Pronotum, coxae, and femora lined with white, the red on abdo-

men marked with black in the middle.

15 (16) Hinder femora black. Scutellaria.

16 (15) Hinder femora red.

17 (18) Clypeus deeply incised, tegulae white. Oraofa.

18 (17) Clypeus not deeply incised, tegulae not white, the red on abdomen

marked with black, a broad yellow line on basal segment,
tegulae black. Flavomaculata.

19 (18) The red on abdomen not marked with black, tegulae fuscous.


20 (8) Abdomen testaceous at the sides and beneath.

21 (22) Head and thorax not testaceous, a yellow line at base of abdo-

men, hinder femora black. Tristis.

22 (21) Head more or less testaceous.

23 (24) Thorax entirely black, hinder femora black. Fulviceps.

24 (23) Thorax lined with white on pronotum or pleurae.

25 (26) Vertex for greater part black, mesopleurae and sternum dashed

with brown spots. Lividiventris.

26 (25) Vertex for the greater part testaceous, mesopleurae with a large

white mark. Albomaculata.

27 (1) Body for the greater part luteous.

28 (29) Head below the ocelli deep black, hinder femora for greater part

black. Nigriceps.

29 (28) Head below ocelli luteous.

30 (31) Mesopleurae and sternum black, coxae and base of femora black.


31 (30) Mesopleurae and sternum luteons.

32 (33) Metapleurse black. Dorsivittata.

33 (32) Metapleurae luteous.

33 (36) Coxae and sutures of meso- and metapleurae marked with black.

34 (35) Calcaria short, second recurrent nervure not interstitial.


35 (34) Calcaria long, second recurrent nervure interstitial. Nassata.

36 (33) Coxae and sutures of pleurae marked with yellow and white.



PL XVI, fig. 4 and 8, Saw. ; PL VIII, fig. 9, ? .

Tenthredo cordata, Fourc., I. P., ii, 15.

dimidiata, Fab., S. P., 42, 61 ; Lep., Mon., 83, 244,

F. Fr.,pl. 4, fig. 2 ; Ste., 111., vii,
79, 21.

instabilis, var. dimidiata, Kl., Berl. Mag., viii, 198,

142; Htg., Blattw., 308, 37;
Evers., Bull. Mosc., xx, 49, 22.

coquebertii, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 202, 147.
analis, Ste., 111., vii, 80, 22.

Perineura nassata, Thorns., Opus., 301, 1; Hym. Sc., i, 265;

Cam., Fauna, 14, 1; 51.

cordata, Andre, Species, i, 431, Cat., 54,* 36.
Tenthredopsis cordatus, Cam., Tr., Ent. Soc., 1881, 566.

Black, smooth, shining; mouth, scutellum, two spots behind and
cenchri white ; legs and three to five apical segments of abdomen red ;
coxae, trochanters, and base of femora black ; posterior tarsi marked
with black ; the apices of the joints occasionally pale. Wings hyaline,
costa fuscous, stigma darker, white at base ; antennas pitchy beneath.

The $ has the abdomen red or testaceous red, except the two basal
segments above; the hinder femora and the tibiae black, as well as the
metatarsus, the second, third, and fourth joints of tarsi being whitish ;
the last abdominal segment rounded, emarginated in the middle, and
with two distinct depressions above.
Ab. a. Scutellar spots black.
b. Inner orbits of eyes white.

Length 6 7 lines.

A tolerably common and widely distributed species.
Clydesdale, Polmont, Kinguissie, Manchester, Glou-
cester, London district, Norwich.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Russia, Germany,
Holland, France, Switzerland, Italy.

PI. XVI, fig. 5, Saw.

Tenthredo microcephala, Lep., F. Fr., pi. 4, fig. 1 ; Mon., 80, 238 ;

Ste., 111., vii, 78, 18 ; Andre,
Species, i, 439, Cat., 55,* 1.

orbitalis, Dietrich, Mitth. Schw. Ent., 1868, 354


Tenthredopsis microcephalus , Cam., Tr. Ent. Soc., 1881, 566.

Black, smooth, shining ; labrum, clypeus, mandibles, inner orbits of the
eyes, scutellum, two spots behind, and cenchri white; legs pale red; the


apical joints of hinder tarsi more or less black ; antennae black to pitchy.
Wings hyaline, costa fuscous, extreme base paler; second recurrent
nervure interstitial, or nearly so.

$ antennae thickish, black above, fuscous beneath ; orbits of eyes, a
spot behind, and mouth white. Abdomen black, legs testaceous ; coxae,
trochanters, base of middle femora, and hinder pair entirely black;
posterior tibiae pitchy ; metatarsus of hinder legs pitchy ; other joints

Length 4f 6i lines.

Scarcely to be distinguished from cordata except by
the form of the saw and the colour of abdomen, and
that cannot be a constant test if cordata has, as has
been reported by authors, sometimes the abdomen
entirely black. It varies like cordata in having the
orbits of the eyes and scutellar spots often black.

The species is not uncommon in the South of
England, also in Scotland, according to Stephens, but
I have never seen it there myself.

Continental distribution : France, Switzerland.

PL XVI, fig. 6, Saw.

Tenthredo femoralis, Stephens, 111., vii, 80, 23.
Tenthredopsis femoralis, Cam., Tr. Ent. Soc., 1881, 566.

Black ; clypeus, labrum, mandibles, inner and outer orbits of eyes,
and scutellar spots yellowish- white; three to five apical segments of
abdomen bright red; legs pitchy black, four anterior tibiae and
tarsi testaceous, middle joints of hinder tarsi white. Wings hyaline.
Antennae black, pitchy beneath. 9 .

Length 5 lines.

Easily known from cordata by the black femora ; it
is smaller, the abdomen bulges out more at the centre,
and the form of the saw is very different.

Rare ; taken in the London district, and at Dover,
in June, according to Stephens. Also at Dumfries in


PI. XVI, fig. 7, Saw.

Tenthredo caliginosa, Ste., 111., vii, 78, 17.

Tenthredopsis caliginosus, Cam., Tr. Ent. Soc., 1881, 566.

Black; labrum, clypeus, scutellar spots white or yellowish-white ;
legs dull testaceous ; hinder femora, middle femora to the middle, and
front at extreme base, with all the, black ; hinder tarsi fuscous ;
hinder tibiae much darker than anterior, sometimes pitchy. Antennae
black, pitchy beneath. Wings hyaline ; tegulae black. ? . ^

Ab. 9 trochanters and a thin line on base of abdomen white ; sides of
abdomen in middle faintly testaceous ; hinder tibiae testaceous.

$ black ; orbits of eyes broadly, mouth, trochanters, and a faint line
on base of abdomen white ; the belly in middle and anal segment above
testaceous ; hinder femora black ; hinder tarsi pale testaceous. Antennae
bright testaceous with a fuscous line above.

Length 5 6 lines.

Stephens records it as " not very uncommon within
the metropolitan district in June." In Scotland it
occurs in Clydesdale and Dumfries, but is rare.

In the coloration of the legs it resembles femoralis,
but it differs in having the abdomen entirely black ; the
third joint is longer compared to the fourth, and the
saw is very different. Microcephala is larger, has the
antennas longer, the abdomen more sharply pointed.
From the darker specimens of tristis it may be easily
known by having the coxse and trochanters black,
spurs and antennae longer, third joint of antennas
much longer than fourth, and the pronotum quite

PI. XVII, fig. 9, Saw.

Tenthredopsis nigronotatus, Cam., Tr. Ent. Soc., 1881, 566.

Black ; labrum, clypeus, mandibles, margins of eyes, a spot behind
them, and scutellar spots white; legs and third, fourth, and fifth
abdominal segments in part bright red ; coxae, trochanters, and a line
down the centre of the third, fourth, and fifth abdominal segments
above black ; hinder tarsi faintly fuscous, darker at the apices. Antennae
black, fuscous beneath. Wings hyaline ; tegulse black.

Length nearly 6 lines.


Very similar in coloration to ignobilis y but larger
and stouter, antennae and spurs longer, antennal fovea
deeper, clypeus yellow and not so transverse at the
apex, and abdomen with only three red segments,
which are marked with black in the middle.

Rare ; two specimens in Shuckard's collection.

PI. XVII, fig. 1, Saw.

Tenthredo ignobilis, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 205, 151 ? Htg.,

Blattw., 306, 29 ; Andre, Species,
i, 443; Cat, 55* 11; Ste., 111.,
vii, 79, 19 ; non Thorns.
stigma, Lep., Mon., 76.. 226 ?

Tenthredopsis ignobilis, Cam., Tr. Ent. Soc., 1881, 567.

Black ; labrum, a thin line on inner side of eyes and a spot behind,
and scutellar spots white ; the second to sixth abdominal segments and
legs bright red; coxae, trochanters, base, and apex of hinder femora
black ; hinder tarsi fuscous, the second to fourth joints paler. Antenna3
black, pale on under side ; a dull reddish splash on each of the middle
lobes of mesonotum. Wings hyaline; costa pale; stigma fuscous at

Length 4 5 lines.

The second segment is usually only black on basal
half above, and the red colour sometimes extends to
the last segment. The white on the head is generally
very obscure, and the white mark behind the eyes may
be invisible. It is a broader insect than scutellaris,
and the abdomen is more inflated.

I have only seen three specimens of this species,
two from Eannoch, and one from Inverness-shire.

Continental distribution : France, Germany, Switzer-
land (?)

Obs. It is doubtful if this species is either ignobilis, Kl., or stigma,
Lep. The latter is quoted as a synonym of ignobilis by Hartig, but the
description will fit several species. Ignobilis is a true Tenthredo accord-
ing to Thomson, and if that be a correct determination Klug's species
has no relationship with mine, which may be regarded as a new species
and may still be called iynobilis.


PI. XVII, fig. 2, Saw. ; PI. XII, fig. 17, Mandible.

Tenthredo scutellaris, Lep., Mon., 76, 225 ; Ste., 111., vii, 76, 10 ;

non Fab.
pavida, Lep., Mon., 76, 227; Ste., 111., vii, 76, 11;

non Fab.
Tenthredopsis nigricollis, Cam., Tr. Ent. Soc., 1881, 567.

Black ; labrum and scutellar spots white ; the third to fifth or sixth
abdominal segments bright red ; legs testaceous ; coxse, trochanters,
and base of four anterior femora, and the whole of hinder femora black ;
apex of hinder tibiae, and the tarsi fuscous ; antennae black, pitchy
beneath. Wings hyaline ; tegulse black.

The <? has the middle of the abdomen obscure red, the hinder tibiae
and metatarsus black, the rest of tarsi white. The clypeus is mostly black.

Length 4 5 lines.

Similar in structure to ignobilis, but differing from
it in the darker legs, in having the red band on
abdomen narrower, and in the mesonotum being
entirely black.

A widely distributed species ; Clydesdale, Rannoch,
Lochaweside, South of England.

Continental distribution : France.

PL XVII, fig. 3, Saw.

Tenthredo scutellaris, Fab., S. P., 39, 51.

instabilis, var. f., Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 198, 142 ;

Htg., Blattw., 308, 37; Evers., Bull.
Mosc., xx, 49, 22, var. 25.

ambigua, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 202, 146; Htg.,

Blattw., 307, 34 ; Ste., 111., vii, 76, 9.
Perineura brevispina, Thorns, Opus., 301, 2 ; Hym. Sc., i, 296, 2.

scuteuaris, Cam., Fauna, 52 ; Andre, Species, i, 433 ;

Cat., 54,* 35.
Tenthredopsis scutellaris, Cam., Tr. Ent. Soc., 1881, 567.

Black, shining ; mandibles, labrum, clypeus, orbits of eyes, a line on
pronotum, and scutellar spots yellow; the three or four middle seg-
ments of abdomen (save an interrupted black line in the centre) and
legs testaceous ; the base of front and middle femora, and the greater
part of hinder pair black ; hinder tarsi more or less fuscous ; trochanters
and a streak on coxse white. Antennae black, piceous or pitchy beneath ;
the third joint a very little longer than fourth ; clypeus slightly incised.
Wings hyaline ; tegulse pale, rarely black.


The $ is similar in coloration, except that the red on abdomen is
more obscure, more extended, but the abdomen is often black in the
middle ; the hinder femora are testaceous, or for the greater part pitchy ;
the coxae bear more white than with the $ , and the antennae are lighter

Length 4 5$ lines.

Ab. a. Middle femora entirely, and hinder tibiae and
tarsi, except last joint, black ; middle tibiae and four
front tarsi pitchy; mandibles black; antennae with only
the apical joints pitchy beneath ; post-scutellar spots

Ab. b. Abdomen testaceous at the sides on middle

c. Orbits of the eyes black.

d. Edge of pronotum and of basal segment of
abdomen yellow.

e. Eyes entirely surrounded with white; hinder
tarsi pitchy, with the third and fourth joints white.

/. Tegulae white.

tj. Abdomen without black marks on red.

h. Abdomen with a broad black band on red.

May be known from nigricottis by its longer antennae,
which have the third joint not much longer than
fourth ; the clypeus is not transverse at the apex, and
it is always yellow, the antennal fovea is deeper, and
it differs otherwise in the colour of thorax and legs (at
the base). From flavomaculata the brighter coloured
varieties are not always easily separated, but, as a rule
flavomaculata may be known from it by the wider ex-
tension of the yellow (which is much brighter than in
scutellaris) on the head, thorax, and base of abdomen,
the antennae are shorter, the frontal area wider and
more circular at the top, and the head is longer and
thicker behind. The <| is easily known from the $
of nigricoUis by the thorax being lined with white, and
the legs pale at the base.

Not uncommon on birch everywhere in Britain.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Holland, Ger-
many, France, Italy, Kussia, Spain, and Portugal.


PI. XVII, fig. 4, Saw.

Tenthredopsis flavomaculatus, Cam., Tr. Ent. Soc., 1881, 567.

Black, sliming, pilose ; labrum, clypeus, mandibles, orbits, a longish
spot behind the eyes, edge of pronotum, scutellar spots, sometimes
a few minute spots on mesonotum, a broad band on base of abdomen,
and an irregular spot on coxae bright yellow. Antennae pitchy ; edge of
second, the whole of third, fourth, fifth, and side of sixth abdominal
segment bright testaceous red. Legs bright testaceous ; coxse for greater
part and base (sometimes a line above) of hinder femora black ; hinder
tarsi more or less fuscous. Wings hyaline ; costa and stigma fuscous,
the latter white at base.

The $ is similarly coloured to the ? , save that the abdomen has only
faint indications of the testaceous colour on the middle segments and
beneath ; the antennae, if anything, are lighter coloured on lower side,
the hinder femora are entirely black, and the tibiae and tarsi pitchy.
The last segment above bears two deep depressions, and the yellow line
on base is scarcely visible.

Length 4 lines.

Very similar to pidiceps, but shorter and broader ;
the antennae shorter, head wider, head and thorax
more shining, and the band on the base of abdomen
much wider. The saw is very different. Sometimes
the red abdominal segments have an indistinct black
line in the middle.

Not common. Mull, Rannoch, Devonshire (E.

PI. XVII, fig. 5, Saw.

Tenthredopsis picticeps, Cam., Tr. Ent. Soc., 1881, 568.

Black ; labrum, clypeus, orbits of eyes, a line on pronotum, scutellar
spots, the third to sixth segments of abdomen all round, and legs bright
red ; coxae black, largely white behind ; trochanters white ; hinder femora
black at the base; posterior tarsi fuscous at apex. Wings hyaline;
tegulse fuscous. Antennae longish, pale beneath.

Length 5 lines.

Allied to ornata, but it has the incision in clypeus
not so deep, the eyes are marked with yellow all
round, antenna longer and thinner, with the third
joint not so long in proportion to the fourth, and the


pleurse are scarcely punctured ; ornata, too, has the
clypeus black.
Rare. Scotland.


Tenthredo ornata, Lep., F. FT., pi. 3, fig. 5 ; Mon., 77, 228 ; Ste.,

111., vii, 12.
Perineum excisa, Thorns, Opus., 301, 3 ; Hym. Sc., i, 267, 5.

ornata, Andre, Species, i, 427 ; Cat., 54,* 33.
Tenthredopsis ornatus, Cam., Tr. Ent. Soc., 1881, 568.

Black, smooth, shining ; mandibles, clypeus, labrum, more or less of
the orbits of the eyes, edge of pronotum, tegulae, scutellar spots
yellowish -white; the second abdominal segments at the sides, the third,
fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh in part reddish-testaceous, with a black
dot on each in the middle. Legs reddish-testaceous ; coxse, base, and
sometimes the apex of hinder femora black; coxse and trpchanters
more or less white. Antennae pitchy beneath, the third joint dis-
tinctly longer than fourth. "Wings hyaline. Pleura? punctured above.
Abdomen beneath with two broad black bands along the sides.

The $ has the legs more marked with black, and the abdomen is for
the most part entirely black above.

Length 4 5 lines.

Tenthredopsis dorsata, Spin., is very like this insect;
it is a broader and stouter species ; antennas are shorter
and stouter, the abdomen has only four segments red,
and the wings are fuscous.

T. ornata is not common in Britain ; I have only
seen a few specimens from the south of England and
from Norwich.

Continental distribution : Sweden, France, Switzer-
land, Italy, Russia.

PI. XVII, fig. 6, Saw.

Tenthredo tristis, Ste., 111., vii, 78, 15.

spreta, Lep., Mon., 78, 231 ; Ste., 111., vii, 77, 14 ?
Tenthredopsis tristis, Cam., Tr. Ent. Soc., 1881, 568,

Black ; labrum, clypeus, mandibles, orbits, a spot behind each eye.
a line on the pronotum, scutellar spots, and a line on basal segment


of abdomen yellow. Legs testaceous; coxae, middle femora at base,
and hinder pair entirely black ; coxae broadly marked with yellowish -
white ; trochanters white ; hinder tarsi more or less fuscous ; the third,
fourth, fifth, and sixth segments of abdomen with a triangular spot
on the side, which is occasionally extended to the ventral surface,
and, more rarely, across the junction of the segments above.

The $ has the antennae longer and pale testaceous beneath; the
mouth and orbits of the eyes broadly yellow ; the testaceous spots on
sides of abdomen narrower ; the white marks on coxae also narrower ;
the trochanters marked with black ; hinder tibiae somewhat piceous, and
tarsi fuscous. The tegulae are pale ; the fovea on anal segment is very
deep at the apex, and the depression does not reach the base of the

Length 4 5 lines.

This species is not unlike caliginosa, but it is readily
separated by the pale colour on pronotum and base of
legs, besides being a narrower and more slender insect,
with somewhat shorter antennse ; from lividiventris it
is known by the head and pleurae wanting the testa-
ceous colour, and the abdomen is only testaceous at
the sides, not through its entire extent.

Not common. Near London (Stephens), Clydes-
dale, Lochaweside, Aberdeen (Trail).


Tenthredo fulviceps, Ste., 111., vii, 75, 8.

Tenthredopsis fulmceps, Cam., Tr. Ent. Soc., 1881, 568.

Black; mandibles, labrum, clypeus, scutellum and scutellar spots
yellow ; orbits of eyes broadly pale testaceous ; the eyes on inner side

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