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A history of Long Island, from its earliest settlement to the present time (Volume 1) online

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Gc M. U.

974.701
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v.l
1254230



GENEALOGY COLLECTION



/



mmimii

3 1833 01178 3161



A HISTORY



OF



LONG ISLAND

From Its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time



PBTBR ROSS, LL. D.



VOL. 1



THE LEWIS PUBLISHING COMPANY

New York and Chicago

1002



COPYRIGHT.
The Lewis Pi-klismin



1254230



SONS OF LONG ISLAND.

O God of Columbia! O Shield of the Free!

More grateful to you than the fanes of old story
Must the blood-bedewed soil, the red battle-ground, be

Where our forefathers championed America's glory!
Then how priceless the worth of the sanctified earth
We are standing on now!* Lo! the slope of its girth
Where the martyrs were buried; nor prayers, tears or stones
Marked their crumbled-in coffins, their white holy bones.

Say. Sons of Long Island, in legend or song,

Keep ye aught of its record, that day dark and cheerless.

That cruel of days when, hope weak, the foe strong,
Was seen the Serene One, still faithful, still fearless,

Defending the worth of the sanctified earth
We are standing on now? &c.

Ah, Yes! be the answer. In memory still

We have placed in our hearts and embalmed there forever
The battle, the prison ship martyrs and hill.

Oh, may it be preserved till those hearts shall sever.
For how priceless the worth, &c.

And shall not the years, as they sweep o'er and o'er.
Shall they not even here bring the children of ages.

To exult as their fathers exulted before

In the freedom achieved by our ancestral sages?

And the prayer rise to heaven with gratitude given

And the sky by the thunder of cannon be riven?

Yea! Yea! let the echo responsively roll,

The echo that starts from the patriot's soul.

ira/t irhitmnii, 1S46.




PRBFACE.



N the following pages an effort has been made to present the history of the
whole of Long Island in such a way as to combine all the salient facts of the
long and interesting story in a manner that might be acceptable to the general
reader and at the same time include much of that purely antiquarian lore which is
to many the most delightful feature of local history. Long Island has played a most
important part in the history of the State of New York and, through New York, in
the annals of the Nation. It was one of the first places in the Colonies to give
formal utterance to the doctrine that taxation without representation is unjust and
should not be borne by men claiming to be free — the doctrine that graduall}- went
deep into the hearts and consciences of men and led to discussion, opposition and
war; to the declaration of independence, the achievement of liberty and the founding of
a new nation. It took an active part in all that glorious movement, the most signifi-
cant movement in modern history, and though handicapped by the merciless occupa-
tion of the British troops after the disaster of August, 1776, it continued to do what
it could to help along the cause to which so many of its citi/.ens had devoted their
fortunes, their lives.

On Long Island, too, the old theory of government by town meeting found full
scope, even in those sections where the Dutch rule was closest and the story of these
little republics with their laws and limitations is worthy of careful study at the
present day. They present us, as in the case of Southold, with specimens of pure
theocracies flourishing and progressing in spite of the watchful and pre-eminent rule
of the local church directorate, or possibly rather as a consequence of it, and they
also present us, as in Jamaica, with townships founded on somewhat less religious
lines but in which the edict of the church authorities was a matter that commanded
primal respect. But, one and all, these communities showed that the view of the
people as expressed in town meeting was the supreme local law, the origin of all
local power, even though a fussy Director General now and again made his authority
and dignity known by interference, or a Proprietary or Colonial Governor attempted
to tax the people or impose a minister or a religious system without other warrant
than his own sweet will and his own imperious necessities, or the wishes of his
superiors — in London.



In compiling;- this history all previous works relating to the story of Long Island
have been laid under contribution, notabl}- such volumes as those of Wood, Thomson,
Onderdonk, F"urman and Spooner. The invaluable labors of Dr. Henry R. Stiles,
whose "History of Brooklyn" and other works are storehouses of local history, have
been drawn upon freely, for no story of Brooklyn could now be written that would
not be under the deepest obligation to the patient and learned writings of that
most painstaking of antiquarians and local historians. The chapter on "Dentists in
Brooklyn" was written for this volume by Dr. William Jarvie, and is the result
of many years' research. The chapter on medical history by Dr. William Schroder
froms another valuable feature.

Of local histories nearly all those accessible have been consulted. From the
published writings of Mr. William S. Pelletreau, the erudite historian of Suffolk
County, and the author of several valuable works illustrating the long, eventful, and
highly honorable story in peace and war of that grand section of Long Island, many
details have been gathered. From the writings of Dr. \\'. ^^'allace Tooker. of Sag
Harbor, the indefatigable student of Indian lore on Long Island, much that is deeply
interesting concerning the red man and his remains has been gleaned, and thanks are
due both these gentlemen for their freely given permission to make their studies avail-
able for this volume. The cordial manner in which the Flatbush Trust Company
permitted the use of several illustrations from its interesting work on "Flatbush,
Past and Present," also demands an expression of thanks.

The files of the Brooklyn Eagle have been freely consulted and proved a most
invaluable storehouse; in fact almost since its origin, in 1S4-1, the Eagle has been, as
ever_\- local newspaper should be, the best possible historian of Brooklyn, and indeed
of Long Island. It has the happy art in these modern days of knowing how to
combine those personal details which we look for in a local paper with the wide
reaching world-news which is the feature of a metropolitan daily. From the col-
umns of the "Standard-Union" and the "The Brooklyn Times ' much has also been
gathered.

The author desires also to thank the numerous correspondents to whom he

is much indebted for details of considerable interest in the various township histories.

In following the windings of family history, to which considerable space has been

devoted, much curious matter would have been overlooked but from details received

as the result of correspondence with the modern representatives of many of these

old families. Thanks are given for all this in its proper place, and indeed an

effort has been made throughout the ^\•ork to quote every authority and give full

credit to previous writers and to all who have in anyway, directly or indirectly,

rendered assistance.

PETER ROSS.



CONTKNTS.



Proem

CHAPTER I.
Topography of the Island— Natural History — Botany — Geology

CHAPTER II.
Indians and Their Lands

CHAPTER III.
The Decadence of the Aborigines * . . . .

CHAPTER IV.
Discovery— Early White Settlements and Political and Financial Relations — The Importance of the
Wampum Industry

CHAPTER V.
The Dutch^Soms Early Governors— Peter Stuyvssant

CHAPTER VI.
The British Government

CHAPTER VII.

Some Early Families and Their Descendants4-Some Pioneer Settlers— The Stirling Ownership and

Colonizing Schemes — Lion Gardiner and His Purchase — A Long Island "Queen of the White

House'' — The Blue Smiths and Other Smiths, The Tangier Smiths and Other Branches of the

Smith Family — The Floyds

CHAPTER VIII.
; Some Old Families in Queens and KingsVThe Lloyds— The Jones Family— The Record of a Bit of
Brooklyn Real Estate— The Rapalyes— The Livingstons— The Pierrepont, Lefterts and Other
Holdings

CHAPTER IX.
' Some Primitive Characteristics-^Early Laws— The Administration of Justice

CHAPTER X.
Slavery on Long Island

CHAPTER XI.
Early Congregational and Presbyterian Churches

CHAPTER XII.
Religious Progress in Kings County



VIII CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XIII.
Persecutions— Religious— The Troubles of the Early Quakers — Trials For Witchcraft

CHAPTER XIV.
Captain Kidd and Other Navigators

CHAPTER XV.
The Ante-Revolution Struggle

CHAPTER XVI.
The Battle of Brooklyn

CHAPTER XVII.
The Retreat From Long Island— A Strategic Triumph

CHAPTER XVIII.
The British Occupation

CHAPTER XIX.

Some Long Island Loyalists— Richard Hewlett— John Rapalye— Mayor Mathews— Governor Colden—
Colonel Axtell — Lindley Murray and Others

CHAPTER XX.
A Few Revolutionary Hjroes — General V/oodhuU— Colonel Tallmadge — General Parsons— Colonel Meigs.

CHAPTER XXI.
The War of 1812— Naval Operations Around Long Island

CHAPTER XXII.

The Chain of Forts— Military Activity in Kings County— The Katydids and Other Heroes— The Popular
Uprising

CHAPTER XXIII.
The Story of Educational Progress

CH.APTER XXIV.
Internal Communications— Roads and Railroads— The Magnificent Outlook For The Future

CHAPTER XXV.
Kings County '

CHAPTER XXVI.
Flatlands

CHAPTER XXVII.
Flatbush

CHAPTER XXVIII.
New Utrecht

CHAPTER XXIX.
Bushwick — Williamsburg — Greenpoint — The Adventurous Life of Neziah Bliss



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER XXX.

Gravesend— The English Town of Kings County— Lady Moody— Early Settlers and Laws— .\ Religious
Community with a Sad Closing Record

CHAPTER XXXI.

Coney Island — Rise of the Famous Resort — The Democratic Watering Place of New York — A Revolution-
ary Reminiscence— Piracy and Plunder



CHAPTER XXXII.
The Story of Brooklyn Village to The Beginning of the Revolutionary Movement

CHAPTER XXXIII.
Brooklyn — From the Close of the Revolution to the Incorporation of the Village — Pre-Eminence of the
Ferry —The Beginning of the Navy Yard

CHAPTER XXXIV.
The Village of Brooklyn

CHAPTER XXXV.

The First City— Mayors Hall. Trotter, Johnson. Smith, Murphy and Others— Disastrous Fires— Business
Extension— The Grand City Hall — Literature and the Press

CHAPTER XXXVI.

Church" Development— Loughlin -Dr. Bethune— St. Ann's — Holy Trinity— Dr. Storrs— Henry Ward
Beecher -Land Operations — Greeuwood and Other Cemeteries — The Ferries— Work at the Navy
Yard ".

CHAPTER XXXVn.

The Era of the Civil War— 180.")-1S70— A Succession of Capable Executives -The Metropolitan Police—
J. S. T. Stranahan— Prospect Park— Street Railways— Libraries— Rapid Extension of the City —
Cholera

CHAPTER XXXVHI.

Intellectual and Spiritual Life— Literature— Brooklyn Public Library— Rev. Dr. Cuyler— Rev. Dr.
Talmage— Father Malone •

CHAPTER XXXIX.
The Civil War— The Troops inthe Field— The Enthusiasm in Brooklyn — Brooklyn's Contributions to the



CHAPTER XL.

The Death Grapple of the Struggle— Brooklyn's Meetings and Contributions— The Sanitary Fair -The
War Fund Committee —Repairing the Losses — The Grand Army of the Republic

CHAPTER XLI.

The Splendid Closing Record — Mayors Low, Whitney, Chapin, Boody, Schieren and Wurster— The
Bridge— Some Interesting Statistics

CHAPTER XLII.

The End of an Auld Sang -Literature and the Drama— Higher Education— National Guard-The Navy
Yard -Architectural Progress— Wallabout -Public Statues— The Pas.sing of Brooklyn City



CONTENTS



CHAPTER XLIII.

Queens— Development from Rural to Urban Life -The Future of the Borough — Horse Racing— An
Interesting Story of the Consolidation

CHAPTER XLIV.

Flushing— The Patentees of l(i4.">— Freeholders in Uis:! — The Lawrences -The Churches — Modern
Changes and Developments

CHAPTER XLV.

Newtown— The Step-Child of the Metropolitan Area— Mespath and Mr. Doughty— Middleburg—DeWitt
Clinton — Middle Village and Other Settlements

CHAPTER XLVI.

]amaica - The Little Republic of Rusdorp— Ministerial Troubles— Mr. Foyer's Trials— The Revolution-
Educational and lousiness Progress

CHAPTER XLVn.

Long Island City — A Loose Aggregation — Anneke Jans — Captain Praa— Long Island Railroad's Terminus
— Astoria and Its Namesake— Grant Thorburn — Hell Gate — A Picturesque Mayor

CHAPTER XLVHL

Summer Re.sorts-^A Cosmopolitan Pleasure Resort — Health, Excitement, Society and Solitude— Modern
Baronial Estates — Patchogue— Peconic Bay — The Land Boomers and the Railway

CHAPTER XLIX.

The Medical Profession on Long Island— Early Medical Legislation— ,\ Southampton Doctor and His
Fees — Noted Physicians of the Olden Times - Brooklyn's Pioneer Doctors

CHAPTER L.

The Medical Society of the County of Kings— Brooklyn's City Hospital and Similar Institutions— .-X Long
Roll of Honorable Professional Names

CHAPTER LI.
Various Medical Societies — Brooklyn Hospitals — Dispensaries

CHAPTER LH.
Dentists in Brooklyn

CHAPTER LHI.

The Bench and Bar— The Old Courts and Judges— Alden T. Spooner, Jud.ge Furman— The Tilton-Beecher
Case — Judge Neilson, Judge Beach — A Group of Modern Judges and juri.sts

CHAPTER LIV.

Freemasonry on Long Island -/Social- Tiny Beginnings of a Great Institution — Sketchesof Representative
Early Lodges - Some Distinguished Long Island Craftsmen

CHAPTER LV.

The Social World of Long Lsland— .\ Grand Array of Associations of all Sorts — Assessment Insurance —
Fashionable Clubs— Sporting and Hunting Organizations

CHAPTER LVL
Old Country Families^ F'amily History and Story— Pioneers, Heroes, Merchants and Their Descendants.



CONTENTS.

CHAPTER LVn.

Notes and Illustrations- -The Long Island Campaign— Dutch Names of Places and Persons— Historical
Gleanings and Documents — Early Nineteenth Century Descriptions

CHAPTER LVHI.
The Catholic Church on Long Island

CHAPTER LIX.
Nassau County ■

CHAPTER LX.
Hempstead

CHAPTER LXI.
North Hempstead

CHAPTER LXH.
Oyster Bay — Sketch of President Roosevelt

CHAPTER LXHI.
Suffolk County

CHAPTER LXIV.
Huntington

CHAPTER LXV.
Babylon

CHAPTER LXVI.
Smithtown :

CHAPTER LXVH.
Islip

CHAPTER LXVHI.
Brookhaven

CHAPTER LXIX.
Riverhead

CHAPTER LXX.
Southold

CHAPTER LXXI.
Shelter Island

CHAPTER LXXn.
Southampton

CHAPTER LXXni.
East Hampton

A.PPENDIX; Long Island Troops in the Revolutionary War



INDEX.



Abbott— Ex-Surrogate, 641.

Abbott, Dr. Lyman.— 484.

Academy of Music, Brooklyn. — 4.')0.

Ackerly, Orville B.— 1005.

Agriculture. — Indian, 2.5; in the days of the occupa-
tion, 221 (see also under various towns and vil-
lages); land and soil, 792; fish as fertilizers, 793;
small versus large farms, 793.

Agriculture in Suffolk county. — 998 ; the Suffolk
County Agricultural Society, 1001.

Ainslee, James. — Justice in Williamsburg, 349.

Alberti, Caesar. -18.

Albertson, Albert (Terhune)— Early settlers at New
Utrecht, 329.

Alexander, Rev. Dr. S. D.— quoted, 138.

AUefonsce, Jean of Saintonge, sails through Long Is-
land Sound in 1542.— 44.

Alsop, Rev. B. F.— 427.

Alsop family — 709.

Amagansett.— village of, 1056; 1071.

Amersfort, or Amersfoort (Klatlands)— 311.

Amityville. — village of, 977.

Andrews, Samuel.— 89.

Andriese, David of Bushwick.— 337.

Andres, Governor.— 68; 70; 83.

Antonides, Rev. Vincentius.— 1.50.

Apprentices' Library, Brooklyn.— 402; 505.

Aquebogue — Prehistoric remains found at, .34; 580.

Architectural features— Early, 107; in Gravesend, 364;
in modern Brooklyn, 610; 680.

Arden, Dr. Charles.— 196.

Arts and Sciences— Institute of, 505.

Astor, John Jacob.— 569.

Astoria— .538; 568; sketch of, 569.

Athenaeum, Brooklyn.— 422.

Atlantic Docks, the.— 418.

Aurora Grata Club.— 659.

Axtel, Colonel.— 196; 232; 323.

Babylon.-In War of 1S12, 252.

Babylon, old mill at. — 879; History of, 974; land boom-
ers, 974; village beginning, 976; hotel keeping,
976; a princely visitor, 976; churches, 977; vil-
lages, 977.

Backer, Jacobs— New Utrecht, 330.

Bacon, Col. A. S., Brooklyn.— 371.

Bader, V., of Gravesend.— 371.

Baird, Colonel A. D.-485.

Baldwin, David. -314.

Baldwin, Rev. J. A.-313.

Baldwin, W. H., Jr.-Pres. Long Island Railroad, 303.

Barber, Rev. Jonathan —1024.

Barburin, Captain. -256.



Barker, John G.— 668.

Barren Island. — Deed surrendering, 27.

Bartlett, Justice Willard.— 643.

Bartow, Edgar J.— Sketch of, 427.

Basset, Rev. John.- 260.

Bath.— 328; 335.

Baxter, George (of Bushwick). — 337.

Baxter, George (of Gravesend).— 60; 61; 362.

Baxter, John. — teacher, 314.

Bayberry Point. — Moorish houses at, 989.

Bayles, David.— shipbuilder, 994.

Bayles, R. M.— quoted, 993; 995.

Bay Ridge.— 328; ferry to Staten Island, 334; 335.

Bayside.— 535.

Beattie, Rev. John.— 333.

Beatty, A. Chester.— 83.

Beatty, Robert C— 83.

Beatty, W. Gedney.— 83.

Bedford.— Beginning of village of, 390.

Bedford Corners. -School at, 270.

Beecher, Henry Ward.— 410; sketch of, 431; trial of

case of Tilton vs. Beecher, 633.
Beeckman, Cornells.- New Utrecht, 330.
Beekman, Cornells. — 62.
Beekman, (jerardus. — 73.
Beekman, Col. Gerardus.— 151.
Beekman, William.— 60; 385.
Bell, James A. H.— 500.
Bell, Oliver Bunce.-424; 4.53.
Bellomont, Governor.— 72; relations with Captain Kidd,

Bench and Bar.— 625.

Bench and bar of Kings county; of Suffolk county,

963.
Bennett, Arien Willemsen.— 332.
Bennett, William Adriaense.— 54; 381.
Benson, Judge Egbert.— 626.
Bensonhurst.— Village, 334; 335.
Bentyn, Jacques. -54; 58; 381.
Bergen Beach.— 316.
Bergen, Hans Hansen.— 58; 280.
Bergen, Captain J. T.— 335.
Bergen, Teunis G.-54; 58; 266; sketch, 727.
Bergen, Tunis G. — 643.

Berry, Abraham J., Mayor of Williamsburg.— 350.
Berry, Ed.- 314.

Bescher (or Beets), Thomas. — 58.
Bethpase.- village of, 938.
Bethune, Rev. Dr.— 426.
Betts, Captain Richard— 709.
Billeting of British troops.— 222; 223.
Bishop, Rev. Alexander H.— 572.
Blackwell, Captain Jacob.— 570.



INDEX.



Bliss, Neziah.— Sketch of, 352; 568.

BlissviUe.— 568.

Block, Adriaen.— 45.

Block Island discovered. — 43.

Blue Laws of Connecticut. — 115.

Blues, the Dirty.— o40.

Blythebourne.— 828.

Boerum, Willem Jacobse Van.— 321.

Bogardus, Rev. Everardus. — 146; 568.

Bohemia.— village of, 996.

Bonaparte, Prince Joseph, at Babylon. — 9T6.

Boody, Mayor.— 485.

Books, Dutch, — Used in Divine service, 149.

Booth, Edwin.— Last appearance on any stage, 508.

Booth, Samuel, Mayor of Brooklyn.— 445.

Boston Tea Party.— 187.

Bostwick, Arthur E.— 456.

Bout, Jan Evertsen, founder of Brooklyn. — Sketch of,
383; 385; Stuyvesant's ultimatum, 390.

Bout, Jan Eversen. — 59.

Bownas, Samuel, Quaker Missionary. — 172.

Bredenblut, William.— 62.

Breslau.— village of, 977.

Bresser, Henry.— 58.

Brewster, Rev. Nathaniel. — 991,

Bridge, The Brooklyn.— 487.

Brighton Beach, Coney Island.- 374.

Brighton Beach Racing Association.— 369.

Brockholles, Lieutenant Governor.— 69.

Brookhaven Artillery Company in War of 1812. — 254.

Brookhaven.— Pioneer?, 990; Setauket founded, 990;
Richard WuodhuU, 991; early ministers, 991;
some patents, S92; Smith purchase, the, 992;
Revolutionary heroes, 992; Setauket's " Green,"
992; churches, 992; Queen Caroline's gifts, 993;
Strong's Neck, 994; Patchogue, 994; Port Jef-
ferson, 994; other villages, 996.

Brooklyn.— Battle of, 199; fortifications, 202; landing
of the British, 203; the leaders of the Continent-
als, 203; Putnam in command, 204; Grant
plays with Stirling, 205; capture of Flatbush,
205; Howe's strategic night march, 206; defeat
all along the line, 207; the gallant Maryland-
ers, 207; Sullivan and Stirling captured, 208;
rush for the inner fortifications, 208."

Notes and Illustrations. — Elias Bayles, 746; How-
ard House, 746; Thompson's story of the battle,
747.

Retreat. — Washington's memorable movement a

military triumph, 209.

Results of the battle.— 213.

——British Occupation.— 214; Silas Wood on, 221 ; Long
Island famed for its misfortunes, 221; Onder-
donk quoted on, 223; billeting the troops, 223;
Flatbush, 324; New Utrecht, 334; Bushwick,
339.

Fortifications in War of 1812, 257; plan, 259; work

begun, 259; peace celebrations, 263.

Origin of Brooklyn, 58; Carl De Bevoise, first

schoolmaster, 268; population, 3; slaves and
their owners, 122; church squabbles with Flat-
bush, 157; first church, 159; early preachers, 160.

Early history, 381; the annexation fever covers its

whole story, 381; original districts, 381; Gov-
ernor Kieft's proclamation, 382; Harrington
Putnam on "Origin of Breuckelen," 383; ap-
pointment of Schout, 384; first preacher, 387;
palisade around village, 384; Governor Nicolls'
charter, fac simile, 386; administration, 390;
charter from Dongan, 390; taxation of the five
Dutch towns, road making, beginning of Ful-



ton street, 391; description of village in Moore's
Gazetteer, 392; the ferry, S92.

-History from the Revolution to incorporation, 395;
recognized as a town, 395; fire department or-
ganized, 395; first newspaper, 395; other jour-
nalistic ventures, 395; shipping and shipbuild-
■ ing, 396; trades in 1796, 396; yellow fever, 396;
the medical profession, 396; shitting center of
trade, 397; navy yard established, 397; results
of the war of 1812, 398; the territory covered by
the village act of incorporation, 398.

-Story of "the Village," 399; first trustees, 398;
meetings, 401; population statistics, 399; Board
of Health, 400; a prosperous era, 400; Long
Island Bank, 401; almshouse, 401; great men
who visited Brooklyn, 402; Guy's snow scene,
403; schools, 404; temperance society, 404; the
Heights, 404; real estate development, 405; city
charter, nine wards, 406.

-The First City.— Manifestations of civic pride,
409; first board of aldermen, 408; a succession
of Mayors, 409; City Hall project, 417; Atlantic
Docks, 418; street stages, 419; water supply,
419; the great fire of 1848,419; cholera epidemic,
420; Know-Nothingism, 420; police, 422; statis-
tics of progress, 422; city of homes, 423; news-
papers, 423; Walt Whitman, 425; Gabriel Fur-
man, 425; church development, 426; the city of
churches, 428; annexation of Bushwick and
Williamsburgh, 440; Mayor Hall's report of
progress, 440.

-The Consolidated City, 443; Mayors Hall, Powell,
Kalbfleisch (the "War Mayor"), Wood, Booth,
444 ; The Metropolitan Police act, 446; Mr.
Stranahan's service, 447; Prospect Park, 447:
growth of the city, 450; Erie Basin, 451; Gow-
anus Canal, 451; Some statistics, 452; Gabriel
Harrison, 453.

-Public Libraries, 454; Rev. Dr. Cuyler, 455; Rev.
Dr. Talmage, 458; Rev. Father Malone, 459;
The Civil War, Patriotism of the city, 464;
Splendid service of Brooklyn troops, 466; Ship-
building. 468; Navy Yard Scare, 466; The
Death grapple of the Struggle, 471; draft
riots, 471; generosity of the citizens, 471; help-
ful organizations, 472; the Sanitary fair, 472;
United States Christian Commission, 478; war
fund committee, 479; the close of the struggle,
479; honoring the heroes, 480.

-The Splendid Closing Record, 483; Mayor Low,
483; Mayor Whitney, 486; Mayor Chapin, 485;
Mayor Boody, 486; Mayor Schieren, 486; Mayor
Wurster, 487; opening of the Brooklyn bridge,
487; elevated roads and other means of transit,
488; statistics of all sorts, 489; valuation, 490;
mechanical and manufacturing industries, 493;
educational matters, 503; the drama, 507; archi-
tectural development, 510; Wallabout market,
511; statues and memorials, 512; honoring Mr.
Stranahan, 512; annexation of Kings county
towns, 517; consolidation with Manhattan, 617;
the end of an auld sang, 518.

-Early school regulations, 268; School at Bedford
corners, 270; John Clark's school at Ferry, 270;
Punderson Ansten's school at Ferry, 270 ; first
school at Wallabout, 270; early schools, 270;
care of roads, 280.

-City Hospital and similar institutions, 595; Patho-
logical Society, 609 ; Dispensaries, 612; Dent-
ists, 617.

-Social Clubs— Architectural Features, 680; Ham-



ilton Club, 681 ; Brooklyn Club, 681 ; Union
League, 684; Lincoln, 684; Hanover, 685; Mon-
tauk, 686; other social clubs, 686.

The Future Of, 518.

Brooklyn Masonic Veterans.— 659.

Brotherton.— 36.



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