Philadelphia College of Pharmacy.

The first century of the Philadelphia college of pharmacy, 1821-1921; online

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Copyright, 1922, by the
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science


The history of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy the first College of
Pharmacy in the New World covers practically the history of American Phar-
macy. Instituted in 1821 and incorporated in 1822, the College has exerted a potent
influence in developing pharmaceutical education, improving the conditions of phar-
maceutical practice, and rendering, through its thousands of graduates, a nation-
wide service for the relief of human suffering and the conservation of public health.

It is therefore fitting that, upon the centenary of the founding of this college,
its history be reviewed and its principles and traditions perpetuated.

Briefly, this volume considers :

Philadelphia and pharmacy as of one hundred years ago.

The founding of the institution, largely by members of the Society of Friends
"with their homely virtues of modesty, thrift and wisdom, and love of peace and
simple honor," its modest beginnings, and the primitive condition of the pharmacy
of the time and its gross abuses.

The pioneer work of Wood and Bache for scientific pharmacy.

The development of higher ethical standards and the birth of the U. S. Phar-
macopeia and the American Pharmaceutical Association.

The removal from the old buildings on Zane Street to North Tenth Street and
the erection of new buildings.

The amazing progress of the past half century or more, with its wonderful de-
velopment in pharmaceutical education, legislation and practice, together with an
account of the origin and work of the Alumni Association, and the merging of the
Department of Pharmacy and Chemistry of the Medico-Chirurgical College in
1916, followed by a review of the events of Centennial Year, and these, by bio-
graphical data of compelling interest to the graduates of the institution.

The story is one that will bring a thrill of pride, not only to every alumnus of
the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, but to everyone who is interested in Amer-
ican Pharmacy, and it should serve as an inspiration to hold aloft the torch of scien-
tific pharmacy handed down to us by our forbears and to do all within our power
to justify their faith in us.

The history of yesterday foreshadows the experience of today and tomorrow.
The old is ever suggestive of the new and the new of the old, or as Chaucer wrote
in his "Assembly of Fowles," over five hundred years ago :

"For out of the old fieldes, as men saithe,
Cometh all this new corne fro yere to yere ;
And out of old bookes, in good faithe,
Cometh all this new science that men lere."

The Committee on Historical Volume desires to express its appreciation of the
services which have been rendered by Dr. Ellis Paxson Oberholtzer in the collec-
tion of historical data generally ; it wishes to express, also, its appreciation of the
co-operation given by Mrs. R. J. Tullar in the collection of biographical data.

The illustrations of this volume have been made, in some cases, from old paint-
ings and faded photographs, also old prints in magazines and newspapers, and,
therefore, are not as uniform and clear as might be desired.

Philadelphia, October, 1922.



Chapter I Philadelphia and Pharmacy in 1821.

Philadelphia in 1821, Pharmacy in 1821, Separation of Pharmacy from
Medicine, Manufacture of Pharmaceuticals, Manufacture of Medicinal
Chemicals, Manufacture of Technical Chemicals, Establishment of Drug
Milling, Pharmaceutical Events in 1821.

Chapter II Founding of the College.

Drug Standards, Teaching of Pharmacy at the University of Pennsylvania,
Institution of Master of Pharmacy Degree by the University, Reaction of
Druggists and Apothecaries, First Meeting of the Druggists and Apothe-
caries, Appointment of a Committee on Plan, Recommendations of the
Committee on Plan, Founders of the College, Administration of the Col-
lege, Election of Officers of the College, Establishment of the School, Con-
ferring of Master of Pharmacy Degree by the University, New College
Meets Commendation, First Professors of the College Jackson and Troost,
Ellis, First Home German Society Hall (1821-1832), First Lectures of
the College, Incorporation of the College, Early Days, Journal of the Col-
lege, Druggist's Manual, Patent Medicine Abuses, Early Achievements,
Certificates of Membership in the College.

Chapter III In a Home of Its Own Zane Street Building (1832-1868).

Wood, Bache, Early American Pharmacopoeias, The First U. S. Pharma-
copoeia, Development of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, The First U. S. Dispen-
satory, Physical Development of the College, Philadelphia The Mecca of
American Pharmacy, Early Pharmaceutical History, Percolation.

Chapter IV Ethical Standards and National Associations.

Griffith, Carson, Fisher, Bridges, U. S. Pharmacopoeia of 1840, U. S.
Pharmacopoeias of 1850 to 1880, Instruction in Theoretical and Practical
Pharmacy, Procter, Nostrum Traffic, Code of Ethics of 1848, Ethical
Standards, Evolution of Drug Import Law, Enactment of Drug Import
Law, Organization of the American Pharmaceutical Association, A. Ph. A.
Conventions, Smith and Ellis, Sugar Coated Pills.

Chapter V From Zane Street to North Tenth Street.

Thomas, Parrish, Maisch, College Development, Larger Quarters Needed,
Erection of the New Building in 1868, Courses of Instruction, Evolution
of Pharmacy Laws, Local Pharmacy Laws, Fiftieth Anniversary of the
College, Elixirs and Tablets.

Chapter VI Progress and Achievements of the Past Fifty Years.

Remington, Sadtler, Improvements in Instruction, Women Graduates in
Pharmacy, Power, Trimble, Erection of Additional Buildings, Continued
Growth of the College, Three Year Courses, Bastin, Lowe, Kraemer and
Moerk, Seventy-fifth Anniversary of the College, Bullock, Jenks and French,
Evolution of State Pharmaceutical Associations, Pennsylvania Pharma-
ceutical Association, Progress of Pharmaceutical Legislation, Pharmacy
Law of Pennsylvania, Prerequisite Laws and Pharmaceutical Licensure,
U. S. Pharmacopoeias of 1880 and Later, Honors to Leaders of American
Pharmacy, Responsibility for Public Health, Enactment of the Federal
Food and Drugs Law, Enactment of State Food and Drugs Laws, Admin-
istration of the Federal Food and Drugs Law, Narcotic Laws, First Com-
mercial Training in Pharmacy, Food and Drugs Course (1907), Fac-
ulty Changes, Merging of Department of Pharmacy and Chemistry of the
Medico-Chirurgical College, Text Books Issued by the Faculty, Service of
the College in the World War, Graduates of Pharmacy in Pharmaceutical
Journalism, Changes in the Courses and Degrees, Bachelor of Science
Courses, Honorary Degree of Master in Pharmacy, Degree of Master in
Pharmacy in Course, The Spirit of Research, The Master Research Work-
ers of American Pharmacy, A Specialized Scientific School, Library, Mu-
seum, Botanical Gardens, Scholarships, Fellowships and Prizes, Adminis-
trative Changes in 1921.

6 First Century of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy

Chapter VII Alumni Association of the College ; Its Origin and Work.

Chapter VIII Merging of the Department of Pharmacy and Chemistry of
the Medico-Chirurgical College with the Philadelphia College
of Pharmacy.

Chapter IX American Journal of Pharmacy.

Chapter X Centennial Year.

Committee on Centennial Celebration, Founders' Day Exercises, Centennial
Celebration Week, Centennial Exercises, Centennial Reception and Banquet,
Commencement Day, Endowment of the College, Official Statement by the
Board of Trustees, The Dawn of a New Era in Scientific Pharmacy, Co-
operative Research in Pharmacy and Medicine.

Chapter XI Officers, Trustees, Executives and Faculty of the Philadelphia
College of Pharmacy.

Officers : Charles Marshall, Peter Williamson, William Lehman, Daniel
B. Smith, Edward B. Garrigues, Charles Ellis, Henry Troth, Elias Durand,
Samuel F. Troth, Joseph C. Turnpenny, Dillwyn Parrish, William Hodgson,
Jr., Ambrose Smith, Charles Bullock, Samuel S. Bunting, William J. Jenks,
William B. Thompson, Howard B. French, Charles A. Weidemann, Warren
H. Poley, Otto W. Osterlund, William C. Braisted.

Trustees : Thomas Wiltberger, Warder Morris, Thomas J. Husband, A. J.
L. Duhamel, Henry C. Blair, 2d, David S. Jones, Evan T. Ellis, Wilson H.
Pile, Henry N. Rittenhouse, Charles Shivers, William Mclntyre, Albert
P. Brown, Alonzo Robbins, Edwin M. Boring, Wallace Procter, George M.
Beringer, William E. Lee, C. Stanley French.

Executives: Thomas S. Wiegand, W. Nelson Stem, Jacob S. Beetem,
William R. Keeney.

Faculty: Samuel Jackson, Gerard Troost, George B. Wood, Benjamin
Ellis, Franklin Bache, Robert Eglesfeld Griffith, Joseph Carson, William
R. Fisher, Robert Bridges, William Procter, Jr., Robert P. Thomas, Edward
Parrish, John M. Maisch, Joseph P. Remington, Samuel P. Sadtler, Freder-
ick B. Power, Henry Trimble, Frank X. Moerk, Edson S. Bastin, Clement
B. Lowe, Henry Kraemer, John A. Roddy, Freeman P. Stroup, Julius W.
Sturmer, Heber W. Youngken, Charles H. LaWall, E. Fullerton Cook,
Louis Gershenfeld, Frank G. Ryan, Josiah C. Peacock.

Charles E. Vanderkleed, Robert P. Fischelis, Francis E. Stewart, Henry
Leffmann, Howard Kirk.

John E. Cook, Charles F. Zeller, J. Louis D. Morison, William S. Weakley,
Elmer E. Wyckoff, E. Russell Kennedy, Herbert J. Watson, Joseph W.
Ehman, Edwin L. Newcomb, Alfred Heineberg, Wallace S. Truesdell,
Joseph L. Wade, Armin K. Lobeck, Philip F. Fackenthall, Anton Hogstad,
Jr., W. F. Haase, Jr., Ivor Griffith, Chalmers J. Zufall, J. Edward Brewer,
Paul S. Pittenger, Ralph R. Foran, M. Hollenbach Gold, Mitchell Bernstein.
Benjamin H. Hoffstein, Nathan A. Simpson, Edward J. Hughes, Adley R.
Nichols, Marin S. Dunn, Clarence A. Wesp, Edward T. Hahn, John J.
Bridgeman, Jr., Adam Hastings Fitzkee, Luther A. Buehler, William
Schleif, W. Ward Beam.

Chapter XII Biographical List of Graduates of the Philadelphia College of
Pharmacy, and of the Department of Pharmacy and Chemistry
of the Medico-Chirurgical College.

Chapter XIII Alphabetical List of Graduates of the Philadelphia College of
Pharmacy, and of the Department of Pharmacy and Chemistry
of the Medico-Chirurgical College.



One hundred years have passed since the druggists and apothecaries of Phila-
delphia met and organized the first college of pharmacy on the American Continent.

Philadelphia, founded by that far sighted Quaker, William Penn, on the
western bank of the Delaware River, had been the leader in so much that was
associated with American history and science, that its pioneer service in separating
pharmacy from medicine and dignifying it with professional standing, was but a
natural development.

Stimulated by the philosophical and scientific leadership of Benjamin Franklin
and the group of young men who gathered about him, Philadelphia had become the
pioneer of the Colonies in many educational, industrial and humanitarian move-
ments. A vigorous protest against slavery, the reprinting of the Bible and of the
works of Shakespeare, the starting of an American newspaper and of a magazine,
the establishing of a drug mill, a paper mill, a botanical garden* and an astro-
nomical observatory, were the direct outcome of the cultural influences of early
Philadelphia. Here was the first American hospital, the first college of medicine
and the first law school of the New World, and here assembled the Continental
Congress which wrote and adopted that immortal state paper the Declaration of
Independence of the American Colonies, which resulted in the birth of the Ameri-
can nation.

It was in this creative and inspirational atmosphere that the Philadelphia
College of Pharmacy was founded.

Philadelphia in 1821

Philadelphia in 1821 was the principal city of the United States and the largest.
In it much of the business of the Federal government continued to be transacted,
in spite of the removal of the capitol to the District of Columbia. Many of the
foreign ministers and consuls resided here instead of at Washington. Here was
the Mint in which our money was coined. Here was the National Bank, the second
great financial institution to be chartered by Congress for regulating the fiduciary
relations of the country, housed in a fine granite building on Chestnut Street be-
tween Fourth and Fifth Streets (now the U. S. Custom House), under the presi-

* The old homestead of John and Mary Bartram on the west side of the Schuylkill, be-
tween 54 and 56 Streets, now a public park, is America's first botanical garden. Bartram's
father was a Quaker, loved and admired by his acquaintances. Following a fancy to have
none but his hands erect a home in his old age, he built, of stone and timber, the house that
now stands in the park and engraved upon the front the lines :

"To God alone: the mighty Lord:
The Holy One by me adored."


8 First Century of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy

dency of Nicholas Biddle. With a famous bar, famous physicians and surgeons,
famous publishing houses, a prosperous trade on the river with Europe, the West
Indies and all the rest of the world, which brought every kind of merchandise to
her wharves and established fortunes for many of her citizens, Philadelphia had
come to be regarded as the most distinguished of American communities.

Philadelphia had a population of 137,000; New York of 123,000; Baltimore
of 62,000: Boston, 4.3,000; and New Orleans, the most important town in the
South,- some 40,000 inhabitants.

The West, which was reached only by the aid of the great canvas covered
wagons which toiled up the steeps of the Alleghenies and down the slopes of those
mountains to the shores of streams which poured their waters into the Mississippi,
was a wilderness whose future the most prophetic could not yet foretell. Barges
laden with goods passed down the Ohio in the spring freshets, the boatmen return-
ing on ships by way of Philadelphia and Baltimore. Sailing packets, and now for
a few years the new steamboats, still only experiments, threaded their way among
the snags and rapids to the Gulf of Mexico. Pittsburgh, at the head of the Ohio
River, the seat of some iron industries, was the home of only 7,000 people ; Cincin-
nati, 10,000 ; St. Louis, like New Orleans, flavored with the civilization of France,
from which it had so recently been acquired by purchase, was the quiet abiding
place of 4,500 people. Buffalo was a mere village on the verge of western settle-
ment with a population of 2,000 ; while Chicago, later destined to boom its way to
wealth and importance with such irresistible power, consisted of but a few cabins
clustered around Fort Dearborn.

Not a railroad had yet been seen better than the one Thomas Leiper had built
in the large yard of the Bull's Head Tavern on North Second Street, which fact
soon led him to construct tracks leading from some quarries which he owned
on Crum Creek in Delaware County.* Over this tramway crude cars filled
with stone were drawn by horses three-fourths of a mile to a landing on Rid-
ley Creek. It was not until the summer of 1832 that brightly painted cars, built
after the pattern of the English mail coach, were pulled by horses from a station
at Ninth and Green Streets through the green fields lying north of the city as far
as Germantown.

At the same time, in the summer of 1832, tracks were being put down from
the Belmont plateau on the west side of the Schuylkill to the town of Columbia on
the Susquehanna, the beginning of a railroad into the West, and the nucleus of that
great transportation system which we know now as the Pennsylvania Railroad.
It was finished as far as Paoli in 1832 and a spur was run into West Chester. But
it was 1834 before the rails reached their destination and were ready for use from
tidewater to the Susquehanna.

* In the Union of May 25, 1822, "Innovator" stated that "it is a matter of surprise that
there has never yet been a railroad built in this country, when roads on this construction have
so long been used in England, where their utility is acknowledged. True, they have never yet
been used for the purpose of traveling, but, in my opinion, they might be, and steam coaches
might run on them, which would be as great an addition to the comfort and speed of passen-
gers on land as the steamboats are on the water. I have often read of them, but never saw
one in operation, and was, therefore, gratified by the view of the one in miniature IIQW at
Springer's Garden in Camden, and I think any of your readers would also be satisfied with
their excursion, as a pleasant sail brings them to the place."

First Century of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy 9

When the druggists and apothecaries of Philadelphia were formulating their
plans for the establishment of their College, even the canals were not available for
ferryboat or passenger traffic. For a long time plans had been on foot for digging
a way for boats between the Delaware and Chesapeake to take care of the Southern
trade, and for a canal along the Schuylkill which might reach into the north and
west. But upon the excavations, little progress had been made until after the War
of 1812, when men of means came to the support of the undertakings. It was 1825
before boats which had traversed the whole length of the Schuylkill Canal reached
Fairmount, and 1827 before the connecting Union Canal by way of Reading to
Middletown on the Susquehanna was open for navigation. A half dozen years more
passed before the Juniata was canaled and by a portage in the mountains passengers
and freights could be conveyed to Pittsburgh and to ports on the Ohio and the
Mississippi. The Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, across the little State of Dela-
ware, to facilitate communication with Baltimore and the South, and the Lehigh
Canal, running from Mauch Chunk down to Easton, were not opened until 1829.
The all-water route to New York, with the assistance of the Delaware and Raritan
canal from Bordentown to New Brunswick, was not available for use until 1834.

In 1821 the only method of reaching the West was by stage coach out the Lan-
caster Pike. It was a trip of from five to seven days to Pittsburgh over indescrib-
ably bad roads, and it cost each passenger about twenty dollars. Emigrants were
packed into the Conestoga wagons "the East Indiamen of the road" making the
journey in twenty days, and paid the wagoners five dollars a live hundred weight,
the same rate as for their goods. Market (then High) Street and the side streets
around the taverns, where the teamsters stopped, were at times choked with the
lumbering vehicles which had brought Western produce into the city and would
carry back clothing, hardware, salt, iron, paint and other articles necessary to the
people settled on the frontier. Winter and summer, great long limbed horses, wear-
ing bells, used in the mountains to signal their approach to teamsters coming in an
opposite direction on some narrow road, stood in all weather tied to the wheels of
their wagons, eating their oats and corn from the feeding troughs, which, like the
tar boxes and the water pails, were slung under each vehicle.

The Lancaster Pike of that day revealed a long procession of these cumber-
some carriers of freight. The stage coach dodged in and out among them. Droves
of live stock on their way to the market raised clouds of dust. All came to rest at
the inns set at the road side the driver of cattle, the wagoners, and the stage coach
driver and his passengers. There were sixty-one stage and wagon taverns on the
pike between Philadelphia and Lancaster. Here meals were hastily eaten, thirst
was quenched and horses were refreshed and changed. "The present generation,"
says a writer whose memory covered this period, "cannot realize the commotion
that was caused by the arrival and departure of half a dozen stages of rival lines
with horns blowing, streamers flying and horses on the full run." Sometimes as
many as thirty coaches, each drawn by four horses, though six were used in the
mountains, stopped at one of these taverns in a single day. The Conestoga wagons
were drawn oftentimes by as many as eight animals.

Going North and South travelers were aided by the rivers. Packets borne by
the wind and the tide, and later steamboats, carried passengers down the Delaware

io First Century of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy

to New Castle. Here they boarded a stage coach to be taken over the peninsula
to Frenchtown on the Elk River, a distance of sixteen miles, where another packet
or steamboat was found by which they could proceed on Chesapeake Bay to Balti-

The trip to New York, when it was not made throughout by coach, involved
a packet trip up the river to Bordentown, and a coach ride to New Brunswick on
the Raritan, or Elizabethtown Point or South Amboy. Packets were found at these
places to bear the traveler by water on to New York. For as little as three dollars
one could pass from city to city. In 1825, when fast steamboats were in use, the trip
to New York could be made between sunrise and sunset. A passenger would be
awakened at his inn at a very early hour in winter time before it was yet light
in order to make the boat. As he reached lower Chestnut Street he would meet men,
women and children, carts, coaches and barrows passing in columns to the Dela-
ware River where the bells were clanging, the steam pipes hissing, the wood fires
under the boilers sending up a fountain of sparks. Porters were noisily engaged
in transferring freight and baggage from wharf to deck. The crowd was augmented
by many who came to bid their friends farewell as they started on their fateful
journeys. Candy men, fruiterers and news agents passed through the throng, and
a harper or Scotch piper played his instrument on the boats. Out on the river the
passengers were called to breakfast.

All this was better than a trip at night. There were berths for but a few.
Others must sit up or lie upon the floor. The gassy stoves in cold weather, the
thumping of the billets of wood on their way to the boiler fires, the bawling of the
firemen and pilots, the ceaseless movement of the paddle wheels, with the crying
of infants and the moaning of the sick, made sleep out of the question except to
the hardiest.

A dozen, sometimes twenty, coaches were assembled at the end of the river
trip. They proceeded overland in a procession to meet the boat which was to be
boarded for the next "water stage."

The canals up the Schuylkill and Lehigh Rivers were necessary to bring the
new "stone coal" to Philadelphia, and in 1821 only a little time had elapsed since a
method for burning it had been discovered by accident. According to Hazard's
Register only 365 tons of anthracite coal were received in Philadelphia in 1820,
though five years later the total was increased to 33,000. Houses, public buildings
and factories were being fitted gradually with stoves and furnaces adapted to its
use, and the sooty sweeps who, time out of mind, had trooped through the city,
offering to clean chimneys, gradually disappeared.

Lighting was by candles and animal oils. The streets were illuminated only
by a few lamp posts surmounted by frames which Franklin had devised. With
lanterns in hand, a few night watchmen patroled the town, calling out their "Twelve
o'clock and all's well," "Three o'clock and bright starlight," for the information of
those who might be lying awake on their feathers in four post beds. It was Wil-
liam Lehman, one of the founders of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, who
led the way in City Councils for the introduction of illuminating gas as a lighting
agent. In Peak's Museum in the State House in 1816 were seen "lamps burning
without wick or oil," rightly regarded as great curiosities. Gas lights were in-

First Century of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy 1 1

stalled in the Chestnut Street Theater. The new Masonic Hall in 1820 was equipped
with a small gas making plant, but some years were to pass before private resi-
dences should give up the tallow dip and the whale oil lamp in favor of the new

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