giving off at each bend a short branch
ending in a plain-rimmed calycle. Cap-
sules borne in the axils. The gonozooids
of Obelia have the peculiar habit of often
turning the swimming-bell inside out.
Common upon weed, stones, shells, etc.,
upon the beach, and in deeper water. Has-
. 1 3. Obelia ge/atinasa, Pallas.
A very beautiful zoophyte suggestive of
a young and graceful birch tree. The
stem is compound and the branches are
usually given off in regular whorls. The
calycles are said by Hincks to be dentate,
but they are very difficult to define under
the microscope, the margin usually appear-
ing folded inwards. The capsules are deep
and vase-like and are formed in the axils.
A large and common species often growing
in very exposed positions on the shore.
From imperfect specimens preserved the
impression is gained that this species may
also occur with simple stolonic stem, over-
running other zoophyte stems. Hastings.
14. Obelia /ongissima, Pallas.
A species sometimes over a foot in
length, branching and tapering gradually
to the summit. The calycles are squarely
dentate ; capsules a little deeper than wide.
Amongst the trawlers' rubbish it may be
readily mistaken for a tangle of hair.
Common in the trawl from deep water.
15. Obelia dichotoma, Linnaeus.*
1 6. Campanularia Integra, McGillivray.*
17. Campanularia verticil/ata, Linnaeus.
Stem and main branches compound.
Around the axis are given off simple, partly-
ringed branches, rather long and of equal
length terminating in dentate calycles.
The capsules are long and narrow-necked,
and occur on the compound parts of the
axis. Not uncommon in the trawl from
moderately deep water. Hastings.
1 8. Campanularia flexuosa, Hincks.
The notes and sketches at hand of this
species only allow of the remarks that the
calycles have a plain margin and are borne
upon rather long and well-ringed foot-
stalks, and that the capsules are an elongate
oval in form. Hastings.
19. Campanularia neglecta, Alder.*
20. Lovlnella clausa, Lov6n.
A minute species throwing up long slender
stems ringed at the top, undulating else-
where, with deep elegant calycles of which
the scalloped margins are prolonged into
pointed segments which meet overhead,
closing the aperture. The chitine appears
to be of some thickness at the bottom of
the calycle, gradually thinning out towards
the top ; polypite with from twelve to
fourteen tentacles ; no capsules observed.
A single specimen associated with Perigs-
nimus repens upon Nucula nucleus. Coral-
line zone. Hastings.
21. Gonothyrea graci/is, Sars.
This zoophyte at first glance with the
hand-glass may be mistaken for Clytia
jobnstoni, but the calycles are much
deeper, the teeth of the margin longer and
sharper, and inclining inwards rather than
outwards. The stem just below the caly-
cle has four or five rings and again at the
base is ringed. Branches bearing a ter-
minal polypite are given off at about two-
thirds of the distance up the stems. Upon
Tutu/aria indivisa ; rare, Hastings.
22. Opercularella lacerata, Johnston.
Zoophyte of very slender habit. It oc-
curs wound like fine thread around the
polyzoan Anguinella palmata, throwing up
short branching stems much annulated.
The calycles on short ringed footstalks
have the plain margin cut into segments
which meet over the centre, forming an
operculum. The polypite stretches out of
its calycle fully to the extent of the length
of the calycle. The species also occurs
upon sponges ; not general. Hastings.
23. Lafo?a dumosa, Fleming.
This species occurs in two forms, either
with simple stem over-running other coral-
lines and giving off, without footstalks,
tubular calycles narrowed and slightly
twisted at the base; or it is found with
compound branching stem giving off around
the axis the closely arranged calycles, the
whole suggesting perhaps a very prickly
bramble in miniature. Both forms common
in the coralline zone. Hastings.
24. LafoHa pocil/um, Hincks.
Upon Dipkasia rosacea, Eudendrium
rameum, etc. The creeping stem gives off
short, ringed peduncles with tubular but
shapeable calycles, some of which appear to
approach to the more tubular form pygmtsa.
In the Hastings specimens the peduncle has
from four to six rings, whereas Hincks gives
from five to eight for this species, and two
or three to Alder's species pygmeea. Some-
what rare. Hastings.
25. LafoHa pygmtea (?), Alder MS.
Some years ago this species was recorded
from Hastings, but in the absence of notes
and specimens mislaid, a query is here
26. Caiycelia syrtnga, Linnaeus.
Over-running the polyzoan Anguinella
palmata together with Qpercularella /acerata,
already noticed. The calycles are borne
upon short, three-ringed footstalks given off
from the creeping unringed stem. They
rather resemble those of 0. /acerata,
but are longer and not so swollen in the
middle. Some of the smaller calycles
which have the operculum introverted, and
so not seen, bear a resemblance also to the
calycles of Lafol'a pocillum and pygmeta.
Common upon Anguinella at low tide.
27. Fili Hum serpens, Hassall.
Stem nearly always creeping over other
hydroids, but in one instance upon a scallop
shell. It gives off ovate tubular calycles
without footstalk, the lower half being
adnate, and the upper half curved upwards,
showing a slightly trumpet-shaped aperture.
Calycles transversely lined.
There is a remarkable form in which
apparently this species occurs, not mentioned
by another author, so far as the writer is
aware, and which merits notice. Upon
old shells covered with incrusting polyzoa,
the zooecia of the latter will often be found
to contain hydroid calycles peeping out of
the apertures and bearing nearest resem-
blance to the present species. The calycles
are always black and glassy, possibly dis-
coloured by sulphuretted hydrogen ; some-
times they are long and tubular, at others
ovate in the lower, and tubular in the upper
half, and always with very trumpet-shaped
apertures. There is generally one calycle
in each zocecium, but occasionally there are
two. On dissolving the zocecia in acid,
only imperfect calycles are obtained, show-
ing no connection with a stem. It is
possible that these may be the primary
zooecia of the present species which are
prevented from freely budding by reason of
their limited surroundings. The type form
is common, and the other form described
is not uncommon. From deep water.
28. Coppinia arcta, Dalyell.
A peculiar zoophyte, usually found
surrounding in short masses the stem of
Hydrallmania. A cross-section of the dry
polypary shows a chitinous layer enveloping
the stem, tunnelled with passages, one
above the other. From these passages
arise, at a little distance apart, tubular
calycles bent in the upper portion at about
a right angle. The calycles at half their
height are cemented together by a floor of
chitine. In the intervening spaces of this
floor are seen slightly-tubular orifices,
apparently subserving the escape of the
planules. Not uncommon. Hastings.
29. Halecium halicinum, Linnaeus.
Rather a coarse looking zoophyte. Stem
and main branches compound ; branches
given off pinnately ; the footstalks bearing
the calycles are telescopic in appearance,
the latter resembling in shape a drinking-
tumbler. It is important to note in the
female gonophores of this genus, as Hincks
has pointed out, that the gonozoSid-bearing
polypites are not atrophied as in all the rest
of the Thecaphora, but are perfectly
recognizable polypites, protruding from one
side of the capsule. From moderate to
deep water ; common. Hastings.
30. Halecium beanii, Johnston.
A species of much more delicate and
flexible habit than the last. In the female
gonophore there is a lobe which projects
considerably in front of the aperture. From
deep or moderately deep water ; not un-
A HISTORY OF SUSSEX
31. Sertularella polyzonias, Linnaeus.
A little, straggling species with stem and
branches of the same thickness throughout.
The calycles are somewhat oval and
arranged alternately on either side of the
axis into which they appear to be sunk.
The capsules are large and wrinkled. Often
found growing upon annelid tubes, flustra,
etc. Common in the trawl. Hastings.
. 32. Sertularella gayi, Lamouroux.
This species resembles in type S. poly-
zenias, but it is larger and of stouter build.
The stem is compound with calycles
alternate, short, stout and turned well out-
ward, and having four slight denticles to the
margin. The polypary is brown, the
margins of the calycles appearing some-
what lighter. Not uncommon in the
33. Sertularella rugosa, Linnaeus.
A small species often over-running flustra,
and throwing up short branches with
clusters of alternate wrinkled and oval
calycles. The capsules resemble the caly-
cles, but are much larger and contracted at
the base. Common. Hastings.
, 34. Sertularella tenella, Alder.
Hastings specimens appear to link together
as nearly as possible Alder's species tenella
and Hincks' species fusiformis. The
branches are about inch in height, arising
from the stem creeping over flustra. Caly-
cles smooth, intermediate in slenderness,
aperture with four denticles. The stem is
bent at a right angle immediately above each
calycle in a strongly zigzag manner.
Capsules large, ringed and with four
denticles. These points agree therefore
with tenella, except in the calycles being
smooth, not quite so slender, and in the
capsules being toothed, in which respects
the specimens resemble fusiformis. Hast-
35. Dipbasia rosacea, Linnaeus.
A very delicate and graceful species, the
laterally branched stems being flexible and
plume-like. The calycles are tubular, bi-
lateral, opposite, and bent straight outwards.
The female capsule is thrown into vertical
folds producing at the top a crown of spines
of which two, one on either side, project,
the others being curved over the centre.
Habitat, upon other zoophyte stems, sponges,
etc., from moderately deep water. Not
36. Dipbasia attenuata, Hincks.
A species very like rosacea and difficult
to determine in the absence of the capsules,
which are certainly the best specific guide.
In this species the height of the stem joint
above the offshoot of the calycles below is
not so great as in rosacea, and the stem
between each pair of calycles is not so
attenuated. The calycles are also a trifle
longer and narrower. The male capsule
has a crown of spines directed horizontally
outwards, and one central and vertical
spine. Very common from the coralline
zone, and from moderately deep water.
37.? Diphasia fallax, Johnston.
The species is recorded with a query in
the Natural History of Hastings before
quoted. Although specimens are not at
hand, the record appears well founded.
38. Sertularia pumila, Linnaeus.
This hydroid covers densely the bladder-
wrack at low tide. The stem is only
about inch in height, and little branched.
The calycles are tubular, short, bent out-
wards and arranged in pairs, oppositely.
Capsules ovate. Very common. Hastings.
39. Sertularia gracilis, Hassall.
Of very similar growth to the last species
but smaller, denser, and altogether more
refined. Erect stems, not observed to
branch. The calycle margin is thrown into
two sharp points. Capsules ovate. This
species over-runs other hydroid stems. Not
very common. Hastings.
40. Sertularia opercu/ata, Linnasus.
This is a rich and luxuriant species and
has been termed 'seahair.' It affects
mussel shells and Laminarian stems. The
stems are long, fine, wavy, branching and
of equal thickness throughout. The colour
might be almost called a dull golden. The
calycles are arranged in pairs, oppositely,
and the margins of the apertures are thrown
into sharp points. Capsules balloon-shaped.
Occasionally colonies of this zoophyte might
almost be said to rival in the number of its
members the population of London. Very
common from moderate to deep water.
41. Sertularia filicula, Ellis and Solander.*
42. Sertularia abietina, Linnaeus.
The erect stems are about 6 inches in
height, pinnately branched, stout, and with
calycles lateral and opposite, to alternate.
They are ovately tubular and bent slightly
outwards. The capsules are oval and
wrinkled. Common upon scallop s'lells,
etc., from moderately deep water. Hast-
43. Sertularia argentea, Ellis and Solander.
Stems of considerable length, gyratory,
giving off around the axis short branches in
a palmate manner. Calycles sub-opposite ;
apertures sharply pointed. Capsules shield-
shaped. From moderate to deep water ;
not uncommon. Hastings.
44. Sertularia cupressina, Linnaeus.
Stems very long, branches short and
palmate, the zoophyte as a whole tapering
to a point in a somewhat snake-like manner.
The calycles are sub-opposite, diverge very
little from the stem and have sharply-
pointed margins. Capsules narrowly shield-
shaped. Hastings specimens are rather
inferior in size and condition. Common
from moderate to deep water. Hastings.
45. Hydrallma nia falcata, Linnaeus.
Stems long and gyratory, giving off
around the axis pinnate branches. The
calycles are ovately tubular, borne crowded
upon the upper sides of the branches, and
almost in the same straight line. Their
apertures are turned alternately to the right
and left. Capsules ovate ; very common
from the coralline zone. Hastings.
46. Antennularia antennina, Linnaeus.
Stems simple, long and straight, from
which are given off radiately at frequent
nodes along the axis, short delicate sprays of
equal length. The calycles which are cup-
like are borne in a single line upon the
upper sides of these sprays, and with them
are associated the peculiar organs called
nematophores. The capsules are ovate.
Hincks gives 8 or 10 inches as the height
of this species, but the writer has obtained
it 1 8 inches in length from the Diamond
Ground, where it is common. This
zoophyte is much frequented by the
Nudibranch molluscs Data coronata and D.
pinnatifida, which attach their egg-bands to
its stem. Hastings.
47. Antennularia ramosa, Lamarck.
The most striking feature of this species
is that it branches and rebranches. The
stem is compound, a cross-section of it
showing a large central tube with many
minor ones, varying in size and overlying
one another, running parallel with it, the
whole being welded together. The tubes
communicate one with the other, thus
indicating the continuity of the ccenosarc.
The calycles and nematophores closely
resemble those of the last species, as do also
the capsules, but the latter taper towards
the base and are curved. Common upon
scallops and rock from the Diamond
48. Aglaophenia pluma, Linnaeus.
This species envelops the stem of
Halidrys siliquosa in a loose stolonic mesh,
giving off beautiful plume-like branches
with irregularly toothed calycles arranged
in single line upon the upper surfaces of the
pinnae. Associated with the calycles are
three nematophores, two lateral and one
median. The capsules are ribbed, the ribs
being armed with nematophores. Plentiful
upon the beach, after rough weather.
49. Plumularia pinnata, Linnaeus.
A very delicate and beautiful species
growing in tufts of plume-like stems. The
calycles are shallow and cup-like, and
arranged singly upon the upper sides of the
pinnae. There are two nematophores, one
above and one below each calycle, and one
generally situated in the axils of the pinnae.
The gonophores are conspicuously and
closely set upon each side of the stem.
Hincks observes that the calycles are only
separated by a single joint. This does not
always appear to hold good with Hastings
shore forms, in which there are sometimes
two joints. The form from deeper water
is much larger but not of frequent occur-
rence at Hastings, where the shore form is
always in profusion on rocks, stones, shells,
sponges, etc., at low water. Hastings.
50. Plumularia setacea, Ellis.
A most delicate species, almost escaping
detection. Readily distinguished from P.
ptnnata by the long drawn out, narrow-
necked capsules, when present, or by the
difference in the character and number of
the nematophores. Taken upon Antennu-
from deep water ; rare. Hastings.
Plumularia obliqua, Saunders.*
52. Plumularia similis, Hincks.*
A HISTORY OF SUSSEX
53. Physalia, sp.
This record is made for Brighton upon
the authority of Mr. W. Wells, superinten-
dent of the Aquarium, Brighton.
, 54. Aurelia aurita.
In this common jellyfish the umbrella is
large and transparent ; the radial canals are
of a delicate pale mauve colour, and the ten-
tacles around the margin are many and short.
Conspicuous through the umbrella are the
opaque-white gonads in quarters. Oral
arms short. Common. Hastings.
. 55- Chrysaora cyclonota.
The upper surface of the umbrella is
marked around the centre with a brown
circular ring, a short distance from which
arise brown, V-shaped rays extending to a
little distance short of the margin, the sur-
face generally being finely speckled with
brown. The marginal lappets are also of
a dark brown. Intermediate in position
between these are long streaming tentacles.
Oral arms long and frilled. Common.
56. Cyanesa lamarckii.
Looked at from above, the inner surface
of the umbrella appears of a pale heliotrope
colour, slightly marbled, and around the
centre and not far from the margin there
is a circular band or coronet of some depth,
of a dark heliotrope colour, and sending off
rays to the marginal lobes ; these are large,
and veined with the branching canals.
The tentacles are collected together in
knots between the lobes. The surface bor-
dering upon these is strongly cancellated
with muscular tissue. This species grows
to a large size. Common. Hastings.
57- Actinoloba dianthus, Ellis.
The disc of this anemone is thrown out
into plume-like marginal lobes, covered and
fringed with rather small and short ten-
tacles. The column is tall and smooth.
The colours are of the most delicate shades,
running through every grade of white,
pink, red, yellow, salmon, orange, grey
and brown. It is obtained from the Dia-
mond Ground, and may occasionally be
met with upon the shore at low tide, but
specimens so found have probably been
thrown overboard by fishermen. Common.
58. Sagartia bellh, Ellis and Solander.*
59. Sagartia miniata, Gosse.
Animal dark red, as broad as high.
Margin of disc thrown into unequal, ragged-
looking lobes. Taken once or twice upon
trawled rock. Rare. Hastings.
60. Sagartia rosea, Gosse.
The tentacles of this species vary in
colour from rose-red to crimson-lake or
lilac. A most lovely anemone. It is
usually found anchored down to some
stone or mussel shell below the surface.
Not very common. Hastings.
61. Sagartia sphyrodeta, Gosse.*
62. Sagartia troglodytes, Johnston.
This species occurs at Hastings in great
variety, a favourite haunt being a mussel-
bed with shingle beneath, the whole being
covered with a thin layer of mud or sand.
Here the anemones can attach themselves
to the shingle or the mussel shells and
withdraw instantly, or push their way
upwards to expand on the surface. The
species is nearly always known by the ' B '
mark at the base of the tentacles, upon the
inner face. Very common. Hastings.
63. Sagartia viduata, Mailer.*
64. Sagartia parasitica, Couch.*
65. Adamsia palllata, Bohadsch.
Specimens of the form rhodopis, Gosse,
have been taken upon shell of whelk and
Natica from somewhat shallow water, and
the variety crinopis, Gosse, upon shell of
Scaphander /ignarius. The Acontia are of
a beautiful mauve colour and readily attract
attention. Rare. Hastings.
66. Antbea cereus, Ellis and Solander.
This beautiful species with low wide
column and long, green, worm-like ten-
tacles tipped with magenta occurs along
the beach at Brighton. Upon the authority
of Mr. Wells, of the Brighton Aquarium,
the variety rustica is also a resident there.
The species is certainly not known at
Hastings, and the fact may indicate a
difference of temperature of the water
between these localities.
67. Actinia mesembryanthemum, Ellis and
Characteristic of this species are the
vivid blue dart-charged spherules around
the margin of the disc, outside the ten-
tacles. It occurs at Hastings in several
varieties of colours, viz. vars. a, /3, f, i and
X of Gosse, the colours being respectively
liver-brown, dark crimson, dark olive-green
with broken lines of light green, and liver-
coloured with green spots. Very common
at low water. Hastings.
68. Bunodes gemmacea, Ellis and Solander.t
69. Bunodes clavata, Thompson. t
70. Tealia crassicornis, Mtiller.
A large and handsome anemone with
wide and low column, the outer surface of
which is provided with suckers. By these
means the animal attaches to itself grains
of sand and shell, covering itself to such an
extent that it has often the appearance of a
piece of stucco. The tentacles are short
and thick, and generally barred with pink
and white. The tentacles are occasionally
found budding, the buds being produced
from all sides. Common at low tide and
from deeper water. Hastings.
71. Ilyanthus mitcbe/lii, Gosse.
A rare species, and as such deserving
fuller notice. A dozen specimens were
obtained on one occasion from a trawler.
Length of a specimen, i inches. The
colouring of the column varied as follows :
In one instance it was wholly of an orange
or light tomato-colour ; in others, and
more generally, there was below the ten-
tacles a flesh-coloured band, then a narrow
or broad zone of tomato-colour extending
to a quarter or half the length of the
column, followed by a broad band of flesh-
colour and another of tomato-colour of
about equal depth, extending to the base.
In one specimen the whole of the column
was of a pale flesh tint, with the exception
of two zones of a very pale tomato-shade.
The disc and tentacles were coloured as
follows : Lip, opaque white, with an outer
ring of brownish purple, then a wider zone
of cream-colour and the space extending to
the tentacles of brown-purple. The ten-
tacles were in two rows ; the core of ten-
tacle was of a light golden or straw colour,
with bars upon the inner face of purple-
brown, or in some of the outer tentacles of
dark-grey ; the outer face of the tentacles
appeared grey or curry-coloured. Around
the base and upon each side of the tentacles
swerved a cream-coloured line, not how-
ever uniting upon the outer side. Goni-
dial radii cream-coloured ; stomach a light
tomato, with a line of deep orange-colour
running down each ridge of the folds. The
specimens were taken at the beginning of
the year, and the white or salmon-coloured
ova were clustered like grapes upon the
mesenteries. Locality, 25 miles off Beachy
, 72. Zoantbus, sp.
Upon scallop shells. Not uncommon.
73. Alcyontum digitatum.
The only common coral upon the Sussex
coast. It forms lobed, rounded masses
upon rocks at low water and upon shells
and rock from deeper water. The skeleton
is spicular, and the polyps are white, with
eight tentacles, fringed laterally with papillae.
The colour of the colonies is milk-white or
orange. Common. Hastings.
74. Pleurobranchia pileus.
Animal almost spherical, barely inch
in diameter, with eight longitudinal rows of
swimming paddles, beneath each of which
runs a circulatory canal terminating blindly
at either extremity. The flash of the
irridescent paddles in the sun as the little
balloon-like body ascends in the water is a
sight well worth seeing. Very common
during most years, in the summer, at
75- (?) Pleurobranchia rkodopis, Chun.
A large species of about the size and
shape of a walnut, and of similar structure
to the foregoing species. It was taken in
the trawl in profusion a few years ago. The