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THE ANTIQUARY



VOL. XXXI.



THE



ANTIQUARY:



A MAGAZINE DEVOTED TO THE STUDY
OF THE PAST.



Instructed by the Antiquary times,
He must, he is, he cannot but be wise.

Troilus and Cressida, Act ii., sc. 3.



VOL. XXXI.

JANUARY DECEMBER, 1895.



London: ELLIOT STOCK, 62, Paternoster Row.

1895.



THE GETTY CENTER
LIBRARY



NOTES OF THE MONTH.




The Antiquary.



JANUARY, 1895.



jftotes of tfje eont&.

In our " Notes of the Month " for December
we mentioned a small bronze that had turned
up at Tullie House, Carlisle, with Kpovos on
a paper label on its wooden stand, and a
supposed Etruscan inscription cut on the
bronze itself. It has since been submitted
to the authorities at the British Museum,
who pronounce the figure interesting and
genuine, a verdict which they decline to
extend, in both its branches, to the inscrip-
tion. The bronze is evidently a part of one
of the feet of an Etruscan bronze cista. It
represents a satyr with wings, and the wings
are explained by the necessity of having a
broad surface to make a secure attachment.
This figure has become detached from the
cista, and fallen into the hands of some-
one who has sawn off the figure's legs and
mounted it on a wooden stand with Kpovos
on a paper label pasted thereon ; while on
the figure's breast he has cut the word
" Krunus " in Etruscan characters. Two or
three things betray the fraud; the lettering
is wrong ; the word " Krunus " does not
appear to have been known to the Etrus-
cans, and an inscription in such a place is
very unusual. The fraud is probably the
work of some Italian dealer in antiquities,
bent upon improving a genuine piece of
antiquity into a more saleable article. The
condition of the label, and of the wooden
stand show that the fraud must be of some
age perhaps a century. The bronze has
been in the Museum certainly twenty years,
perhaps fifty.
vol. xxxi.



A fine carved head, in red sandstone, of
Roman date has just been added to the
Tullie House collections ; it appears to have
been found there during the excavations for
the foundations, and to have been carried off
by one of the navvies, who kept it until stress
of circumstances, or thirst for beer, forced
him to realize. It represents a face with
bold profile ; the hair, which is done in small
coils, is confined by a narrow fillet round
the head, and carried down the side of the
face to meet the whiskers and beard, which
are dressed in the same manner.

& 4p 4p

Mr. R. Holmes, of Pontefract, draws atten-
tion in a local newspaper to an interesting
discovery. He says : " The Pontefract water-
supply is now being extended to Carleton, or
rather to the Pontefract Ward outskirts of that
village, and during the excavations necessary
for laying the pipes, a very interesting dis-
covery has been made of an old - world
bouldered road. This was uncovered on
the rising ground between the railway-bridge
and the ' Rest-and-be-Thankful,' which was
placed by the late Rev. J. Armitage Rhodes
about two-thirds up the hill.

4? 4? 4p

"The bouldered road was clearly that 'way
to Carleton Cross,' towards the reparation of
which Robert Austwick, by will dated May 7,
1505, bequeathed the sum of 3s. 4d., an
amount by no means so insignificant in those
days as it appears in the present. The
boulders of which the road was composed
were of a good granulated sandstone, which
had not suffered much from the erosion to
which they had been subjected while being
converted into boulders, and which, although
their rougher surfaces had been worn down,
had not assumed the oval form which they
would have done had they come a long
distance at a low rate of speed.

4p ^ 4p

" The cross itself was a boundary cross
facing Carleton, and occupying the small
recess near the top of the hill, in which
'Rest-and-be-Thankful' was placed about
a quarter of a century ago, and which at one
time was even more spacious than at present.
A wayfarer, seated on this seat at the end of
Swan Hill Hat, which is in Pontefract, has
Carleton before him as on a map, and a cross



NOTES OF THE MONTH.



at that point must have been seen to great
advantage from a considerable distance to
the south, east, and west. But there is now
no trace or vestige of it ; there are no traces
even of its name on any of the neighbouring
plots, and its existence had been entirely for-
gotten until recent research recovered its
memory.

4f

"The road at that position illustrates in a
very peculiar manner the way in which
such Anglian towns as Pontefract were
approached. The traveller from Carleton,
for instance, passed through an outlying
portion of Pontefract, then again a Carleton
plot, and finally entered Pontefract at what
is now the Bar Terrace. And this system
of having interlocking lands was probably
adopted as a help in some way to the defence
and security of the place. So, leaving Ponte-
fract at the Bar Terrace, he passed through
a piece of Carleton, which extended to
the left with very well defined boundaries
till he reached Swan Hill Lane, when
he passed through a similar plot of Ponte-
fract, which had half an acre's extent to his
right, though the boundaries have been (quite
of recent years) destroyed. The position of
this outlying half acre, separated by the main
road from the remainder of the original
enclosure, is, however, defined by the
presence of two gates to the same field,
one of which leads to the Pontefract portion,
and the other to the half acre which pays
rates to Carleton. The termination of this
Carleton portion was fixed by the Carleton
Cross, and it is now ascertained by the
position of ' Rest and-be-Thankful.'

<k $? '$>
"There are, it may be interesting to know,
two other such boundary crosses in different
parts of the border of Pontefract, and in
somewhat similar positions to that occupied
by the Carleton Cross, and all three may be
attributed to the twelfth century. The
second is the only one of which there are
now any remains. Jt has been called Stump
Cross for centuries, probably since its demoli-
tion ; but its original name was Ralph's Cross,
and it was the boundary between Ferrybridge
and Pontefract. The third such cross was
on the Darrington Road from the Old
Church neighbourhood. It was the boun-



dary between Ferrybridge and that outlying
portion of Pontefract which is called the
Greave Field. All, it will be observed, were
upon the highroads to Carleton, to Ferry-
bridge, and to Darrington respectively."

4p 4p 4p

A most important discovery has been made
at Darenth in Kent. It seems that a large
number of broken Roman tiles had been
observed on the surface of the soil of a field
near Darenth church, and with the consent
of the tenant a series of trial holes was
made in the ground. About a foot below
the surface definite foundations of a Roman
building were encountered, and the assistance
of Mr. George Payne, F.S.A., was called in.
Subsequent investigations (which are still
proceeding under Mr. Payne's superinten-
dence) have led to the discovery of a Roman
villa.

4p

As the exploration is still unfinished, it is
impossible to say what remains to be found,
but so far, within an area of about half an
acre in extent, a quadrangular building has
been laid bare. The outer walls are built of
flints bound together by mortar, and are
plastered on the inside ; they are about
2 feet in thickness. The inner walls are
not so substantial, but a plaster moulding
runs round the lower part of both the walls
at their contact with the floor. Two of the
rooms have floors paved with tesseroe of red
brick in a good state of preservation. One
of the other rooms is paved with large tiles,
and remains of a tile floor exist in another.
We borrow the following account from the
Times, which gives a very good description
of the character of this unexpected "find":
"Along the north front is a row of five
chambers of various widths, but all of the
same length north and south, viz., about
27 feet. The largest is nearly square, the
next about 18 feet in width, and the three
others from 6 to 9 feet wide. Beyond
these, on the east, is a tiny room about
6 feet square, and it is probable that other
foundations exist in this direction. On the
western side of this range of rooms is a large
hall, to which probably admission was gained
by a corridor which apparently ran in front
of them. This hall runs southward to an
extent that cannot yet be determined, with



NOTES OF THE MONTH.



a width of about 17 feet. Abutting on the
outer wall of this hall is a small chamber
that is conjectured to be the bath, from the
proximity of the hot-air passages, which are
here extremely solid, and from a curious
arrangement of flanged tiles round the sides.
A good deal of the middle has still to be
cleared, but enough has been done to prove
that walls exist there. A kind of causeway,
formed of tiles laid flat in courses, runs due
south, beginning at about 35 feet from the
back of the row of rooms on the north. At
one side of the causeway is the base of a
wall, and on the other a channel, possibly
for a warming-flue. Following this to the
southward, it was found to communicate
with a semicircular chamber about 6 feet
wide, built with great solidity. The open
side faces due south, and it would, there-
fore, receive more light and heat than pro-
bably any other room in the house."

jjp cjjp cjjp

The credit of the discovery is due to
Mr. E. A. Clowes and Mr. T. B. Marchant,
who first observed the tiles in the field ;
while Mr. Burtenshaw, the tenant of the
ground, very readily fell in with the proposal
for a thorough exploration, and with his con-
sent Mr. Clowes has since taken a lease of
the field from the Ecclesiastical Commmis-
sioners, to whom it belongs. Funds are
now being raised in order to enable the
exploration to be satisfactorily accomplished
under Mr. Payne's direction.

4p 4? #

Another most important discovery has been
made in Kent, at Burham, near Rochester.
It appears that while removing sandstone in
Messrs. Peters and Co.'s Cement Works, the
workmen found buried, or built into it, a
chamber formed of chalk blocks, and which
once had a barrel vault. It is about 40 by
15 feet in dimension, and stands east and
west, with three semicircular niches in the
east wall. It was lighted through the roof
by a long narrow window on the north side.
This is a Roman Mithrceum, or Mithraic
Temple, and is the only one which has as
yet been found south of the Tyne. Near it
are the unexplored foundations of a priest's
house. A number of tiles, bones, and other
Roman remains were found in it, but no
images or portions of any. For the time



these two discoveries in Kent have suddenly
diverted attention of antiquaries to that
county in particular.

tjtft wp cjtj

The Rev. C. R. Manning, F.S.A., has kindly
sent us a photograph of the font in Hoxne
Church, Suffolk, which is here reproduced.
He writes regarding the font as follows :
"This font is of some historical interest. The
armorial bearings sculptured upon it enable
its date to be determined within twelve years.
It is one of a common East Anglian type,
having an octagonal bowl, with four of its




1




|


t m


I


ft*




1


m



sides carved with the emblems of the four
Evangelists, and the other four with angels
holding shields. The bowl is supported
underneath by angels with expanded wings,
and the stem has four seated figures, and
four others, smaller, standing on pedestals.
The seated figures wear cowls or tippets, but
their heads are broken off; the others,
where not mutilated, appear to have high
pointed caps or turbans, and wear stoles.
These two sets may possibly represent the
four doctors of the church and the four
greater prophets. Of the four shields on the



NOTES OF THE MONTH.



bowl, those on the north and west faces bear
two keys and two swords in saltire, emblems
ofSS. Peter and Paul, in whose honour the
church is dedicated. The arms on the
shield facing south are azure, a fess between
three leopards' faces, or, for I)E LA
POLE : quartering Gules, a lion rampant
double -queued, or, for BURGHKRSH:
and impaling the Royal Arms, France and
England quarterly, with a label for differ-
ence. These were the arms of John De la
Pole, second Duke of Suffolk, and his wife,
Elizabeth Plantagenet, daughter of Richard,
Duke of York, and sister of Edward IV.
and Richard III. He was married before
October, 1460, and died in 1491. The
tomb and effigies of himself and his wife are
on the north side of the altar in Wingfield
Church. The arms on the other shield
facing east are those of Walter Lyhart,
Bishop of Norwich, 1446 to 1472 : argent,
a bull passant sable, within a border of the
second bezanty. The date of the font is
therefore between 1460 and 1472. It is
probable that John De la Pole built the
tower of Hoxne Church, and otherwise re-
stored the fabric, about the same time. The
ancient moated Vicarage House adjoining is
of similar date, and was probably the work of
Bishop Lyhart, who erected the roof of the
nave of Norwich Cathedral, and to whom, as
Bishop, the revenues of the Rectory and
Manor of Hoxne belonged, and who had a
residence in the parish."

4> 4> <fr

Mr. Manning adds that "This account has
been printed and framed, and hung on the
wall by the font, for the information of
visitors. A longer notice will be found in
the East Anglian Notes and Queries, New
Series, i. 329."

ifc $ r t?

The new session of the Society of Anti-
quaries opened on November 22. The
meetings during January will be held on
the 10th (ballot for election of fellows
only), 17th, 24th, and 31st. The two
other days appointed for the election of
fellows during the year are March 7 and
June 13. It is to be sincerely hoped that
the recent spell of blackballing, which caused
so much anxiety, is to be a thing of the past,
and that the wise counsel which Sir Wollas-



ton Franks gave at the last anniversary will
be followed. The use of the ballot gives
the members of a society the opportunity of
impersonally rejecting objectionable candi-
dates, but it easily lends itself to abuse, and
such abuse is greatly to be deplored.

4p 4p #

At the weekly meeting of the Society, on
November 29, Mr. C. A. Markham, who is
preparing a work on the " Church Plate of
Northamptonshire," exhibited a very fine





nut, with silver mounts, bearing London
marks for 1586. Mr. Markham also ex-
hibited a mediaeval paten from Welford
Church, with a sexfoil depression, the span-
drels being plain, and the central device
that of the Manus Dei. The date of the
paten is circa 1350. The Manus Dei was a
favourite device on earlier patens, but not a
very common one afterwards. It seems not
impossible that the circular device, which is
found in the centre of nearly every mediaeval



NOTES OF THE MONTH.



paten in England, may have originated in a
pictorial representation of a wafer. The
device on the Welford paten (Fig. i) may be
compared with that on a paten at Paston,
Norfolk (Fig. 2).

c |? & $?
Not a few persons have suggested that in
some of the brutal scenes, which of late
years have disgraced civilization, the turn of
the tide towards original savagery might be
detected. Few, however, would have con-
ceived it possible that an apparently serious
attempt to return to savage customs, " on a
scientific basis," would be proposed. Yet,
if we are to believe what French newspapers
tell us, this is to be the case, and we are to
have a set of genuine savages turned out
into the forests of Auvergne, and there left to
breed and propagate their species. After
the American "professor's" cage-life in
Africa, and his conversations with the
monkeys, this beats the record for sensa-
tional nonsense.

$ $ jjp

" Arrangements," we are told, " are now
being completed for the formation of a
curious colony next spring, the progress of
which will be watched with interest. The
leader of the movement is the Paris paper
Gravelle, and the idea is that, by returning
to the early and natural state of man, human
beings can live a life of ease and pleasure,
without work, and entirely independent of
the trammels of civilization. Some land has
been procured in Auvergne, consisting
mostly of chestnut forests, well supplied with
water, and furnished with commodious
caves. Here five men and a like number of
women are to take up their habitation in a
few months' time, living together in a natural
state, clad only in skins of beasts. Bread
they will not make, and its place will be
taken by chestnuts. Water is to be their
beverage, though they have no objection to
cider and wine. They have been unable to
renounce tobacco. A doctor they do not
expect to require, and they will live either in
huts or caves, according to the season of the
( year. The land to be allotted them measures
eight hectares, and they compute that one
hectare of land inhabited by game will yield
a thousand kilos of meat yearly. Before
taking possession, they are going to well



stock the plantations with rabbits, pigs,
goats, and fowls, which will all live in a wild
state, and will be prevented from escaping
into more civilized quarters by an impene-
trable fence."

$ & )&
Can anything be more inconceivably
foolish, or even wicked ? The refusal to
renounce tobacco gives just that touch of
absurdity to the whole affair which it only
needs to make it the laughing-stock of all
reasonable people. We should have sup-
posed that the story could only be a hoax,
were it not that we are assured that it is
perfectly genuine, and that one of its objects
is to enable antiquaries and others " to study
prehistoric man from practical observation."
What next, we may well wonder, will be pro-
vided for the unfortunate antiquary of the
present day to repudiate ? To forgeries of
implements we are now to have added
forgeries of the people who used them !
The whole affair, indeed, may be dismissed
with scorn as too contemptible for serious
notice.



jTurtfjer jRotes on a^anr
jFolfciore.

By A. W. Moore, M.A.

Author of Surnames and Place-Names of the Isle of Man ;
Diocesan History of Sodor and Man ; folklore of the Isle
0/ Man, etc.

Introduction.
INCE the publication of my Folk-
lore of the Isle of Man, I have,
with the help of several friends,
collected a considerable amount
of fresh material. Most of this is from oral
sources, but there are also some extracts
from scarce books and pamphlets which had
previously been overlooked.* As it is not
likely that a second edition of the Folklore
will be published for some years to come,
and as, in the meantime, it seems a pity that
the additional information I have obtained
should not be secured from all risk of being
lost, I have placed it at the disposal of the

* Chapters I., II. and IX. are mainly from printed
sources, the other chapters being almost entirely of
oral origin.




FURTHER NOTES ON MANX FOLKLORE.



editor of the Antiquary. It has been thought
desirable to divide it into nine chapters,
corresponding with those of the Folklore of
the Lsle of Man, and as there are inevitably
numerous references to the latter, those who
take an interest in the subject are advised to
procure that publication.* I wish to take
this opportunity of thanking all those who
have co-operated with me in collecting these
" Notes," especially Mr. William Cashen, the
Assistant Harbour Master at Peel, who has
a thorough knowledge of his countrymen ;
Miss Graves, also of Peel, whose contribu-
tions arc particularly valuable from being in
the Anglo-Manx dialect now spoken in the
Isle of Man; and Mr. Roeder, of Manchester,
a most competent and scientific inquirer.

A. W. Moore.



Chapter I. Myths connected with the
Legendary History of the Isle of
Man.

In the chapter so headed we have given
the pseudo-historical account of Manannan
Mac Leirr, the famous eponymous ancestor
and founder of the Manx people. But,
supplementing this account, there are
numerous romantic references to him at all
stages of Irish literature, where he usually
appears as King of the Fairies, in a
mysterious country called " The Land of
Promise." In this country he had a cathair,
or stone fort, in which was a banqueting-
hall, where " comely dark-eyebrowed gillas
went round with smooth-polished horns :
sweet-stringed timpans, were played by them,
and most melodious, dulcet-chorded harps,
until the whole house was flooded with
music."t Here, also, " a set of long-snouted,
spur-heeled, lean-hammed carles . . . used
to practise games and tricks, one of which
was this : to take nine straight osier-rods
and [the while they stood on one leg and
had but one arm free] to dart them upward
to rafter and to roof-tree of the building, he
that did this catching them again in the
same form."!

He possessed great magical powers and
numerous magical properties.

* The Folklore of the Isle of Man can be obtained
from David Nutt. Price is. 6d.

f From the "Colloquy of the Ancients": Silva
Gadelica, O'Grady, pp. 199, 200.



Thus, he had a horse called " Enbarr of
the flowing mane," who was " as swift as the
clear cold wing of spring," and travelled
with equal ease over land and sea. He had
a coat of mail, through, or above and below
which no one could be wounded ; a breast-
plate which no weapon could pierce ; a
sword, called "The Answerer," from the
wound of which no one ever recovered, and
those who were opposed to it in the battle-field
were so terrified by looking at it that their
strength left them; a ga-holg, or string, ex-
tracted from a serpent, in the use of which
he is said to have instructed Cuchulainn* ;
a marvellous canoe, called the "Wave-
sweeper," and a wonderful branch. The
magical powers of this branch, etc., and of
the sword, will be illustrated by the following
stories :

The Magic Branch.

" Of a time that Cormac, the son of Art,
the son of Con of the hundred battles, that
is, the arch-king of Erin, was in Liathdruim,
he saw a youth upon the green before his dun,
having in his hand a glittering fairy branch,
with nine apples of red gold upon it. And
this was the manner of that branch, that,
when anyone shook it, wounded men, and
women with child, would be lulled to sleep
by the sound of the very sweet fairy music
which those apples uttered ; and another
property that branch had, that is to say, that
no one upon earth would bear in mind any
want, woe, or weariness of soul, when that
branch was shaken for him, and whatever
evil might have befallen anyone, he would
not remember it at the shaking of the
branch. Cormac said to the youth, ' Is
that branch thine own ?' ' It is indeed mine,'
said the youth. ' Wouldst thou sell it ?'
asked Cormac. ' I would sell it,' quoth the
youth ; 'for I never had anything that I
would not sell.' ' What dost thou require
for it ?' said Cormac. * The award of mine
own mouth,' said the youth. 'That thou
shalt receive from me,' said Cormac, ' and
say on thy award.' 'Thy wife, thy son,
and thy daughter,' answered the youth ;
' that is to say, Eithne, Cairbre, and Ailbhe.'
'Thou shalt get them all,' said Cormac.

* MS. "The Adventures of Seven Irish Cham-
pions in the East."



FURTHER NOTES ON MANX FOLKLORE.



After that the youth gives up the branch,
and Cormac takes it to his own house to
Ailbhe, to Eithne, and to Cairbre. ' That is
a fair treasure thou hast,' said Ailbhe. ' No
wonder,' answered Cormac; 'for I gave a
good price for it.' ' What didst thou give for
it, or in exchange for it?' asked Ailbhe.
'Cairbre, Eithne, and thyself, O Ailbhe.'
' That is a pity,' quoth Eithne ; ' (yet it is
not true:) for we think that there is not
upon the face of the earth that treasure for
which thou wouldst give us.' ' I pledge my
word,' said Cormac, ' that I have given you
for this treasure.' Sorrow and heaviness of
heart filled them when they knew that to be
true, and Eithne said, ' It is too hard a
bargain [to give] us three, for any branch in
the world.' When Cormac saw that grief
and heaviness of heart came upon them, he
shakes the branch amongst them, and when
they heard the soft sweet music of the
branch, they thought no longer upon any
evil or care that had ever befallen them, and
they went forth to meet. the youth. ' Here,'
said Cormac, ' thou hast the price thou didst
ask for this branch.' ' Well hast thou ful-
filled thy promise,' said the youth, ' and re-
ceive [wishes for] victory, and a blessing for
the sake of thy truth.' And he left Cormac
wishes for life and health, and he and his



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