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on a fragment of Samian ware. Mr. Blair also read
the following extract from an article on " The Ger-
mans and Classical Archaeology," in the Architect of
March 30, 1894, p. 342 : " Within the last year or
two we have had in England an example of how that
can be accomplished [to convince authorities of the



superiority of the Germans]. The inquiry about the
Roman Wall in the North of England and Scotland
may be said to have been conducted by two military
archaeologists from Germany. The local archaeologists,
who were most familiar with the remains of the old
defence, could not help concluding that their know-
ledge was of a partial kind when compared with that
of the visitors, who might easily be imagined to have
been engaged in the Roman war department under
Hadrian, and to understand what differentiated the
British line of defence from those in other parts of the
empire. If a question arose about repairing a part of
the Wall in Westmorland, the County Council would
probably consider it an advantage to have the benefit
of the advice of the German officers." He added that
so far from General von Sarwey, the only German
who visited the Wall last summer, coming to give
local archaeologists his advice, his visit was purely to
compare the works in Britain with the Limes in Ger-
many, now being surveyed and excavated by a com-
mission under the auspices of the German Government.
Of this commission General von Sarwey is the military
director. Mr. Blair also said, so far as he knew, there
is no Roman Wall in Westmorland, and, besides, if
there were, the County Council could have no control
over it.



Eetuetos ana Notices
of JBeto l5ooks.

[Publishers are requested to be so good as always to
mark clearly the prices of books sent for review, as
these notices are intended to be a practical aid to
book-buying readers. ]

The Complete Works of Geoffrey Chaucer.
Edited by Rev. Professor Skeat. Clarendon Press.
Vol. v., pp. xxv, 515. Price 16s.

This is the last but one of the six volumes of this
fine edition of the father of English poetry. Its
predecessors have each been noted with approval in
these columns at the time of their publication. This
issue is entirely confined to notes on the Canterbury
Tales ; these volumes are, beyond doubt, the fullest
and at the same time the most scholarly edition of
Chaucer that has yet been published. The introduc-
tion deals with several points of interest, opening with
a treatise on the canon of Chaucer's works, whereby
the genuine works are separated from others that have
been attributed to him at various times by mistake or
inadvertence. The text of the Canterbury Tales is
also further discussed. The few simple rules given
for the use of those who do not care to study the
language or grammar of Chaucer, but merely wish
to read the text with some degree of comfort, and to
come by the stories and their general literary expres-
sion with the least trouble, are most useful.

As an instance of the practical character of the
notes we may quote one explanatory of the difference
between a pilgrim and a palmer, terms which even
well read men, particularly among some of our leading



62



REV JEWS AND NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS.



novelists, are apt to confuse. '* Palmer, originally one
who made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land and brought
home a palm- branch as a token. . . . The essential
difference between the two classes of persons here
mentioned, the palmer and the pilgrim, was, that the
latter had some dwelling-place, a palmer had none ;
the pilgrim travelled to some certain place, the palmer
to all, and not to any one in particular ; the pilgrim
might go at his own charge, the palmer must profess
wilful poverty ; the pilgrim might give over his pro-
fession, the palmer must l>e constant. The fact is
that palmers did not always reach the Holy Land.
They commonly went to Rome first, where not un-
frequently the Pope allowed them to wear the palm
as if they had visited Palestine."

* * <B
A Glossary ok the Terms used in Heraldry.

A new edition, with one thousand illustrations.

Oxford and London : James Parker ami Co.

Pp. xxviii, 659. Cloth, Svo. Price 10s. 6d.
The late Mr. J. H. Parker's name is so closely
associated with quite a small library of admirable
manuals on architecture, and with a number of other
works on archaeology, all of which are well known,
that it will be something of a surprise to many persons
to learn that about fifty years ago he published a
Glossary of Terms used in British Heraldry. The
book, too, has been out of print so long that it has
become almost forgotten. The new edition now
published by his son, Mr. James Parker, is practically,
as he himself tells us, a new book, and the elabora-
tion and care which have been bestowed upon it are
as characteristic of this as they are of the other
archaological works, for which both father and son
have been so honourably distinguished for more than
half a century. Another well-known characteristic
of the Messrs. Parker's books is the copious manner
in which they are illustrated. The present volume
fully maintains that reputation, and the neat little
woodcuts, which occur in great profusion on nearly
every other page, are often a great help in explaining
in a practical manner the significance of a heraldic
term. To anyone who is beginning the study of
heraldry this will render the book of great value and
usefulness ; while others who know more or less of
the science will not be disposed to regret the lavish
manner in which explanatory illustrations are pro-
vided. So far as it is possible to judge there are very
few, if any, inaccuracies in the book, although we are
bound to express surprise in finding in such a work
as this, the old fiction repeated, that the figure of our
Saviour (in relation to the dedication of the cathedral
to the Holy Trinity) on the arms of the See of
Chichester is that of the mysterious being known as
Prester John. We thought this absurd theory had
been fully exploded long ago, and to find it perpetuated
in a work like this is a little startling, to say the least.
It would be an interesting fact to ascertain exactly
when and by whom the very wild idea of Prester John
on the Chichester shield was first started.

As showing the thoroughness with which Mr.
Parker has done his work, we may mention that no
less than thirty-two pages are taken up in describing
the different heraldic forms and uses of the cross, and
eight with the various forms of the crown. In every
instance the subject dealt with is thoroughly worked



out. Indeed, thoroughness may be said to be one of
the special characteristics of this useful and welcome
volume.

* # *

Old English Embroidery : Its Technique and
Symbolism. By Frances and Hugh Marshall.
Cloth 4to., pp. xii, 138. London : Horace Cox.
Price 10s. net.
This is a very attractive - looking book, nicely
printed, and with a considerable allowance of good
illustrations. It is dedicated to the Princess Christian,
who is well known as herself no mean authority on
the art of embroidery. The book is written rather
from the needlewoman's point of view than from that
of the archaeologist, but it need be none the less
valuable on that account, and, indeed, the actual
value of the book lies in that particular characteristic,
and not in its archaeology. Few better accounts of
the embroidery of the Middle Ages have ever been
written than an article by the late Rev. C. H.
Hartshorne, which appeared about fifty years ago in
one of the early volumes of the Archaological Journal.
So far as we can judge, a great portion of the archae-
ological element in the book before us is based on
Mr. Hartshorne's paper, and we are afraid we must
say that this indebtedness of the authors to Mr.
Hartshorne, is not acknowledged as it should be.
There are, moreover, statements in the book which
show that even on important subjects the information
given must have been obtained second-hand, and in
some instances it is consequently inaccurate, and not
up to date. We may refer in this connection to the
statement that the Bayeux tapestry is kept in the
cathedral church there. For a long time past this
has not been the case, the tapestry having been
removed to the museum, where, at least as far back
as twenty years ago, it was seen by the writer of
this notice. Such a casual misstatement as this, made
by the authors of the book, suggests that they cannot
examined the tapestry, and that their information is
derived from some second-hand source, and is out of
date. As we said before, the value of the book does
not lie in the archaeological section, which is not very
original in any part, and is often inaccurate. The
value of the book lies rather in the fact that the
subject of embroidery is treated from the practical
view of an embroiderer.

In spite of its faults from an archaeological point
of view, the book is a good one on the whole, and
is written in a style likely to suit the popular taste.
It is nicely illustrated, and would make a very good
present for a lady interested in the subject. It will
not, however, suit the deeper student, and perhaps
was not written for him.

* * *

Abstracts of Protocols of the Town Clerks

of Glasgow. Vol. I. First Protocol Book of

William Hegait 1 547- 1555, pp. 130. Crown 4to.

Glasgow: Carson and Nicol. Price 6s.

The Protocols printed in this book relate in the

main to property situated in the city of Glasgow,

though there are some connected with landed estates

in the south-west of Scotland. A book like this is

simply invaluable to the local antiquary and

topographer. Anybody who is familiar with ancient

deeds of bargain and sale of small properties realizes



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS.



63



at once, their value to the student of local topography.
Very often it is a good deal like putting together the
pieces of a child's puzzle, but as bit by bit the whole
fits together, a general survey of the ancient topo-
graphy of a place becomes possible, and with but
little trouble the complete outline of a place at some
former period of its existence is obtained. This is
exactly what these Protocols do for Glasgow in the
middle of the sixteenth century, and, indeed, a
conjectural plan of the city of Glasgow has been
compiled from the Protocols, and is appended at the
end of the volume. Glasgow antiquaries will await
with impatience the publication of subsequent
Protocols. It is to be hoped, too, that elsewhere
in Scotland similar records, if existing, may be
similarly published. We only regret that no such
register of lands was kept in England. A new vein
has been struck in old Scotch topography, which we
trust will be fully worked as speedily as possible,
before there is further danger of loss from fire or
other mishap to the originals.

The book is very well edited by Mr. Renwick,
who gives a succinct and useful account of Public
Notaries, much of which will be new to many persons.
Among the minor details of the Protocols we may
allude to the hour or time of day, as well as the date,
being inserted. This seems very unusual, and we
should like to know whether it was a common Scotch
custom or not. Glasgow, we may note, possessed
its " Ratten Rawe," like so many other places in
both kingdoms. The book is clearly printed, and is
nicely turned out. In fact, it deserves to be praised
all round. We hope that the succeeding volumes
will be as interesting, and will be as ably edited as
this one. The idea ,of printing the Protocols is
excellent ; we only wonder they have been allowed
to remain in obscurity so long.

* * *
Costume of Colonial Times. By Alice Morse
Earle. Cloth, 8 vo., pp. 264. London: David
Nutt. Price 5 s.
This book, which is enshrined in a very pretty
cloth cover, is really a dictionary of the different
terms used in connection with costume in the early
days of the now "United States," and at a time
when they were still part of England's colonial
possessions. Hence the title of the book. The book
may be compared in many respects to the Drapers'
Dictionary, a useful book known, no doubt, to many
readers of the Antiquary. In the present case,
however, the scope of the work is somewhat
narrowed, but is thoroughly surveyed, and we
believe accurately. There is, indeed, a great deal
of absolutely new matter, and some curious informa-
tion which we do not remember to have seen before.
Others besides those interested in things trans-
atlantic will find this book of use, and the authoress
deserves to be commended for her evident care to be
as accurate as possible, as well as for a laudable
brevity and terseness of description, where many
another lady writer would have been tempted to
spin out a long story. The book is one which will
be distinctly useful on the library shelf. It is clearly
printed and tastefully bound.



%Wt Jftoteg anD
Corce0ponnence.

A PROBLEM IN TACITUS.

The Annals of Tacitus are imperfect, so that the
proceedings in Britain appear to open abruptly in
book xii., chapter 31 (A.D. 50), where we find that
P. Ostorius Scapula purposed to control the hostile
natives by constructing a chain of forts across the
whole country, between (the reading varies) the Avon,
Anton, or Nen, and the Severn ; and this various
reading causes a difficulty.

The Iceni resist this proposed measure, which
probably commenced in their neighbourhood at
Dunstable ; after their defeat Ostorius marched
against the Cangi towards the shore (of Wales, about
Carnarvon), but is disturbed by the Brigantes ; then
the Silures rise, and he found it neccessary to quarter
some legionary soldiers among them (the 2nd Legion
at Caer Leon). Veterans were also settled at
Camulodunum, thus converting the stronghold of
Cunobelinus into a Roman colony ; then he follows
up the Silures, under Caractacus, into the territory of
the Ordovices (the Berwyn Hills in Montgomery-
shire) ; the latter being defeated, seeks shelter from
Cartismandua among the Brigantes, but is given up
and taken as captive to Rome, where Ostorius
obtains his trumph ; but, returning to Britain, the
latter finds his settlement among the Silures (at Caer
Leon) in great danger ; he sets the matter right, but
dies shortly after.

Later on Tacitus explains that this narrative,
necessarily much condensed, really covers several
years (perhaps nine or ten), so allowing full time for
the completion of his line of forts, all subsequently
developed into what we call boroughs, towns, and
cities. We see here the possible origin of the great
highway known as Watling Street, really constructed
to connect these isolated forts, just as Agricola is
supposed subsequently to have done, in the North,
with later additions by Hadrian and Severus ; no
wall, however, was needed in the South. Watling
Street extends from Wroxeter on the Severn to the
Warwickshire Avon near Rugby ; it touches the Nen
near Daventry, and proceeds by St. Albans, anciently
Watling Ceaster, to London, Canterbury, and Dover.
The primitive chain of forts are fully defined as
stations or stages in the second Antonine iter, which,
it will be observed, runs from Richborough, near
Sandwich, to Uriconium, where it diverts a short
distance into Welsh territory, before reaching
Chester ; this, to our modern ideas, seems uncalled
for, but it is a reminiscence of the trouble experienced
with the Ordovices and Cangi ; and we gather clearly
therefrom that Chester, or Deva (leg. xx. victrix),
was a subsequent foundation.

All the troublesome tribes above mentioned were
outside this boundary, which probably constituted the
first Roman province in Britain, afterwards known as
"Britannia Prima," and somewhat narrowed in ex-
tent. To recapitulate, the Brigantes were the most
distant and somewhat pacified ; they were left at
liberty. The Iceni were coerced by the garrison at



64



SHORT NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE.



Colchester ; the Silures learned in time to venerate
their great city of Isca, leg. ii. Augusta ; the
Cangi and Ordovices were overlooked by the 14th
legion at Wroxetcr ; while all British tribes within
this cincture were greeted as allies and, no doubt,
assumed the toga, as with Cogidubnos at Chichester.
As to the unfortunate Iceni, it must be noted that
Watling Street, at Dunstable, cuts off their line of
communication with Cornwall, the seat of the tin
trade : called Icknield Street, it ran from Caister,
near Norwich, i.e., Venta Iccnortttn, in a south-
western direction, which thoroughfare is known as the
" Icening Way " in Dorsetshire ; this very clearly is
the survival or a primitive British trackway, and this
severing of their communications must be regarded
as a disastrous blow to the Iceni, who shortly after-
wards disappeared most completely from history.

What, then, is the difficulty ? It seems to arise
from the predisposition of critics to read into an
obscure text the substance of their own precon-
ceptions in favour of any particular locality ; thus the
plain words of Tacitus, " cunctaque c&stris Antonam
(or) Aufonam," have been read "Trisantonam,"
because Ptolemy appears to have given that name
to Southampton Water.

A. Hall.

13, Paternoster Row, E.C.



A MIRACLE AT DONCASTER.

The first entry in the latest volume (Kenyon MSS.)
issued by the Historical Manuscripts Commission,
deals with a reputed miracle at Doncaster, under date
July 15, 1524, and gives "testimony by William
Nicolson and others to a miracle worked upon them
by which they escaped drowning." The passage
reads :

" Be it known to all Chrislyn pepull, that on the
15th day of Julii, anno Domini, 1524, that oon
William Nicolson, of the parish of Townsburgh,
three myle from Doncaster, as the said William
schuld have passed over the water of Doune at a
common forde callyd Steaforth Sandes, with an yren
bownd wayn, six oxen, and two horsse, Iooden with
howshold stuff, and havyng also in his said wayn oon
Robert Leche, his wyff and their two chyldren, oon
chyld beyng but half a yere of age, and the other
chyld beyng under seven yeres of age, sett his
servaunte, callyd Ric. Kychyn, upon the formast
horsse, and whan the draghte was past the myddes
of the water, the streem and the wynde was gret, and
drofe the wayn, the oxen, and the horsses down the
water. And the formast horsse, which the servaunte
roode upon, was drowned, and the wayn, with all the
company, wos turned upsodown, and the whelis up-
wardes. Than all the company beyng therin, did
call and cry to Allmighti God and to our Blessid Lady,
whose ymage is honorde and worshept in the Whyte
Freeres of Doncaster, by whos grace the said servaunte
gate holde of an oxe bele, and soo gat to land ; and
his master, William Nicolson, lying in the bothom of
the water emonges his beast's feete, gate holde of a
beast's heed, and thrast hymself towardes the land,
and so, by the grace of God, and of this good Lady
of Doncaster, was savyd. Fyrst [he] dyd take hold



of a willow busch, which dyd breke, callyd of our
Blessed Lady, and gate hold of another and was
sand. Now the said Robert Leche, his wyff and
their two yong children, after that was dryfen down
with the wynde and streem in the myddes of the
mayn water, the space of three-score foote and more,
to an owler busch ; at the which the said Robert,
with his two yong children, by the help of God and
of our good Lady, gate to land. Then, after that,
the wyff of the said Robert Leche was dryven down,
with the wayn, oxen, and the horsses, the space of
three hundred foote and more, with the gret wynd
and the streeme, in the myddes of the mayn water ;
and the wayn turned with the water three times upso-
down, she beyng therein. And than all the peple
beyng on the land, seyng this pituous and hevy sithte,
dyd knele down upon their knees, and made thar
speciall prayers to Allmightie God and to this
Blessed Lady of Doncaster, that if ever she shewed
any merakill, to shew some grace upon this said
woman. And anoon, after the woman was cast
above the water, and spake to the pepill, she beyng
in the water, and said she did ritht well, for God and
our Blessid Lady in Doncaster had preservyd hyr ;
and so, by grace of Allmighti God and of this said
gracious Lady, the wayn, with the beasts and the
woman, was cast towards the land, and soo was savyd,
all the Christyn soules ; howbeyt, there was three
oxen and one horsse drowned, and three oxen and
one horse savid. And that thes premysses been true
and not fayned, the fornamyd William Nicolson,
Robert Leche, his wyff and their two yong childeren,
cam to our Lady in Doncaster apon Mare Mawdleyn's
day next after the date herof, and dyd declare this
gracious merakill, and was sworn upon a boke before
the Prior and Covent, with other of sufficient wyttnes
of their neburs, as followeth : Thomas Boswell,
gentillman, Joh. Turnlay, Joh. Mapill, Robt.
Newcome, with other moo ; and as that day this
gracious merakill was rongne and songne in the
presence of 300 peple and moo. Deo gracias. "



Note to Publishers. We shall be particularly
obliged to publishers if they will always state the price
of books sent for review.

To intending Contributors. Unsolicited MSS.
will always receive careful attention, but the Editor
cannot return them if not accepted unless a fully
stamped and directed envelope is enclosed. To this
rule no exception will be made.

It -could be well if those proposing to submit AfSS.
would first write to the Editor stating the subject and
manner of treatment.

Letters containing queries can only be inserted in the
" Antiquary " if of general interest, or on some new
subject. The Editor cannot undertake to reply pri-
vately, or through the " Antiquary," to questions of
the ordinary nature that sometimes reach him. No
attention is paid to anonymous communications or
would-be contributions.



NOTES OF THE MONTH.



65




The Antiquary.



MARCH, 1895.



jftotes of tbe Sontf).

The cave discovered at Oban, to which we
alluded in the Monthly Notes in February,
proves to be of far higher interest to anti-
quaries than we then supposed. There is no
doubt whatever that the cave dates from a
very early period, and that it was the dwelling
of prehistoric man. The theory that the
bones and shells found their way into it
through some sudden inundation of the sea
at a remote, if not geological, period, is seen
to be quite untenable. This is placed beyond
all doubt by the character of many of the
objects which have since been found in the
cave. The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland
has made a grant towards the expenses of
exploring the cave, and the investigation is
now progressing under the direction of com-
petent antiquaries, from whom before long
we shall, no doubt, learn its true character
and the nature of its contents. Meanwhile,
we may conveniently refer our readers to the
account of the cave communicated by Mr.
W. Anderson Smith to the Glasgow Archaeo-
logical Society, and which will be found in
the account of the January meeting of that
society on another page. The discovery of
the cave is now recognised on all hands as
being one of the most important hitherto
made in the West of Scotland.

A discovery of very great importance has been
made in Durham Cathedral. For a long time
it has been a question whether the choir built
by Bishop William of St. Carilef ended in
one apse or in three. The whole of the east

VOL. XXXI.



end of his building was of necessity removed
when the great Chapel of the Nine Altars was
added at the east of the choir in the middle
of the thirteenth century. Nothing remained
above ground to show the lines of the eastern
curve or curves, and it was generally thought
that Bishop Carilef's choir ended in a single
apse embracing the whole structure, so that
the choir aisles formed an ambulatory behind
the high altar. But it was recognised as quite
possible that each of the choir aisles ended
in a small apse, to the right and left of a
larger apse, which terminated the main body
of the choir. This latter view has now been
proved to be correct. In sinking a hole in
the south aisle of the choir for a heating
apparatus, what seemed to be a portion of an
apse was discovered. The interest of local
antiquaries was at once excited, and under
Dr. Greenwell's direction other excavations
were undertaken. In the corresponding place
in the north choir aisle the greater portion of
the apse which had closed that aisle was
found. In both cases the work, although
quite good enough to be exposed, was evi-
dently only the foundation. For a time it
was thought possible that these might have



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