in the first place, that which the man finds in his own bosom ;
secondly, the brethren and descendants and relations of this
which has been duly implanted in the souls of others j and
who cares for them and no others — this is the right sort of
man; and you and I, Phsedrus, would pray that we may be-
come like him.
Phcedr. That is most assuredly my desire and prayer.
Soc. And now the play is played out; and of rhetoric
enough. Go and tell Lysias that to the fountain and school
of the Nymphs we went down, and were bidden by them to
convey a message to him and to other composers of speeches
— to Homer and other writers of poems, whether set to music
or not. And to Solon 63 and the writers of political docu-
ments, which they term laws, we are to say that if their com-
positions are based on knowledge of the truth, and they can
defend or prove them, when they are put to the test, by spoken
arguments, which leave their writings poor in comparison of
them, then they are not only poets, orators, legislators, but
worthy of a higher name.
Phcedr. What name is that ?
Soc. Wise, I may not call them; for that is a great name
which belongs to God only, — lovers of wisdom or philosophers
is their modest and befitting title.
Phcedr. Very good.
Soc. And he who cannot rise above his own compilations
and compositions, which he has been long patching and piec-
ing, adding some and taking away some, may be justly called
poet or speech-maker or law-maker.
Soc. Now go and tell this to your companion.
Phcedr. But there is also a friend of yours who ought not
to be forgotten.
Soc. Who is that ?
Phcedr. Isocrates 64 the fair.
63 Solon (638-558 B.C.) : a celebrated Athenian statesman and law-giver.
* 4 Isocrates (i-sok'ra-tez, 436-338 B.C.): a Greek orator and teacher of
rhetoric. He came under the influence of Socrates, but never belonged to
the circle of his most intimate friends and disciples.
Soc. What of him ?
Phcedr. What message shall we send to him ?
Soc. Isocrates is still young, Phaedrus; but I am 279
willing to risk a prophecy concerning him.
Phcedr. What would you prophesy ?
Soc. I think that he has a genius which soars above the
orations of Lysias, and he has a character of a finer mould.
My impression of him is that he will marvelously improve as
he grows older, and that all former rhetoricians will be as
children in comparison of him. And I believe that he will
not be satisfied with this, but that some divine impulse will
lead him to things higher still. For there is an element of
philosophy in his nature. This is the message which comes
from the gods dwelling in this place, and which I will myself
deliver to Isocrates, who is my delight ; and do you give the
other to Lysias, who is yours.
Phcedr. I will ; and now as the heat is abated let us depart.
Soc. Should we not offer up a prayer first of all to the local
Phcedr. By all means.
Soc. Beloved Pan, 65 and all ye other gods who haunt this x
place, give me beauty in the inward soul ; and may the out-
ward and inward man be at one. May I reckon the wise to
be the wealthy, and may I have such a quantity of gold as
none but the temperate can carry. Anything more ? That^
prayer, I think, is enough for me.
Phcedr. Ask the same for me, for friends should have all
things in common.
Soc. Let us go.
6:5 Pan : god of woods and fields, of flocks and shepherds ; he dwelt in caves
or forests, and wandered over mountains and valleys.
/ I. The siibifl±afah e Republic is given in the dialogue as s^ ; .
justice. Justice, as here used, may be described quite gener- /
ally as t he rightVonduct of individual and social life . The
conductof jifejsjieldjobe determined by the_jTatun^of^thf.
world in whiclu ve live and by the nature of ma n.
II. We are said to live in two worlds . One, of these is the^-^v,
world which is eternal, unchangeable, absolutely good, abso-
lutely beautiful, absolutely one, in all ways absolutely per-
fect. It is called the / world of be ing^ world of essence , the
J real world ?the. one ^hej>ood^t he absolut e, and other such
names. The soul is said to belong by its highest nature to
the eternal world, and by pure reflection it may know the
real world as it is. This is the only true knowledge, the
only true guide for the conduct of individual and social life.
While we are on earth we are, through our bodies, in connec-
tion with the world of imperfect things. The knowledge
which we have of this world through our bodily senses is
not' true knowledge, and the life of the individual or state is
corrupted in so far as it is guided by such pseudo-knowledge.
For a further discussion of this point see General Introduc-
tion, p. xxiv. For the several grades of knowledge, from
total ignorance to pure science, see especially V., 476, to
III. The Nature of Man : The life of man is said to have
three principles, (a) the appetitive principle which impels him
1 82 PLATO THE TEACHER
toward the satisfaction of bodily desires; (b) the spirited
principle which impels him to fight; and (c) the rational
principle which tends to control all his actions in accordance
with the absolute truth.
The virtues which the soul should possess are accordingly
as follows: (1) Courage: " He is deemed courageous who,
having the element of passion working within him, preserves
in the midst of pain and pleasure the notion of danger which
reason requires.' ' (2) Wisdom : " He is wise who has in
him that little part which rules and gives orders, that part be-
ing suffered to have a knowledge of what is for the interest
of each and all of the three parts." (3) Temperance : " He
is temperate who has these same elements in friendly har-
mony, in whom the one ruling principle of reason, and the
two subject ones of spirit and desire, are equally agreed that
reason ought to rule and do not rebel." (4) Justice : Jus-
tice is the perfect harmony of the other three virtues. " The
just man does not permit the several elements within him
to interfere with one another or any of them to do the
work of the others ; but he sets in order his own inner life
and is his own master and at peace with himself; and when
he has bound together the three principles within him which
may be compared to the middle, higher, and lower divisions
of the scale and the intermediate intervals, — when he has
bound together all these and is no longer many, but has be-
come one entirely temperate and perfectly adjusted nature,''
then he will truly distinguish justice and injustice, and will act
accord ; ngly. In a word, Justice is health — the harmonious or-
ganic unity of all the elements of man's life in accordance
with the absolute truth.
IV. The Nature of the State : The true nature of the State
corresponds to the nature of the individual man. There are
three classes of persons in the State, the laborers, the soldiers,
and the statesmen. The proper virtue for the statesmen is
INTRODUCTION 1 83
wisdom ; for the soldiers courage ; for all classes temperance.
Where all classes have their proper virtues and occupations,
the State has the virtue of justice, or perfect health. On III.
and IV. see Book IV. especially 428 to close.
V. Education : Since the State as a whole and the lives of
all the citizens can be rightly determined only by the abso- \
lute truth, and since the absolute truth or knowledge of the
eternal world is attained only by the philosophers, the phi-
losophers alone are fit to rule the State. A question of pri-
mary importance is therefore the selection and education of
those who are to become the philosopher-statesmen. Very
few, Plato holds, are fit by nature for this high office ; focJhe
nprps^ryjwfppfinn nf hnHy flnrl rrnnH, especially the right
^mingling of gentleness with spirit, are rarely found in the
same individual. When fit children are found, they should
be given the education proper for a guardian, to whatever
class their parents belong.
The elementary education of these children should consist
of music and gymnastics. With Plato, music includes poetry,
and, in a wider sense, all the arts. (See Republic, II., Note
1 7.) The essential thing about the elementary education is
that all things therein shall be determined by the philosopher
in accordance with the absolute truth. The greater part of
the literature and other art of Greece is condemned by Plato,
because its beauty is not a beauty which is in harmony with
the absolute good.
At a later stage (20 years), the youth who is preparing
to be a philosopher-statesman should study the pure abstract
sciences of arithmetic, plane geometry, solid geometry, as-
tronomy, and musical harmony. Only after this preparation,
and at the age of thirty, is he fit to begin the study of pure
philosophy or dialectic. After pursuing this subject for five
years, he enters active public life for fifteen years. After the
age of fifty he returns to the study of philosophy for the re-
1 84 PLATO THvE TEACHER
mainder of his life, with occasional re-entrance into active
life as emergencies may require. A State governed by such
men in accordance with absolute truth is, according to Plato,
ideally good, and every citizen therein will be better and hap-
pier than under any other conditions ; for every citizen will
be doing, in obedience to the wise rulers, what he is best fitted
to do for himself and for others, and will be receiving from
all others that which is his due. See II., 374 to end of III.,
VI., VII., and X., 595 to 608.
VI. The decline of the State : The State will be preserved
as it should be only as long as it is wholly guided by the ab-
solute truth, through the philosophers. If men whose high-
est principle is love of honor, succeed those whose highest
principle is obedience to the truth, the next generation will
likely put love of money in place of love of honor, the next
will put love of pleasure in place of money, and presently all
virtue and health will give place to the wildest license, and $o
at last, to general ruin of State and of the people. /
The several forms of government (to each of which there
corresponds a certain kind of man) are named and described
as follows: (1.) Aristocracy: Literally, government by the
best. With Plato, this meant government by the philoso-
phers. (2.) Timocracy: Literally, government by honor.
With Plato, this meant government by those whose highest
principle is soldierly ambition, and who are ignorant of and
indifferent to true wisdom. (3.) Oligarchy : Literally, gov-
ernment by the few. With Plato, this meant government by
those whose highest virtues are those involved in the acquisi-
tion of wealth, and who are indifferent to true wisdom and
to soldierly honor. (4.) Democracy : Literally, government
by the common people. With Plato, this meant government
by the mob whose highest desire is license regardless of true
wisdom, honor, or the virtues that lead to wealth. (5.) Tyr-
anny : Literally, government by one absolute ruler. With
INTRODUCTION 1 85
Plato, this meant government by one man who has absolute
power over his subjects, and who uses this power solely for
his own lowest self-interest, without regard to wisdom or
honor, and without regard to the material prosperity or the
desires of his people. See VIII. and IX.
VII. Virtue and happiness: As already stated, virtue is
health, the harmonious organic unity of all the elements of
man's life in accordance with absolute truth. Every breach
of virtue is a breach of health. Vice is disease. Vice can
appear to be more pleasurable than virtue only for a little
time. The wages of sin are always quickly misery and ruin.
The virtuous soul, on the contrary, is completely fortified
against real harm or unhappiness. It is at one with itself and
at one with God. It has the joy which springs from perfect
health, and it has that joy not only in this life but in that
which is to come. See IV., 445, IX., 576 to 581 and X., 608
Note. — Most of the first book of the Republic is given up
to an argument between Socrates, Thrasymachus, and others,
in which no conclusions satisfactory to any one are reached.
Here, as in other dialogues, Socrates sometimes appears to be
as sophistical as his opponents. This part of the Republic is
probably to be regarded as a dramatic portrayal of the way
in which the Sophists dealt with questions. The serious con-
sideration of justice in the individual and State begins with
the second book.
PERSONS OF THE DIALOGUE.*
Socrates, who is the narrator. Cephalus.
And others who are mute auditors.
The scene is laid in the house of Cephalus at the Piraeus ; and the whole
discourse is narrated the day after it actually took place to Timaeus,
Hermocrates, Critias, a and a nameless person, who all reappear in the
I went down to the Piraeus 3 yesterday with Glaucon the
son of Ariston, that I might offer up a prayer to the goddess ;
and also because I wanted to see in what manner they would
1 Glaucon (glau'kon) : brother of Plato. He is said to have written a num-
ber of dialogues, but none are extant.
Adeimantus (ad'i-man'tus) : brother of Plato ; mentioned in Apology, 34 ;
little is known of him beyond the representation in this dialogue.
Polemarchus (pol'e-mar'kus) : son of Cephalus, and brother of Lysias,
the orator. The brothers owned a shield factory and amassed great wealth,
on account of which they were seized by the Thirty Tyrants. Lysias escaped,
but Polemarchus was forced, without trial, to drink the hemlock.
Cephalus (sefa-lus) : a resident alien from Syracuse. " We are to think
of Cephalus, not as the Athenian aristocrat, but, rather as the cultivated
manufacturer or merchant prince, residing, no doubt, in a good house, but
in a commercial or industrial quarter. He accepted, we are told, the bur-
dens of an Athenian citizen, and lived for thirty years, unharming and un-
harmed, under the popular government." — Bosanquet.
Thrasymachus (thra-sym'a-kus) : a native of Chalcedon (kal-se'don), a
Greek city on the Bosphorus. He was a Sophist, and a famous teacher of
rhetoric. He is mentioned in the Phaedrus.
Cleitophon (kli'to-fon) : son of Aristonymus (arTs-t