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Lake Peiso[2009], and the deserts of the Boii[2010]; they are however
now inhabited by the people of Sabaria[2011], a colony of the now
deified emperor Claudius, and the town of Scarabantia Julia[2012].




CHAP. 28. (25.)—PANNONIA.


Next to them comes acorn-bearing Pannonia[2013], along which the
chain of the Alps, gradually lessening as it runs through the middle
of Illyricum from north to south, forms a gentle slope on the right
hand and the left. The portion which looks towards the Adriatic Sea
is called Dalmatia and Illyricum, above mentioned, while Pannonia
stretches away towards the north, and has the Danube for its extreme
boundary. In it are the colonies of Æmona[2014] and Siscia. The
following rivers, both known to fame and adapted for commerce, flow
into the Danube; the Draus[2015], which rushes from Noricum with great
impetuosity, and the Savus[2016], which flows with a more gentle
current from the Carnic Alps, there being a space between them of 120
miles. The Draus runs through the Serretes, the Serrapilli[2017],
the Iasi, and the Andizetes; the Savus through the Colapiani[2018]
and the Breuci; these are the principal peoples. Besides them there
are the Arivates, the Azali, the Amantini, the Belgites, the Catari,
the Cornacates, the Eravisci, the Hercuniates[2019], the Latovici,
the Oseriates, the Varciani, and, in front of Mount Claudius, the
Scordisci, behind it the Taurisci. In the Savus there is the island of
Metubarris[2020], the greatest of all the islands formed by rivers.
Besides the above, there are these other rivers worthy of mention:—the
Colapis[2021], which flows into the Savus near Siscia, where, dividing
its channel, it forms the island which is called Segestica[2022]; and
the river Bacuntius[2023], which flows into the Savus at the town of
Sirmium, where we find the state of the Sirmienses and the Amantini.
Forty-five miles thence is Taurunum[2024], where the Savus flows into
the Danube; above which spot the Valdanus[2025] and the Urpanus,
themselves far from ignoble rivers, join that stream.




CHAP. 29. (26.)—MŒSIA.


Joining up to Pannonia is the province called Mœsia[2026], which runs,
with the course of the Danube, as far as the Euxine. It commences at
the confluence[2027] previously mentioned. In it are the Dardani, the
Celegeri, the Triballi, the Timachi, the Mœsi, the Thracians, and the
Scythians who border on the Euxine. The more famous among its rivers
are the Margis[2028], which rises in the territory of the Dardani, the
Pingus, the Timachus, the Œscus which rises in Mount Rhodope, and,
rising in Mount Hæmus, the Utus[2029], the Asamus, and the Ieterus.

The breadth of Illyricum[2030] at its widest part is 325 miles, and its
length from the river Arsia to the river Drinius 530; from the Drinius
to the Promontory of Acroceraunia Agrippa states to be 175 miles, and
he says that the entire circuit of the Italian and Illyrian Gulf is
1700 miles. In this Gulf, according to the limits which we have drawn,
are two seas, the Ionian[2031] in the first part, and the Adriatic,
which runs more inland and is called the Upper Sea.




CHAP. 30.—ISLANDS OF THE IONIAN SEA AND THE ADRIATIC.


In the Ausonian Sea there are no islands worthy of notice beyond those
which we have already mentioned, and only a few in the Ionian; those,
for instance, upon the Calabrian coast, opposite Brundusium, by the
projection of which a harbour is formed; and, over against the Apulian
coast, Diomedia[2032], remarkable for the monument of Diomedes, and
another island called by the same name, but by some Teutria.

The coast of Illyricum is clustered with more than 1000 islands,
the sea being of a shoaly nature, and numerous creeks and æstuaries
running with their narrow channels between portions of the land. The
more famous are those before the mouths of the Timavus, with warm
springs[2033] that rise with the tides of the sea, the island of
Cissa near the territory of the Istri, and the Pullaria[2034] and
Absyrtides[2035], so called by the Greeks from the circumstance of
Absyrtus, the brother of Medea, having been slain there. Some islands
near them have been called the Electrides[2036], upon which amber,
which they call “electrum,” was said to be found; a most assured
instance however of that untruthfulness[2037] which is generally
ascribed to the Greeks, seeing that it has never yet been ascertained
which of the islands were meant by them under that name. Opposite to
the Iader is Lissa, and other islands whose names have been already
mentioned[2038]. Opposite to the Liburni are some islands called the
Crateæ, and no smaller number styled Liburnicæ and Celadussæ[2039].
Opposite to Surium is Bavo, and Brattia[2040], famous for its goats,
Issa with the rights of Roman citizens, and Pharia with a town. At a
distance of twenty-five miles from Issa is Corcyra[2041], surnamed
Melæna, with a town founded by the Cnidians; between which and
Illyricum is Melite[2042], from which, as we learn from Callimachus, a
certain kind of little dogs were called Melitæi; fifteen miles from it
we find the seven Elaphites[2043]. In the Ionian Sea, at a distance of
twelve miles from Oricum, is Sasonis[2044], notorious from having been
a harbour of pirates.

* * * * *

SUMMARY.—The towns and nations mentioned are in number * * * *[2045].
The rivers of note are in number * * * *. The mountains of note are in
number * * * *. The islands are in number * * * *. The towns or nations
which have disappeared are in number * * * *. The facts, statements,
and observations are in number 326.

ROMAN AUTHORS QUOTED.—Turannius Gracilis[2046], Cornelius Nepos[2047],
T. Livius[2048], Cato the Censor[2049], M. Agrippa[2050], M.
Varro[2051], the Emperor Augustus[2052] now deified, Varro
Atacinus[2053], Antias[2054], Hyginus[2055], L. Vetus[2056], Pomponius
Mela[2057], Curio[2058] the Elder, Cælius[2059], Arruntius[2060],
Sebosus[2061], Licinius Mucianus[2062], Fabricius Tuscus[2063], L.
Ateius[2064], Capito[2065], Verrius Flaccus[2066], L. Piso[2067],
Gellianus[2068], and Valerianus[2069].

FOREIGN AUTHORS QUOTED.—Artemidorus[2070], Alexander Polyhistor[2071],
Thucydides[2072], Theophrastus[2073], Isidorus[2074], Theopompus[2075],
Metrodorus of Scepsis[2076], Callicrates[2077], Xenophon of
Lampsacus[2078], Diodorus of Syracuse[2079], Nymphodorus[2080],
Calliphanes[2081], and Timagenes[2082].




BOOK IV.

AN ACCOUNT OF COUNTRIES, NATIONS, SEAS, TOWNS, HAVENS, MOUNTAINS,
RIVERS, DISTANCES, AND PEOPLES WHO NOW EXIST OR FORMERLY EXISTED.




CHAP. 1. (1.)—EPIRUS.


The third great Gulf of Europe begins at the mountains of
Acroceraunia[2083], and ends at the Hellespont, embracing an extent of
2500 miles, exclusive of the sea-line of nineteen smaller gulfs. Upon
it are Epirus, Acarnania, Ætolia, Phocis, Locris, Achaia, Messenia,
Laconia, Argolis, Megaris, Attica, Bœotia; and again, upon the other
sea[2084], the same Phocis and Locris, Doris, Phthiotis, Thessalia,
Magnesia, Macedonia and Thracia. All the fabulous lore of Greece, as
well as the effulgence of her literature, first shone forth upon the
banks of this Gulf. We shall therefore dwell a little the longer upon
it.

Epirus[2085], generally so called, begins at the mountains of
Acroceraunia. The first people that we meet are the Chaones, from whom
Chaonia[2086] receives its name, then the Thesproti[2087], and then
the Antigonenses[2088]. We then come to the place where Aornos[2089]
stood, with its exhalations so deadly to the feathered race, the
Cestrini[2090], the Perrhæbi[2091], in whose country Mount Pindus is
situate, the Cassiopæi[2092], the Dryopes[2093], the Sellæ[2094], the
Hellopes[2095], the Molossi, in whose territory is the temple of the
Dodonæan Jupiter, so famous for its oracle; and Mount Tomarus[2096], so
highly praised by Theopompus, with its hundred springs gushing from its
foot.

(2.) Epirus, properly so called, advances towards Magnesia and
Macedonia, having at its back the Dassaretæ, previously[2097]
mentioned, a free nation, and after them the Dardani, a savage race.
On the left hand, before the Dardani are extended the Triballi and the
nations of Mœsia, while in front of them the Medi and the Denselatæ
join, and next to them the Thracians, who stretch away as far as the
Euxine: in such a manner is a rampart raised around the lofty heights
of Rhodope, and then of Hæmus.

On the coast of Epirus is the fortress of Chimæra[2098], situate upon
the Acroceraunian range, and below it the spring known as the Royal
Waters[2099]; then the towns of Mæandria, and Cestria[2100], the
Thyamis[2101], a river of Thesprotia, the colony of Buthrotum[2102],
and the Ambracian Gulf[2103], so famed in history; which, with an inlet
only half a mile in width, receives a vast body of water from the sea,
being thirty-seven miles in length, and fifteen in width. The river
Acheron, which runs through Acherusia, a lake of Thesprotia, flows
into it[2104] after a course of thirty-six miles; it is considered
wonderful for its bridge, 1000 feet in length, by a people who look
upon everything as wonderful that belongs to themselves. Upon this Gulf
is also situate the town of Ambracia. There are also the Aphas and the
Arachthus[2105], rivers of the Molossi; the city of Anactoria[2106],
and the place where Pandosia[2107] stood.




CHAP. 2.—ACARNANIA.


The towns of Acarnania[2108], the ancient name of which was Curetis,
are Heraclia[2109], Echinus[2110], and, on the coast, Actium, a colony
founded by Augustus, with its famous temple of Apollo and the free
city of Nicopolis[2111]. Passing out of the Ambracian Gulf into the
Ionian Sea, we come to the coast of Leucadia, with the Promontory of
Leucate[2112], and then the Gulf and the peninsula of Leucadia[2113],
which last was formerly called Neritis[2114]. By the exertions of
the inhabitants it was once cut off from the mainland, but was again
joined to it by the vast bodies of sand accumulated through the action
of the winds. This spot is called Dioryctos[2115], and is three
stadia in length: on the peninsula is the town of Leucas, formerly
called Neritus[2116]. We next come to Alyzia[2117], Stratos[2118],
and Argos[2119], surnamed Amphilochian, cities of the Acarnanians:
the river Acheloüs[2120] flows from the heights of Pindus, and,
after separating Acarnania from Ætolia, is fast adding the island of
Artemita[2121] to the mainland by the continual deposits of earth which
it brings down its stream.




CHAP. 3. (2.)—ÆTOLIA.


The peoples of Ætolia are the Athamanes[2122], the Tymphæi[2123], the
Ephyri[2124], the Ænienses, the Perrhæbi[2125], the Dolopes[2126], the
Maraces, and the Atraces[2127], in whose territory rises the river
Atrax, which flows into the Ionian Sea. Calydon[2128] is a city of
Ætolia, situate at a distance of seven miles from the sea, and near
the banks of the river Evenus[2129]. We then come to Macynia[2130],
and Molycria, behind which lie Mounts Chalcis[2131] and Taphiassus.
On the coast again, there is the promontory of Antirrhium[2132],
off which is the mouth of the Corinthian Gulf, which flows in and
separates Ætolia from the Peloponnesus, being less[2133] than one mile
in width. The promontory which faces it on the opposite side is called
Rhion[2134]. The towns of Ætolia, however, on the Corinthian Gulf
are Naupactus[2135] and Pylene[2136]; and, more inland, Pleuron and
Halicyrna[2137]. The most famous mountains are Tomarus, in the district
of Dodona, Crania[2138] in Ambracia, Aracynthus[2139] in Acarnania, and
Acanthon[2140], Panætolium[2141], and Macynium[2142], in Ætolia.




CHAP. 4. (3.)—LOCRIS AND PHOCIS.


Next to Ætolia are the Locri[2143], surnamed Ozolæ; a people exempt
from tribute. Here is the town of Œanthe[2144], the port[2145] of
Apollo Phæstius, and the Gulf of Crissa[2146]. In the interior are the
towns of Argyna, Eupalia[2147], Phæstum, and Calamisus. Beyond are the
Cirrhæan plains of Phocis, the town of Cirrha[2148], and the port of
Chalæon[2149], seven miles from which, in the interior, is situate
the free town of Delphi[2150], at the foot of Mount Parnassus[2151],
and having the most celebrated oracle of Apollo throughout the whole
world. There is the Fountain too of Castalia[2152], and the river
Cephisus[2153] which flows past Delphi, rising in the former city of
Lilæa[2154]. Besides these, there is the town of Crissa[2155] and that
of Anticyra[2156], with the Bulenses[2157]; as also Naulochum[2158],
Pyrrha, Amphissa[2159], exempt from all tribute, Tithrone,
Tritea[2160], Ambrysus[2161], and Drymæa[2162], which district has also
the name of Daulis. The extremity of the gulf washes one corner of
Bœotia, with its towns of Siphæ[2163] and Thebes[2164], surnamed the
Corsian, in the vicinity of Helicon[2165]. The third town of Bœotia
on this sea is that of Pagæ[2166], from which point the Isthmus of the
Peloponnesus projects in the form of a neck.




CHAP. 5. (4.)—THE PELOPONNESUS.


The Peloponnesus, which was formerly called Apia[2167] and Pelasgia,
is a peninsula, inferior in fame to no land upon the face of the
earth. Situate between the two seas, the Ægean and the Ionian, it is
in shape like the leaf of a plane-tree, in consequence of the angular
indentations made in its shores. According to Isidorus, it is 563 miles
in circumference; and nearly as much again, allowing for the sea-line
on the margin of its gulfs. The narrow pass at which it commences is
known by the name of the Isthmus. At this spot the two seas, which
we have previously mentioned, running from the north and the east,
invade the land from opposite sides[2168], and swallow up its entire
breadth, the result being that through these inroads in opposite
directions of such vast bodies of water, the sides of the land are
eaten away to such an extent, that Hellas[2169] only holds on to the
Peloponnesus by the narrow neck, five miles in width, which intervenes.
The Gulfs thus formed, the one on this side, the other on that, are
known as the Corinthian[2170] and the Saronic Gulfs. The ports of
Lecheæ[2171], on the one side, and of Cenchreæ on the other, form the
frontiers of this narrow passage, which thus compels to a tedious and
perilous circumnavigation such vessels as from their magnitude cannot
be carried across by land on vehicles. For this reason it is that both
King Demetrius[2172], Cæsar the Dictator, the prince Caius[2173], and
Domitius Nero[2174], have at different times made the attempt to cut
through this neck by forming a navigable canal; a profane design, as
may be clearly seen by the result[2175] in every one of these instances.

Upon the middle of this intervening neck which we have called the
Isthmus, stands the colony of Corinth, formerly known by the name
of Ephyre[2176], situate upon the brow of a hill, at a distance of
sixty stadia from the shore of either sea. From the heights of its
citadel, which is called Acrocorinthos, or the “Heights of Corinth,”
and in which is the Fountain of Pirene, it looks down upon the two
seas which lie in the opposite directions. From Leucas to Patræ upon
the Corinthian gulf is a distance of eighty-eight miles. The colony
of Patræ[2177] is founded upon the most extensive promontory of the
Peloponnesus, facing Ætolia and the river Evenus, the Corinthian Gulf
being, as we have previously[2178] stated, less than a mile in width at
the entrance there, though extending in length as far as the isthmus, a
distance of eighty-five miles.




CHAP. 6. (5.)—ACHAIA.


The province called Achaia[2179] begins at the Isthmus; from the
circumstance of its cities being ranged in regular succession on its
coast, it formerly had the name of Ægialos[2180]. The first place there
is Lecheæ, already mentioned, a port of the Corinthians; next to which
is Olyros[2181], a fortress of the people of Pellene[2182]; then the
former towns of Helice and Bura[2183], and the places in which their
inhabitants took refuge after their towns had been swallowed up by
the sea, Sicyon[2184] namely, Ægira[2185], Ægium, and Erineos[2186].
In the interior are Cleonæ and Hysiæ[2187]; then come the port of
Panormus[2188], and Rhium already mentioned; from which promontory,
Patræ, of which we have previously spoken, is distant five miles;
and then the place where Pheræ[2189] stood. Of the nine mountains of
Achaia, Scioessa is the most famous; there is also the Fountain of
Cymothoë. Beyond Patræ we find the town of Olenum[2190], the colony of
Dyme[2191], the places where Buprasium[2192] and Hyrmine once stood,
the Promontory of Araxus[2193], the Bay of Cyllene, and the Promontory
of Chelonates, at five miles’ distance from Cyllene[2194]. There is
also the fortress of Phlius[2195]; the district around which was called
by Homer Aræthyrea[2196], and, after his time, Asopis.

The territory of the Eleans then begins, who were formerly called Epei,
with the city of Elis[2197] in the interior, and, at a distance of
twelve miles from Phlius, being also in the interior, the temple of
Olympian Jupiter, which by the universal celebrity of its games, gives
to Greece its mode of reckoning[2198]. Here too once stood the town of
Pisa[2199], the river Alpheus flowing past it. On the coast there is
the Promontory of Ichthys[2200]. The river Alpheus is navigable six
miles, nearly as far as the towns of Aulon[2201] and Leprion. We next
come to the Promontory of Platanodes[2202]. All these localities lie to
the west.




CHAP. 7.—MESSENIA.


Further south is the Gulf of Cyparissus, with the city of
Cyparissa[2203] on its shores, the line of which is seventy-two miles
in length. Then, the towns of Pylos[2204] and Methone[2205], the place
where Helos stood, the Promontory of Acritas[2206], the Asinæan Gulf,
which takes its name from the town of Asine[2207], and the Coronean,
so called from Corone; which gulfs terminate at the Promontory of
Tænarum[2208]. These are all in the country of Messenia, which has
eighteen mountains, and the river Pamisus[2209] also. In the interior
are Messene[2210], Ithome, Œchalia, Arene[2211], Pteleon, Thryon,
Dorion[2212], and Zancle[2213], all of them known to fame at different
periods. The margin of this gulf measures eighty miles, the distance
across being thirty.




CHAP. 8.—LACONIA.


At Tænarum begins the territory of Laconia, inhabited by a free nation,
and situate on a gulf 106 miles in circuit, and 38 across. The towns
are, Tænarum[2214], Amyclæ[2215], Pheræ[2216], and Leuctra[2217];
and, in the interior, Sparta[2218], Theramne[2219], and the spots
where Cardamyle[2220], Pitane[2221], and Anthea formerly stood; the
former site of Thyrea[2222], and Gerania[2223]. Here is also Mount
Taygetus[2224], the river Eurotas, the Gulf of Ægilodes[2225], the
town of Psamathus, the Gulf of Gytheum[2226], so called from the town
of that name, from which place the passage is the safest across to the
island of Crete. All these places are bounded by the Promontory of
Malea[2227].




CHAP. 9.—ARGOLIS.


The next gulf, which extends as far as Scyllæum[2228], is called the
Argolic Gulf, being fifty miles across, and 162 in circuit. The towns
upon it are, Bœa[2229], Epidaurus[2230], surnamed Limera, Zarax[2231],
and the port of Cyphanta[2232]. The rivers are the Inachus[2233] and
the Erasinus, between which lies Argos, surnamed Hippium[2234], situate
beyond the place called Lerna[2235], and at a distance of two miles
from the sea. Nine miles farther is Mycenæ[2236], and the place where,
it is said, Tiryns[2237] stood; the site, too, of Mantinea[2238]. The
mountains are, Artemius, Apesantus[2239], Asterion[2240], Parparus, and
some others, eleven in number. The fountains are those of Niobe[2241],
Amymone, and Psamathe.

From Scyllæum to the Isthmus of Corinth is a distance of 177 miles. We
find here the towns of Hermione[2242], Trœzen[2243], Coryphasium[2244],
and Argos, sometimes called “Inachian,” sometimes “Dipsian”[2245]
Argos. Then comes the port of Schœnites[2246], and the Saronic
Gulf, which was formerly encircled with a grove of oaks[2247], from
which it derives its present name, oaks in ancient Greece having
been so called. Upon this gulf is the town of Epidaurus, famous for
its temple of Æsculapius[2248], the Promontory of Spiræum[2249],
the port of Anthedus[2250], Bucephalus[2251], and then Cenchreæ,
previously mentioned, on this side of the Isthmus, with its temple of
Neptune[2252], famous for the games celebrated there every five years.
So many are the gulfs which penetrate the shores of the Peloponnesus,
so many the seas which howl around it. Invaded by the Ionian on the
north, it is beaten by the Sicilian on the west, buffeted by the Cretan
on the south, by the Ægean on the S.E., and by the Myrtoan on the N.E.;
which last sea begins at the Gulf of Megara, and washes all the coast
of Attica.




CHAP. 10. (6.)—ARCADIA.


Its interior is occupied for the greater part by Arcadia, which, remote
from the sea on every side, was originally called Drymodes[2253], and
at a later period Pelasgis. The cities of Arcadia are, Psophis[2254],
Mantinea[2255], Stymphalus[2256], Tegea[2257], Antigonea[2258],
Orchomenus[2259], Pheneum[2260], Palantium[2261] (from which the
Palatium[2262] at Rome derives its name), Megalopolis[2263],
Gortyna[2264], Bucolium, Carnion, Parrhasia[2265], Thelpusa[2266],
Melænæ[2267], Heræa[2268], Pylæ[2269], Pallene, Agræ, Epium,
Cynæthæ[2270], Lepreon of Arcadia[2271], Parthenium[2272], Alea,
Methydrium[2273], Enispe, Macistum, Lampia, Clitorium[2274], and
Cleonæ[2275]; between which two last towns is the district of Nemea,
commonly known as Bembinadia[2276].

The mountains of Arcadia are, Pholoë[2277], with a town of the same
name, Cyllene[2278], Lycæus[2279], upon which is the temple of
Lycæan Jupiter; Mænalus[2280], Artemisius[2281], Parthenius[2282],
Lampeus[2283], and Nonacris[2284], besides eight others of no note.
The rivers are the Ladon[2285], which rises in the marshes of
Pheneus[2286], and the Erymanthus[2287], which springs from a mountain
of the same name, and flows into the Alpheus.

The other cities of Achaia worthy of mention are those of the
Aliphiræi[2288], the Abeatæ[2289], the Pyrgenses[2290], the
Paroreatæ[2291], the Paragenitæ, the Tortuni, the Typanei[2292], the
Thriasii[2293], and the Tritienses[2294]. Domitius Nero [the emperor]
granted liberty to the whole of Achaia[2295]. The Peloponnesus, from
the Promontory of Malea to the town of Ægium[2296] on the Corinthian
Gulf, is 190 miles in length, and 125 miles across from Elis to
Epidaurus; the distance being, from Olympia to Argos, through Arcadia,
sixty-eight miles. The distance from Olympia to Phlius has been already
mentioned[2297]. Throughout the whole of this region, as though nature
had been desirous to compensate for the inroads of the sea, seventy-six
mountains raise their lofty heads.




CHAP. 11. (7.)—ATTICA.


At the narrow neck of the Isthmus, Hellas begins, by our people known
as Græcia. The first state that presents itself is Attica, anciently
called Acte[2298]. It touches the Isthmus in that part of it which is
called Megaris, from the colony of Megara[2299], lying on the opposite
side to Pagæ[2300].

These two towns are situate at the spot where the Peloponnesus
projects to the greatest distance; being placed, one on each side,
upon the very shoulders of Hellas as it were. The Pagæans, as well
as the people of Ægosthena[2301], belong to the jurisdiction of
Megara. On the coast there is the port of Schœnos[2302], the towns
of Sidus[2303] and Cremmyon[2304], the Scironian Rocks[2305], six
miles in length, Geranea, Megara, and Eleusis[2306]. Œnoë[2307] and
Probalinthos also formerly existed here; the ports of Piræus and
Phalerum[2308] are distant from the Isthmus fifty-five miles, being
united to Athens, which lies in the interior, by a wall[2309] five
miles in length. Athens is a free city, and needs[2310] not a word
more from us in its commendation; of fame it enjoys even more than
enough. In Attica there are the Fountains of Cephisia[2311], Larine,
Callirrhoë Enneacrunos[2312], and the mountains of Brilessus[2313],
Ægialeus, Icarius, Hymettus[2314], Lycabettus[2315], and the place
where Ilissus[2316] stood. At the distance of forty-five miles from
the Piræus is the Promontory of Sunium[2317]. There is also the
Promontory of Thoricos[2318]; Potamos[2319], Steria[2320], and
Brauron[2321], once towns, the borough of Rhamnus[2322], the place



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