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two Cæciæ, Selachusa, Cenchreis, and Aspis; as also, in the Gulf of
Megara, the four Methurides. Ægila[2636] lies at a distance of fifteen
miles from Cythera, and of twenty-five from Phalasarna, a city of
Crete.




CHAP. 20.—CRETE.


Crete itself lies from east to west, the one side facing the south,
the other the north, and is known to fame by the renown of its hundred
cities. Dosiades says, that it took its name from the nymph Crete,
the daughter of Hesperides[2637]; Anaximander, from a king of the
Curetes, Philistides of Mallus * * * * *; while Crates says that it
was at first called Aëria, and after that Curetis; and some have been
of opinion that it had the name of Macaron[2638] from the serenity of
its climate. In breadth it nowhere exceeds fifty miles, being widest
about the middle. In length, however, it is full 270 miles, and 589
in circumference, forming a bend towards the Cretan Sea, which takes
its name from it. At its eastern extremity is the Promontory of
Sammonium[2639], facing Rhodes, while towards the west it throws out
that of Criumetopon[2640], in the direction of Cyrene.

The more remarkable cities of Crete are, Phalasarna, Etæa[2641],
Cisamon[2642], Pergamum, Cydonia[2643], Minoium[2644], Apteron[2645],
Pantomatrium, Amphimalla[2646], Rhithymna, Panormus, Cytæum, Apollonia,
Matium[2647], Heraclea, Miletos, Ampelos, Hierapytna[2648],
Lebena[2649], and Hierapolis; and, in the interior, Gortyna[2650],
Phæstum, Cnossus[2651], Polyrrenium, Myrina, Lycastus, Rhamnus,
Lyctus, Dium[2652], Asus, Pyloros, Rhytion, Elatos, Pharæ, Holopyxos,
Lasos, Eleuthernæ[2653], Therapnæ, Marathusa, and Tylisos; besides
some sixty others, of which the memory only exists. The mountains are
those of Cadistus[2654], Ida, Dictynnæus, and Corycus[2655]. This
island is distant, at its promontory of Criumetopon, according to
Agrippa, from Phycus[2656], the promontory of Cyrene, 125 miles; and at
Cadistus, from Malea in the Peloponnesus, eighty. From the island of
Carpathos[2657], at its promontory of Sammonium it lies in a westerly
direction, at a distance of sixty miles; this last-named island is
situate between it and Rhodes.

The other islands in its vicinity, and lying in front of the
Peloponnesus, are the two isles known as Corycæ, and the two called
Mylæ[2658]. On the north side, having Crete on the right, and opposite
to Cydonia, is Leuce[2659], and the two islands known as Budroæ[2660].
Opposite to Matium lies Dia[2661]; opposite to the promontory of
Itanum[2662], Onisia and Leuce; and over against Hierapytna, Chrysa and
Gaudos[2663]. In the same neighbourhood, also, are Ophiussa, Butoa, and
Aradus; and, after doubling Criumetopon, we come to the three islands
known as Musagorus. Before the promontory of Sammonium lie the islands
of Phocœ, the Platiæ, the Sirnides, Naulochos, Armedon, and Zephyre.

Belonging to Hellas, but still in the Ægean Sea, we have the
Lichades[2664], consisting of Scarphia, Coresa, Phocaria, and many
others which face Attica, but have no towns upon them, and are
consequently of little note. Opposite Eleusis, however, is the
far-famed Salamis[2665]; before it, Psyttalia[2666]; and, at a distance
of five miles from Sunium, the island of Helene[2667]. At the same
distance from this last is Ceos[2668], which some of our countrymen
have called Cea, and the Greeks Hydrussa, an island which has been
torn away from Eubœa. It was formerly 500 stadia in length; but more
recently four-fifths of it, in the direction of Bœotia, have been
swallowed up by the sea. The only towns it now has left are Iulis and
Carthæa[2669]; Coresus[2670] and Pœëessa[2671] have perished. Varro
informs us, that from this place there used to come a cloth of very
fine texture, used for women’s dresses.




CHAP. 21.—EUBŒA.


Eubœa[2672] itself has also been rent away from Bœotia; the channel of
the Euripus, which flows between them, being so narrow as to admit of
the opposite shores being united by a bridge[2673]. At the south, this
island is remarkable for its two promontories, that of Geræstus[2674],
which looks towards Attica, and that of Caphareus[2675], which faces
the Hellespont; on the north it has that of Cenæum[2676]. In no part
does this island extend to a greater breadth than forty miles, while
it never contracts to less than two. In length it runs along the
whole coast of Bœotia, extending from Attica as far as Thessaly, a
distance of 150 miles[2677]. In circumference it measures 365, and is
distant from the Hellespont, on the side of Caphareus, 225 miles. The
cities for which it was formerly famous were, Pyrrha, Porthmos, Nesos,
Cerinthos[2678], Oreum, Dium, Ædepsos[2679], Ocha, and Œchalia; at
present it is ennobled by those of Chalcis[2680] (opposite which, on
the mainland, is Aulis), Geræstus[2681], Eretria[2682], Carystus[2683],
Oritanum, and Artemisium[2684]. Here are also the Fountain of
Arethusa[2685], the river Lelantus, and the warm springs known as
Ellopiæ; it is still better known, however, for the marble of Carystus.
This island used formerly to be called Chalcodontis and Macris[2686],
as we learn from Dionysius and Ephorus; according to Aristides, Macra;
also, as Callidemus says, Chalcis, because copper was first discovered
here. Menæchmus says that it was called Abantias[2687], and the poets
generally give it the name of Asopis.




CHAP. 22.—THE CYCLADES.


Beyond Eubœa, and out in the Myrtoan[2688] Sea, are numerous other
islands; but those more especially famous are, Glauconnesos and the
Ægila[2689]. Off the promontory, too, of Geræstus are the Cyclades,
lying in a circle around Delos, from which circumstance[2690] they
derive their name. The first of them is the one called Andros[2691]
with a city of the same name, distant from Geræstus ten miles, and
from Ceos thirty-nine. Myrsilus tells us that this island was at first
called Cauros, and after that Antandros; Callimachus calls it Lasia,
and others again Nonagria, Hydrussa, and Epagris. It is ninety-three
miles in circumference. At a distance of one mile from Andros and of
fifteen from Delos, is Tenos[2692], with a city of the same name; this
island is fifteen miles in length. Aristotle says that it was formerly
called Hydrussa, from the abundance of water found here, while some
writers call it Ophiussa[2693]. The other islands are, Myconos[2694],
with the mountain of Dimastus[2695], distant from Delos fifteen[2696]
miles; Siphnus[2697], formerly called Meropia and Acis, twenty-eight
miles in circumference; Seriphus[2698], twelve miles in circuit;
Prepesinthus[2699]; Cythnos[2700]; and then, by far the most famous
among the Cyclades, and lying in the very middle of them, Delos[2701]
itself, so famous for its temple of Apollo, and its extensive commerce.
This island long floated on the waves, and, as tradition says, was
the only one that had never experienced an earthquake, down to the
time of M. Varro[2702]; Mucianus however has informed us, that it has
been twice so visited. Aristotle states that this island received its
name from the fact of its having so suddenly made its appearance[2703]
on emerging from the sea; Aglaosthenes, however, gives it the name
of Cynthia, and others of Ortygia[2704], Asteria, Lagia, Chlamydia,
Cynthus, and, from the circumstance of fire having been first
discovered here, Pyrpile. Its circumference is five miles only; Mount
Cynthus[2705] here raises his head.

Next to this island is Rhene[2706], which Anticlides calls by the
name of Celadussa, and Callidemus, Artemite; Scyros[2707], which the
old writers have stated to be twenty miles in circumference, but
Mucianus 160; Oliaros[2708]; and Paros[2709], with a city of the
same name, distant from Delos thirty-eight miles, and famous for its
marble[2710]; it was first called Platea, and after that, Minois. At
a distance of seven miles from this last island is Naxos[2711], with
a town of the same name; it is eighteen miles distant from Delos.
This island was formerly called Strongyle[2712], then Dia, and then
Dionysias[2713], in consequence of the fruitfulness of its vineyards;
others again have called it the Lesser Sicily, or Callipolis[2714]. It
is seventy-five[2715] miles in circumference—half as large again as
Paros.




CHAP. 23.—THE SPORADES.


The islands thus far are considered as belonging to the Cyclades; the
rest that follow are the Sporades[2716]. These are, Helene[2717],
Phacussa, Nicasia, Schinussa, Pholegandros, and, at a distance
of thirty-eight miles from Naxos, Icaros[2718], which has given
its name to the surrounding sea, and is the same number of miles
in length[2719], with two cities, and a third now no longer in
existence: this island used formerly to be called Doliche, Macris,
and Ichthyoëssa[2720]. It is situate fifty miles to the north-east of
Delos, and thirty-five from the island of Samos. Between Eubœa and
Andros, there is an arm of the sea ten miles in width, and from Icaros
to Geræstus is a distance of 112-1/2 miles.

After we pass these, no regular order can be well observed; the rest
must therefore be mentioned indiscriminately. There is the island
of Scyros[2721], and that of Ios[2722], eighteen miles distant from
Naxos, and deserving of all veneration for the tomb there of Homer; it
is twenty-five miles in length, and was formerly known by the name of
Phœnice; also Odia, Oletandros, and Gyara[2723], with a city of the
same name, the island being twelve miles in circumference, and distant
from Andros sixty-two. At a distance of eighty miles from Gyara is
Syrnos, then Cynæthus, Telos[2724], noted for its unguents, and by
Callimachus called Agathussa, Donusa[2725], Patmos[2726], thirty miles
in circumference, the Corassiæ[2727], Lebinthus[2728], Leros[2729],
Cinara[2730]; Sicinus[2731], formerly called Œnoë[2732]; Hieracia,
also called Onus; Casos[2733], likewise called Astrabe; Cimolus[2734],
or Echinussa; and Melos[2735], with a city of that name, which island
Aristides calls Memblis, Aristotle Zephyria, Callimachus Mimallis,
Heraclides Siphis and Acytos. This last is the most circular[2736]
in form of all these islands. After this comes Machia, then Hypere,
formerly Patage, or, as others have it, Platage, but now called
Amorgos[2737], Polyægos[2738], Phyle, and Thera[2739], known as
Calliste when it first sprang from the waves. From this, at a later
period, the island of Therasia[2740] was torn away, and between the
two afterwards arose Automate, also called Hiera, and Thia, which in
our own times came into existence in the vicinity of these islands. Ios
is distant from Thera twenty-five miles.

Next to these follow Lea, Ascania[2741], Anaphe[2742], Hippuris, and
Astypalæa[2743], a free state. This island is eighty-eight miles in
circumference, and 125 miles distant from Cadistus, in Crete. From
Astypalæa, Platea is distant sixty miles, and Caminia thirty-eight from
this last. We then come to the islands of Azibintha, Lanise, Tragæa,
Pharmacussa, Techedia, Chalcia[2744], Calymna[2745], in which is the
town of Coös, Calymna, at a distance of twenty-five miles from which is
Carpathum[2746], which has given its name to the Carpathian Sea. The
distance thence to Rhodes[2747], in the direction of the south-west
wind, is fifty miles. From Carpathum to Casus is seven miles, and from
Casus to Sammonium, the promontory of Crete, thirty[2748]. In the
Euripus of Eubœa, almost at the very mouth of it, are the four islands
called Petaliæ[2749]; and, at its outlet, Atalante[2750]. The Cyclades
and the Sporades are bounded on the east by the Asiatic shores of the
Icarian Sea, on the west by the Attic shores of the Myrtoan Sea, on the
north by the Ægean, and on the south by the Cretan and Carpathian seas,
extending 700 miles in length, and 200 in breadth.

The Gulf of Pagasa[2751] has in front of it Euthia[2752],
Cicynethus[2753], Scyros, previously mentioned[2754], and the very
furthermost of the Cyclades and Sporades, Gerontia and Scandila[2755];
the Gulf of Thermæ[2756], Iræsia, Solimnia, Eudemia, and Nea,
which last is sacred to Minerva. Athos has before it four islands;
Peparethus[2757], formerly called Evœnus, with a city of that name,
at a distance from Athos of nine miles; Sciathus[2758], at a distance
of fifteen, and Imbros[2759], with a city of the same name, at a
distance of eighty-eight miles. This last island is distant from
Mastusia, in the Chersonesus, twenty-five miles; it is sixty-two[2760]
miles in circumference, and is washed by the river Ilisus. At a
distance of twenty-two miles from it is Lemnos[2761], being distant
from Mount Athos eighty-seven; it is 112 miles in circumference, and
has the cities of Hephæstia and Myrina[2762]; into the market-place
of which last city Athos throws its shadow at the summer solstice.
The island of Thasos[2763], constituting a free state, is six miles
distant from Lemnos; it formerly had the name of Aëria, or Æthria.
Abdera[2764], on the mainland, is distant from Thasos twenty-two miles,
Athos sixty-two[2765]. The island of Samothrace[2766], a free state,
facing the river Hebrus, is the same distance from Thasos, being
also thirty-two[2767] miles from Imbros, twenty-two from Lemnos, and
thirty-eight[2768] from the coast of Thrace; it is thirty-two miles in
circumference, and in it rises Mount Saoce[2769], ten miles in height.
This island is the most inaccessible of them all. Callimachus mentions
it by its ancient name of Dardania.

Between the Chersonesus and Samothrace, at a distance of about fifteen
miles from them both, is the island of Halonnesos[2770], and beyond
it Gethone, Lamponia, and Alopeconnesus[2771], not far from Cœlos, a
port[2772] of the Chersonesus, besides some others of no importance.
The following names may be also mentioned, as those of uninhabited
islands in this gulf, of which we have been enabled to discover the
names:—Desticos, Sarnos, Cyssiros, Charbrusa, Calathusa, Scylla,
Draconon, Arconnesus, Diethusa, Scapos, Capheris, Mesate, Æantion,
Pateronnesos, Pateria, Calate, Neriphus, and Polendos[2773].




CHAP. 24.—THE HELLESPONT.—THE LAKE MÆOTIS.


The fourth great Gulf of Europe begins at the Hellespont and ends
at the entrance of the Mæotis[2774]. But in order that the several
portions of the Euxine and its coasts may be the better known, we must
briefly embrace the form of it in one general view. This vast sea,
lying in front of Asia, is shut out from Europe by the projection of
the shores of the Chersonesus, and effects an entrance into those
countries by a narrow channel only, of the width, as already mentioned,
of seven stadia, thus separating Europe from Asia. The entrance of
these Straits is called the Hellespont; over it Xerxes, the king of the
Persians, constructed a bridge of boats, across which he led his army.
A narrow channel extends thence a distance of eighty-six miles, as far
as Priapus[2775], a city of Asia, at which Alexander the Great passed
over. At this point the sea becomes wider, and after some distance
again takes the form of a narrow strait. The wider part is known as the
Propontis[2776], the Straits as the Thracian Bosporus[2777], being only
half-a-mile in width, at the place where Darius, the father of Xerxes,
led his troops across by a bridge. The extremity of this is distant
from the Hellespont 239 miles.

We then come to the vast sea called the Euxine, which invades the land
as it retreats afar, and the name of which was formerly Axenus[2778].
As the shores bend inwards, this sea with a vast sweep stretches far
away, curving on both sides after the manner of a pair of horns, so
much so that in shape it bears a distinct resemblance to a Scythian
bow[2779]. In the middle of the curve it is joined by the mouth of
Lake Mæotis, which is called the Cimmerian[2780] Bosporus, and is two
miles and a half in width. Between the two Bospori, the Thracian and
the Cimmerian, there is a distance in a straight line, of 500 miles,
as Polybius informs us. We learn from Varro and most of the ancient
writers, that the circumference of the Euxine is altogether 2150 miles;
but to this number Cornelius Nepos adds 350 more; while Artemidorus
makes it 2919 miles, Agrippa 2360, and Mucianus 2425. In a similar
manner some writers have fixed the length of the European shores of
this sea at 1478 miles, others again at 1172. M. Varro gives the
measurement as follows:—from the mouth of the Euxine to Apollonia 187
miles, and to Callatis the same distance; thence to the mouth of the
Ister 125 miles; to the Borysthenes 250; to Chersonesus[2781], a town
of the Heracleotæ, 325; to Panticapæum[2782], by some called Bosporus,
at the very extremity of the shores of Europe, 212 miles: the whole
of which added together, makes 1337[2783] miles. Agrippa makes the
distance from Byzantium to the river Ister 560 miles, and from thence
to Panticapæum, 635.

Lake Mæotis, which receives the river Tanais as it flows from the
Riphæan Mountains[2784], and forms the extreme boundary between Europe
and Asia, is said to be 1406 miles in circumference; which however some
writers state at only 1125. From the entrance of this lake to the mouth
of the Tanais in a straight line is, it is generally agreed, a distance
of 375 miles.

The inhabitants of the coasts of this fourth great Gulf of Europe, as
far as Istropolis, have been already[2785] mentioned in our account of
Thrace. Passing beyond that spot we come to the mouths of the Ister.
This river rises in Germany in the heights of Mount Abnoba[2786],
opposite to Rauricum[2787], a town of Gaul, and flows for a course
of many miles beyond the Alps and through nations innumerable, under
the name of the Danube. Adding immensely to the volume of its waters,
at the spot where it first enters Illyricum, it assumes the name of
Ister, and, after receiving sixty rivers, nearly one half of which are
navigable, rolls into the Euxine by six[2788] vast channels. The first
of these is the mouth of Peuce[2789], close to which is the island of
Peuce itself, from which the neighbouring channel takes its name; this
mouth is swallowed up in a great swamp nineteen miles in length. From
the same channel too, above Istropolis, a lake[2790] takes its rise,
sixty-three miles in circuit; its name is Halmyris. The second mouth
is called Naracu-Stoma[2791]; the third, which is near the island
of Sarmatica, is called Calon-Stoma[2792]; the fourth is known as
Pseudo-Stomon[2793], with its island called Conopon-Diabasis[2794];
after which come the Boreon-Stoma[2795] and the Psilon-Stoma[2796].
These mouths are each of them so considerable, that for a distance of
forty miles, it is said, the saltness of the sea is quite overpowered,
and the water found to be fresh.




CHAP. 25.—DACIA, SARMATIA.


On setting out from this spot, all the nations met with are Scythian
in general, though various races have occupied the adjacent shores;
at one spot the Getæ[2797], by the Romans called Daci; at another
the Sarmatæ, by the Greeks called Sauromatæ, and the Hamaxobii[2798]
or Aorsi, a branch of them; then again the base-born Scythians and
descendants of slaves, or else the Troglodytæ[2799]; and then, after
them, the Alani[2800] and the Rhoxalani. The higher[2801] parts again,
between the Danube and the Hercynian Forest[2802], as far as the
winter quarters of Pannonia at Carnuntum[2803], and the borders of the
Germans, are occupied by the Sarmatian Iazyges[2804], who inhabit the
level country and the plains, while the Daci, whom they have driven
as far as the river Pathissus[2805], inhabit the mountain and forest
ranges. On leaving the river Marus[2806], whether it is that or the
Duria[2807], that separates them from the Suevi and the kingdom of
Vannius[2808], the Basternæ, and, after them, other tribes of the
Germans occupy the opposite sides[2809]. Agrippa considers the whole of
this region, from the Ister to the ocean, to be 2100 miles in length,
and 4400 miles in breadth to the river Vistula in the deserts[2810] of
Sarmatia. The name “Scythian” has extended, in every direction, even
to the Sarmatæ and the Germans; but this ancient appellation is now
only given to those who dwell beyond those nations, and live unknown to
nearly all the rest of the world.




CHAP. 26.—SCYTHIA.


Leaving the Ister, we come to the towns of Cremniscos[2811], Æpolium,
the mountains of Macrocremnus, and the famous river Tyra[2812], which
gives name to a town on the spot where Ophiusa is said formerly to
have stood. The Tyragetæ inhabit a large island[2813] situate in this
river, which is distant from Pseudostomos, a mouth of the Ister,
so called, 130 miles. We then come to the Axiacæ, who take their
name from the river Axiaces[2814], and beyond them, the Crobyzi,
the river Rhodes[2815], the Sagarian Gulf[2816], and the port of
Ordesos[2817]. At a distance of 120 miles from the Tyra is the river
Borysthenes[2818], with a lake and a people of similar name, as also
a town[2819] in the interior, at a distance of fifteen miles from
the sea, the ancient names of which were Olbiopolis and Miletopolis.
Again, on the shore is the port of the Achæi, and the island of
Achilles[2820], famous for the tomb there of that hero, and, at a
distance of 125 miles from it, a peninsula which stretches forth in the
shape of a sword, in an oblique direction, and is called, from having
been his place of exercise, Dromos Achilleos[2821]: the length of this,
according to Agrippa, is eighty miles. The Taurian Scythians and the
Siraci[2822] occupy all this tract of country.

At this spot begins a well-wooded district[2823], which has given
to the sea that washes its banks the name of the Hylæan Sea; its
inhabitants are called Enœchadlæ[2824]. Beyond them is the river
Panticapes[2825], which separates the Nomades[2826] and the Georgi, and
after it the Acesinus[2827]. Some authors say that the Panticapes flows
into the Borysthenes below Olbia[2828]. Others, who are more correct,
say that it is the Hypanis[2829]: so great is the mistake made by those
who have placed it[2830] in Asia.

The sea runs in here and forms a large gulf[2831], until there is
only an intervening space[2832] of five miles between it and the Lake
Mæotis, its margin forming the sea-line of extensive tracts of land,
and numerous nations; it is known as the Gulf of Carcinites. Here we
find the river Pacyris[2833], the towns of Navarum and Carcine[2834],
and behind it Lake Buges[2835], which discharges itself by a channel
into the sea. This Buges is separated by a ridge of rocks[2836] from
Coretus, a gulf in the Lake Mæotis; it receives the rivers Buges[2837],
Gerrus[2838], and Hypacaris[2839], which approach it from regions that
lie in various directions. For the Gerrus separates the Basilidæ from
the Nomades, the Hypacaris flows through the Nomades and the Hylæi, by
an artificial channel into Lake Buges, and by its natural one into the
Gulf of Coretus: this region bears the name of Scythia Sindice.

At the river Carcinites, Scythia Taurica[2840] begins, which was once
covered by the sea, where we now see level plains extended on every
side: beyond this the land rises into mountains of great elevation.
The peoples here are thirty in number, of which twenty-three dwell in
the interior, six of the cities being inhabited by the Orgocyni, the
Characeni[2841], the Lagyrani, the Tractari, the Arsilachitæ, and the
Caliordi. The Scythotauri possess the range of mountains: on the west
they are bounded by the Chersonesus, and on the east by the Scythian
Satarchæ[2842]. On the shore, after we leave Carcinites, we find the
following towns; Taphræ[2843], situate on the very isthmus of the
peninsula, and then Heraclea Chersonesus[2844], to which its freedom
has been granted[2845] by the Romans. This place was formerly called
Megarice, being the most polished city throughout all these regions, in
consequence of its strict preservation of Grecian manners and customs.
A wall, five miles in length, surrounds it. Next to this comes the
Promontory of Parthenium[2846], the city of the Tauri, Placia, the port
of the Symboli[2847], and the Promontory of Criumetopon[2848], opposite
to Carambis[2849], a promontory of Asia, which runs out in the middle
of the Euxine, leaving an intervening space between them of 170 miles,
which circumstance it is in especial that gives to this sea the form of
a Scythian bow. After leaving this headland we come to a great number
of harbours and lakes of the Tauri[2850]. The town of Theodosia[2851]
is distant from Criumetopon 125 miles, and from Chersonesus 165. Beyond



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