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cut through, a distance of seven miles and a half, for the purpose of
joining the two gulfs and making an island of Erythræ[4049] and Mimas.
Near Erythræ formerly stood the towns of Pteleon, Helos, and Dorion;
we now find the river Aleon, Corynæum, a Promontory of Mount Mimas,
Clazomenæ[4050], Parthenie[4051], and Hippi[4052], known by the name
of Chytrophoria, when it formed a group of islands; these were united
to the continent by the same Alexander, by means of a causeway[4053]
two stadia in length. In the interior, the cities of Daphnus, Hermesia,
and Sipylum[4054], formerly called Tantalis, and the capital of Mæonia,
where Lake Sale now stands, are now no longer in existence: Archæopolis
too, which succeeded Sipylum, has perished, and in their turns Colpe
and Libade, which succeeded it.

On returning thence[4055] towards the coast, at a distance of twelve
miles we find Smyrna[4056], originally founded by an Amazon [of that
name], and rebuilt by Alexander; it is refreshed by the river Meles,
which rises not far off. Through this district run what may almost
be called the most famous mountains of Asia, Mastusia in the rear of
Smyrna, and Termetis[4057], joining the foot of Olympus. Termetis is
joined by Draco, Draco running into Tmolus, Tmolus into Cadmus[4058],
and Cadmus into Taurus. Leaving Smyrna, the river Hermus forms a tract
of plains, and gives them its own name. It rises near Dorylæum[4059], a
city of Phrygia, and in its course receives several rivers, among them
the one called the Phryx, which divides Caria from the nation to which
it gives name; also the Hyllus[4060] and the Cryos, themselves swollen
by the rivers of Phrygia, Mysia, and Lydia. At the mouth of the Hermus
formerly stood the town of Temnos[4061]: we now see at the extremity of
the gulf[4062] the rocks called Myrmeces[4063], the town of Leuce[4064]
on a promontory which was once an island, and Phocæa[4065], the
frontier town of Ionia.

A great part also of Æolia, of which we shall have presently to speak,
has recourse to the jurisdiction of Smyrna; as well as the Macedones,
surnamed Hyrcani[4066], and the Magnetes[4067] from Sipylus. But to
Ephesus, that other great luminary of Asia, resort the more distant
peoples known as the Cæsarienses[4068], the Metropolitæ[4069], the
Cilbiani[4070], both the Lower and Upper, the Mysomacedones[4071], the
Mastaurenses[4072], the Briulitæ[4073], the Hypæpeni[4074], and the
Dioshïeritæ[4075].




CHAP. 32. (30.)—ÆOLIS.


Æolis[4076] comes next, formerly known as Mysia, and Troas which
is adjacent to the Hellespont. Here, after passing Phocæa, we come
to the Ascanian Port, then the spot where Larissa[4077] stood, and
then Cyme[4078], Myrina, also called Sebastopolis[4079], and in the
interior, Ægæ[4080], Attalia[4081], Posidea, Neontichos[4082], and
Temnos[4083]. Upon the shore we come to the river Titanus, and the
city which from it derives its name. Grynia[4084] also stood here on
an island reclaimed from the sea and joined to the land: now only its
harbours are left[4085]. We then come to the town of Elæa[4086], the
river Caïcus[4087], which flows from Mysia, the town of Pitane[4088],
and the river Canaïus. The following towns no longer exist—Canæ[4089],
Lysimachia[4090], Atarnea[4091], Carene[4092], Cisthene[4093],
Cilla[4094], Cocylium[4095], Theba[4096], Astyre[4097], Chrysa[4098],
Palæscepsis[4099], Gergitha[4100], and Neandros[4101]. We then come
to the city of Perperene[4102], which still survives, the district
of Heracleotes, the town of Coryphas[4103], the rivers Grylios and
Ollius, the region of Aphrodisias[4104], which formerly had the name
of Politice Orgas, the district of Scepsis[4105], and the river
Evenus[4106], on whose banks the towns of Lyrnesos[4107] and Miletos
have fallen to decay. In this district also is Mount Ida[4108], and
on the coast Adramytteos[4109], formerly called Pedasus, which gives
its name to the gulf and the jurisdiction so called. The other rivers
are the Astron, Cormalos, Crianos, Alabastros, and Hieros, flowing
from Mount Ida: in the interior is Mount Gargara[4110], with a town
of the same name. Again, on the coast we meet with Antandros[4111],
formerly called Edonis, and after that Cimmeris and Assos, also
called Apollonia. The town of Palamedium also formerly stood here.
The Promontory of Lecton[4112] separates Æolis from Troas. In Æolis
there was formerly the city of Polymedia, as also Chrysa, and a
second Larissa. The temple of Smintheus[4113] is still standing;
Colone[4114] in the interior has perished. To Adramyttium resort upon
matters of legal business the Apolloniatæ[4115], whose town is on
the river Rhyndacus[4116], the Erizii[4117], the Miletopolitæ[4118],
the Pœmaneni[4119], the Macedonian Asculacæ, the Polichnæi[4120],
the Pionitæ[4121], the Cilician Mandacadeni, and, in Mysia, the
Abrettini[4122], the people known as the Hellespontii[4123], and others
of less note.




CHAP. 33.—TROAS AND THE ADJOINING NATIONS.


The first place in Troas is Hamaxitus[4124], then Cebrenia[4125],
and then Troas[4126] itself, formerly called Antigonia, and now
Alexandria, a Roman colony. We then come to the town of Nee[4127], the
Scamander[4128], a navigable river, and the spot where in former times
the town of Sigeum[4129] stood, upon a promontory. We next come to the
Port of the Achæans[4130], into which the Xanthus[4131] flows after
its union with the Simois[4132], and forms the Palæscamander[4133],
which was formerly a lake. The other rivers, rendered famous by Homer,
namely, the Rhesus, the Heptaporus, the Caresus, and the Rhodius,
have left no vestiges of their existence. The Granicus[4134], taking
a different route, flows into the Propontis[4135]. The small city of
Scamandria, however, still exists, and, at a distance of a mile and a
half from its harbour, Ilium[4136], a place exempt from tribute[4137],
the fountain-head of universal fame. Beyond the gulf are the shores of
Rhœteum[4138], peopled by the towns of Rhœteum[4139], Dardanium[4140],
and Arisbe[4141]. There was also in former times a town of
Achilleon[4142], founded near the tomb of Achilles by the people of
Mitylene, and afterwards rebuilt by the Athenians, close to the spot
where his fleet had been stationed near Sigeum. There was also the town
of Æantion[4143], founded by the Rhodians upon the opposite point,
near the tomb of Ajax, at a distance of thirty stadia from Sigeum,
near the spot where his fleet was stationed. Above Æolis and part of
Troas, in the interior, is the place called Teuthrania[4144], inhabited
in ancient times by the Mysians. Here rises the river Caïcus already
mentioned. Teuthrania was a powerful nation in itself, even when the
whole of Æolis was held by the Mysians. In it are the Pioniæ[4145],
Andera[4146], Cale, Stabulum, Conisium, Teium, Balcea[4147], Tiare,
Teuthranie, Sarnaca, Haliserne, Lycide, Parthenium, Thymbre, Oxyopum,
Lygdamum, Apollonia, and Pergamum[4148], by far the most famous
city in Asia, and through which the river Selinus runs; the Cetius,
which rises in Mount Pindasus, flowing before it. Not far from it is
Elæa, which we have mentioned[4149] as situate on the sea-shore. The
jurisdiction of this district is called that of Pergamus; to it resort
the Thyatireni[4150], the Mosyni, the Mygdones[4151], the Bregmeni, the
Hierocometæ[4152], the Perpereni, the Tiareni, the Hierolophienses,
the Hermocapelitæ, the Attalenses[4153], the Panteenses, the
Apollonidienses, and some other states unknown to fame. The little town
of Dardanum[4154] is distant from Rhœteum seventy stadia. Eighteen
miles thence is the Promontory of Trapeza[4155], from which spot the
Hellespont first commences its course.

Eratosthenes tells us that in Asia there have perished the nations
of the Solymi[4156], the Leleges[4157], the Bebryces[4158], the
Colycantii, and the Tripsedri. Isidorus adds to these the Arimi[4159],
as also the Capretæ, settled on the spot where Apamea[4160] stands,
which was founded by King Seleucus, between Cilicia, Cappadocia,
Cataonia, and Armenia, and was at first called Damea[4161], from the
fact that it had conquered nations most remarkable for their fierceness.




CHAP. 34. (31.)—THE ISLANDS WHICH LIE IN FRONT OF ASIA.


Of the islands which lie before Asia the first is the one situate in
the Canopic Mouth of the Nile, and which received its name, it is
said, from Canopus, the pilot of Menelaüs. A second, called Pharos, is
joined by a bridge to Alexandria, and was made a colony by the Dictator
Cæsar. In former times it was one day’s sail[4162] from the mainland
of Egypt; at the present day it directs ships in their course by means
of the fires which are lighted at night on the tower[4163] there;
for in consequence of the insidious nature of the shoals, there are
only three channels by which Alexandria can be approached, those of
Steganus[4164], Posideum[4165] and Taurus.

In the Phœnician Sea, before Joppe there is the island of Paria[4166],
the whole of it forming a town. Here, they say, Andromeda was exposed
to the monster: the island also of Arados, already mentioned[4167],
between which and the continent, as we learn from Mucianus, at a depth
of fifty cubits in the sea, fresh water is brought up from a spring at
the very bottom by means of leather pipes[4168].




CHAP. 35.—CYPRUS.


The Pamphylian Sea contains some islands of little note. The Cilician,
besides four others of very considerable size, has Cyprus[4169],
which lies opposite to the shores of Cilicia and Syria, running
east and west; in former times it was the seat of nine kingdoms.
Timosthenes states that the circumference of this island is 427
miles, Isidorus[4170] 375; its length, between the two Promontories
of Dinæ[4171] and Acamas[4172] lying on the west, is, according to
Artemidorus, 160-1/2 miles, according to Timosthenes, 200. Philonides
says that it was formerly called Acamantis, Xenagoras that it had
the names of Cerastis[4173], Aspelia, Amathusia, and Macaria[4174],
while Astynomus gives it the names of Cryptos[4175] and Colinia.
Its towns are fifteen in number, Neapaphos[4176], Palæpaphos[4177],
Curias[4178], Citium[4179], Corineum, Salamis[4180], Amathus[4181],
Lapethos[4182], Solœ, Tamasos[4183], Epidarum, Chytri[4184],
Arsinoë[4185], Carpasium[4186], and Golgi[4187]. The towns of Cinyria,
Marium, and Idalium[4188] are no longer in existence. It is distant
from Anemurium[4189] in Cilicia fifty miles; the sea which runs between
the two shores being called the Channel of Cilicia[4190]. In the same
locality[4191] is the island of Eleusa[4192], and the four islands
known as the Clides[4193], lying before the promontory which faces
Syria; and again at the end of the other cape[4194] is Stiria: over
against Neapaphos is Hierocepia[4195], and opposite to Salamis are the
Salaminiæ.

In the Lycian Sea are the islands of Illyris, Telendos, and
Attelebussa[4196], the three barren isles called Cypriæ, and Dionysia,
formerly called Caretha. Opposite to the Promontory of Taurus are
the Chelidoniæ[4197], as many in number, and extremely dangerous to
mariners. Further on we find Leucolla with its town, the Pactyæ[4198],
Lasia, Nymphäis, Macris, and Megista, the city on which last no longer
exists. After these there are many that are not worthy of notice.
Opposite, however, to Cape Chimæra is Dolichiste[4199], Chœrogylion,
Crambussa[4200], Rhoge[4201], Enagora, eight miles in circumference,
the two islands of Dædala[4202], the three of Crya[4203], Strongyle,
and over against Sidyma[4204] the isle of Antiochus. Towards the mouth
of the river Glaucus[4205], there are Lagussa[4206], Macris, Didymæ,
Helbo, Scope, Aspis, Telandria, the town of which no longer exists,
and, in the vicinity of Caunus[4207], Rhodussa.




CHAP. 36.—RHODES.


But the fairest of them all is the free island of Rhodes, 125, or,
if we would rather believe Isidorus, 103 miles in circumference.
It contains the inhabited cities of Lindos, Camirus[4208], and
Ialysus[4209], now called Rhodos. It is distant from Alexandria
in Egypt, according to Isidorus, 583 miles; but, according to
Eratosthenes, 469. Mucianus says, that its distance from Cyprus is
166. This island was formerly called Ophiussa[4210], Asteria[4211],
Æthria[4212], Trinacrie[4213], Corymbia[4214], Pœeëssa[4215],
Atabyria[4216], from the name of one of its kings; and, in later
times, Macaria[4217] and Oloessa[4218]. The islands of the Rhodians
are Carpathus[4219], which has given its name to the surrounding sea;
Casos[4220], formerly known as Achne[4221]; Nisyros[4222], twelve miles
distant from Cnidos, and formerly called Porphyris[4223]; and, in the
same vicinity, midway between Rhodes and Cnidos, Syme[4224]. This
island is thirty-seven miles and a half in circumference, and welcomes
us with eight fine harbours. Besides these islands, there are, in the
vicinity of Rhodes, those of Cyclopis, Teganon, Cordylussa[4225], the
four islands called Diabetæ[4226], Hymos, Chalce[4227], with its city
of that name, Seutlussa[4228], Narthecussa[4229], Dimastos, Progne;
and, off Cnidos, Cisserussa, Therionarce, and Calydne[4230], with the
three towns of Notium, Nisyros, and Mendeterus. In Arconnesus[4231]
there is the town of Ceramus. Off the coast of Caria, there are the
islands known as the Argiæ, twenty in number; also Hyetussa[4232],
Lepsia, and Leros.

The most noted island, however, in this gulf is that of Cos[4233],
fifteen miles distant from Halicarnassus, and 100 in circumference,
according to the opinion of many writers. It was formerly called
Merope; according to Staphylus, Cea; Meropis, as Dionysius tells
us; and, after that, Nymphæa. In this island there is Mount Prion.
Nisyros[4234], formerly called Porphyris, is supposed to have been
severed from the island of Cos. We next come to the island of
Caryanda[4235], with a city of that name, and that of Pidosus[4236],
not far from Halicarnassus. In the Gulf of Ceramicus we also find
Priaponnesos[4237], Hipponnesos, Psyra, Mya, Lampsa, Æmyndus, Passala,
Crusa, Pinnicussa, Sepiussa[4238], and Melano. At a short distance from
the mainland is an island which bears the name of Cinædopolis, from the
circumstance that King Alexander left behind there certain persons of a
most disgraceful character.




CHAP. 37.—SAMOS.


The coast of Ionia has the islands of Trageæ, Corseæ[4239], and Icaros,
which has been previously[4240] mentioned; Lade[4241], formerly
called Late; and, among others of no note, the two Camelidæ[4242], in
the vicinity of Miletus; and the three Trogiliæ[4243], near Mycale,
consisting of Philion, Argennon, and Sandalion. There is Samos also, a
free[4244] island, eighty-seven miles in circumference, or, according
to Isidorus, 100. Aristotle tells us, that it was at first called
Parthenia[4245], after that Dryussa[4246], and then Anthemussa[4247].
To these names Aristocritus has added Melamphyllus[4248] and
Cyparissia[4249]: other writers, again, call it Parthenoarussa[4250]
and Stephane[4251]. The rivers of this island are the Imbrasus, the
Chesius, and the Ibettes. There are also the fountains of Gigartho
and Leucothea; and Mount Cercetius. In the vicinity of Samos are the
islands of Rhypara, Nymphæa, and Achillea.




CHAP. 38.—CHIOS.


At a distance of ninety-four miles from Samos is the free island of
Chios[4252], its equal in fame, with a town of the same name. Ephorus
says, that the ancient name of this island was Æthalia; Metrodorus and
Cleobulus tell us, that it had the name of Chia from the nymph Chione;
others again say, that it was so called from the word signifying
snow[4253]; it was also called Macris and Pityusa[4254]. It has a
mountain called Pelennæus; and the Chian marble is well known. It is
125[4255] miles in circumference, according to the ancient writers;
Isidorus however makes it nine more. It is situate between Samos and
Lesbos, and, for the most part, lies opposite to Erythræ[4256].

The adjacent islands, are Thallusa[4257], by some writers called
Daphnusa[4258], Œnussa, Elaphitis, Euryanassa, and Arginusa, with a
town of that name. All these islands are in the vicinity of Ephesus,
as also those called the Islands of Pisistratus, Anthinæ, Myonnesos,
Diarreusa,—in both of these last there were cities, now no longer
in existence,—Poroselene[4259], with a city of that name, Cerciæ,
Halone[4260], Commone, Illetia, Lepria and Rhesperia, Procusæ, Bolbulæ,
Phanæ, Priapos, Syce, Melane, Ænare, Sidusa, Pele, Drymusa[4261],
Anhydros, Scopelos[4262], Sycussa, Marathussa, Psile, Perirreusa, and
many others of no note. In the main sea lies the celebrated island of
Teos, with a city[4263] of that name, seventy-one miles and a half
distant from Chios, and the same from the Erythræ.

In the vicinity of Smyrna are the Peristerides[4264], Carteria,
Alopece, Elæussa, Bachina, Pystira, Crommyonnesos, and Megale[4265].
Facing Troas there are the Ascaniæ, and the three islands called
Plateæ. We find also the Lamiæ, the two islands called Plitaniæ, Plate,
Scopelos, Getone, Arthedon, Cœlæ, Lagussæ, and Didymæ.




CHAP. 39.—LESBOS.


But Lesbos[4266], distant from Chios sixty-five miles, is the most
celebrated of them all. It was formerly called Himerte, Lasia,
Pelasgia, Ægira, Æthiope, and Macaria, and is famous for its nine
cities. Of these, however, that of Pyrrha has been swallowed up by the
sea, Arisbe[4267] has perished by an earthquake, and Methymna is now
united to Antissa[4268]; these lie in the vicinity of nine cities of
Asia, along a coast of thirty-seven miles. The towns of Agamede and
Hiera have also perished. Eresos[4269], Pyrrha, and the free city of
Mitylene[4270], still survive, the last of which was a powerful city
for a space of 1500 years. The circumference of the whole island is,
according to Isidorus, 168 miles[4271], but the older writers say 195.
Its mountains are, Lepethymnus, Ordymnus, Macistus, Creon, and Olympus.
It is distant seven miles and a half from the nearest point of the
mainland. The islands in its vicinity are, Sandaleon, and the five
called Leucæ[4272]; Cydonea[4273], which is one of them, contains a
warm spring. The Arginussæ[4274] are four miles distant from Æge[4275];
after them come Phellusa[4276] and Pedna. Beyond the Hellespont, and
opposite the shore of Sigeum, lies Tenedos[4277], also known by the
names of Leucophrys[4278], Phœnice, and Lyrnesos. It is distant from
Lesbos fifty-six miles, and twelve and a half from Sigeum.




CHAP. 40. (32.)—THE HELLESPONT AND MYSIA.


The tide of the Hellespont now begins to run with greater violence,
and the sea beats against the shore, undermining with its eddies the
barriers that stand in its way, until it has succeeded in separating
Asia from Europe. At this spot is the promontory which we have already
mentioned as Trapeza[4279]; ten miles distant from which is the city
of Abydos[4280], where the straits are only seven stadia wide; then
the town of Percote[4281]; Lampsacus[4282], at first called Pityusa;
the colony of Parium[4283], which Homer calls by the name of Adrastia;
the town of Priapos[4284]; the river Æsepus[4285]; Zelia[4286]; and
then the Propontis[4287], that being the name given to the tract of
sea where it enlarges. We then come to the river Granicus[4288], and
the harbour of Artace[4289], where a town formerly stood. Beyond
this is an island which Alexander joined to the continent, and upon
which is Cyzicus[4290], a city of the Milesians, which was formerly
called Arctonnesos[4291], Dolionis, and Dindymis; above it are the
heights of Mount Dindymus[4292]. We then come to the towns of Placia,
Ariace[4293], and Scylace; in the rear of which places is Mount
Olympus, known as the “Mysian Olympus,” and the city of Olympena. There
are also the rivers Horisius[4294] and Rhyndacus[4295], formerly called
the Lycus; this last river rises in Lake Artynias, near Miletopolis,
and receives the Macestos, and many other streams, dividing in its
course Asia[4296] from Bithynia[4297].

This country was at first called by the name of Cronia, after that,
Thessalis, and then Malianda and Strymonis. The people of it are by
Homer called Halizones[4298], from the fact that it was a nation
begirt by the sea. There was formerly a vast city here, Attussa
by name; at present there are twelve cities in existence; among
which is Gordiucome[4299], otherwise Juliopolis; and, on the coast,
Dascylos[4300]. We then come to the river Gelbes[4301]; and, in the
interior, the town of Helgas, or Germanicopolis, which has also the
other name of Booscœte[4302]; Apamea[4303], now more generally known
as Myrlea of the Colophonians: the river Etheleus also, the ancient
boundary of Troas, and the commencement of Mysia. Next to this comes
the gulf[4304] into which the river Ascanius flows, the town of
Bryllion[4305], and the rivers Hylas and Cios, with a town of the same
name as the last-mentioned river; it was founded by the Milesians at
a place which was called Ascania of Phrygia, as an entrepôt for the
trade of the Phrygians who dwelt in the vicinity. We may therefore look
upon this as a not ineligible opportunity for making further mention of
Phrygia.




CHAP. 41.—PHRYGIA.


Phrygia lies above Troas, and the peoples already mentioned as
extending from the Promontory of Lectum[4306] to the river Etheleus.
On its northern side it borders upon Galatia, on the south it joins
Lycaonia, Pisidia, and Mygdonia, and, on the east, it touches upon
Cappadocia. The more celebrated towns there, besides those already
mentioned, are Ancyra[4307], Andria, Celænæ[4308], Colossæ[4309],
Carina[4310], Cotyaion[4311], Ceraine, Conium, and Midaium. There are
authors who say that the Mœsi, the Brygi, and the Thyni crossed over
from Europe, and that from them are descended the peoples called the
Mysi, Phryges, and Bithyni.




CHAP. 42.—GALATIA AND THE ADJOINING NATIONS.


On this occasion also it seems that we ought to speak of Galatia[4312],
which lies above Phrygia, and includes the greater part of the
territory taken from that province, as also its former capital,
Gordium[4313]. The Gauls[4314] who have settled in these parts, are
called the Tolistobogi, the Voturi, and the Ambitouti; those who
dwell in Mæonia and Paphlagonia are called the Trocmi. Cappadocia
stretches along to the north-east of Galatia, its most fertile parts
being possessed by the Tectosages and the Teutobodiaci. These are
the nations by which those parts are occupied; and they are divided
into peoples and tetrarchies, 195 in number. Its towns are, among the
Tectosages, Ancyra[4315]; among the Trocmi, Tavium[4316]; and, among
the Tolistobogi, Pessinus[4317]. Besides the above, the best known
among the peoples of this region are the Actalenses, the Arasenses, the
Comenses[4318], the Didienses, the Hierorenses, the Lystreni[4319],
the Neapolitani, the Œandenses, the Seleucenses[4320], the
Sebasteni[4321], the Timoniacenses[4322], and the Thebaseni[4323].
Galatia also touches upon Carbalia in Pamphylia, and the Milyæ[4324],
about Baris; also upon Cyllanticum and Oroandicum[4325], a district
of Pisidia, and Obizene, a part of Lycaonia. Besides those already
mentioned[4326], its rivers are the Sangarius[4327] and the
Gallus[4328], from which last the priests[4329] of the Mother of the
gods have taken their name.




CHAP. 43.—BITHYNIA.


And now as to the remaining places on this coast. On the road from Cios
into the interior is Prusa[4330], in Bithynia, founded by Hannibal at
the foot of Olympus, at a distance of twenty-five miles from Nicæa,
Lake Ascanius[4331] lying between them. We then come to Nicæa[4332],
formerly called Olbia, and situate at the bottom of the Ascanian Gulf;
as also a second place called Prusa[4333], at the foot of Mount Hypius.
Pythopolis, Parthenopolis, and Coryphanta are no longer in existence.
Along the coast we find the rivers Æsius, Bryazon, Plataneus, Areus,
Æsyros, Geodos, also called Chrysorroas[4334], and the promontory[4335]
upon which once stood the town of Megarice. The gulf that here runs
inland received the name of Craspedites from the circumstance of that
town lying, as it were, upon its skirt[4336]. Astacum[4337], also,
formerly stood here, from which the same gulf has received the name
of the ‘Astacenian’: the town of Libyssa[4338] formerly stood at
the spot where we now see nothing but the tomb of Hannibal. At the
bottom of the gulf lies Nicomedia[4339], a famous city of Bithynia;



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