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His poem is mentioned in c. 22 of this Book. See pages 1, 2, and 55 of
the present volume.

[756] It is most probable that Quintus Ælius Pætus Tubero is here
meant. He was son-in-law, and, according to Cicero, nephew of Æmilius
Paulus, and Consul in the year B.C. 167. There are two other persons
found mentioned of the name of Q. Ælius Tubero.

[757] The freedman and amanuensis of Cicero. He was a man of great
learning, and was supposed to have invented short-hand. He also wrote a
Life of Cicero.

[758] Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi. He was Consul in the year B.C. 133,
and was a stout opponent of the Gracchi. He wrote Annals of the History
of Rome from the earliest periods.

[759] Livy, the well-known Roman historian.

[760] He was the intimate friend of Cicero, and wrote Chronicles or
Annals, in three books, a Life of Cicero, and some other historical
works. A work still exists, called “Lives of Eminent Commanders,” which
is ascribed sometimes to him and sometimes to one Æmilius Probus, a
writer of the reign of Theodosius. The latter probably abridged the
original work of Nepos.

[761] Statius Sebosus. He is mentioned by Cicero as the friend of
Catulus. He wrote a work called the “Periplus,” and another on the
Wonders of India.

[762] A Roman historian and lawyer, who flourished about B.C. 124. He
wrote a Book of Annals, in which was contained a valuable account of
the Second Punic war. This work was epitomized by Brutus and held in
high estimation by the Emperor Adrian.

[763] Fabianus Papirius, a Roman rhetorician and naturalist, whose
works are highly commended by Pliny and Seneca. He wrote a History of
Animals, and a book on Natural Causes.

[764] Quintus Valerius Antias. He flourished about B.C. 80, and wrote
the Annals of Rome, down to the time of Sylla.

[765] Marcus Licinius Crassus Mucianus. He was instrumental in raising
the Emperor Vespasian to the throne, and was Consul in the years A.D.
52, 70, and 74. He published three Books of Epistles, and a History in
eleven Books, which appears to have treated chiefly of Eastern affairs.

[766] Aulus Cæcina. He was sent into exile by Cæsar, joined the
Pompeians in Africa, and was taken prisoner by Cæsar, but his life
was spared. Cicero wrote several letters to him, and commends his
abilities. His work appears to have been on Divination as practised by
the Etrurians.

[767] He appears to have been a diviner or soothsayer of Etruria, and
to have written a work on Etruscan prodigies.

[768] He also wrote a work on Etruscan divination, but it does not
appear that any thing further is known of him.

[769] Sergius Paulus. He is also mentioned in the Index to the 18th
Book. Nothing further seems to be known of him.

[770] The greatest, with the exception of Aristotle, of the Greek
Philosophers, and the disciple of Socrates.

[771] A native of Nicæa in Bithynia, who flourished B.C. 160. He
is called the “Father” of Astronomy. He wrote a Commentary on the
Phænomena of Aratus and Eudoxus, which is still extant. His works,
including those on the Lunar Month and the Fixed Stars, have not come
down to us. His Catalogue of the Stars is preserved in the Almagest of
Ptolemy.

[772] Timæus of Locri in Italy, a Pythagorean philosopher, said to have
been the instructor of Plato. He wrote a work on Mathematics. A work
“On the Soul of the World and of Nature,” which is still extant, has
been ascribed to him, but on doubtful grounds.

[773] An astronomer and peripatetic philosopher of Alexandria. He was
employed by Julius Cæsar to superintend his revision of the Calendar.
It is supposed that he wrote a work on the Celestial Revolutions, and a
Commentary on the works of Aristotle.

[774] A priest, mathematician, and astrologer of Egypt. A Letter on
the Astrological Sciences, written by him to King Necepsos, is said to
be extant in the Royal Library at Vienna, as also a work called the
“Organum Astrologicum,” dedicated to the same king. Juvenal seems to
use his name as a common term for an astrologer.

[775] He is mentioned by Julius Firmicus as “a most just emperor of
Egypt, and a very good astronomer.” A work by him is quoted by Galen in
his tenth Book on Simples, but it was most probably of spurious origin.

[776] “Pythagoricis” here may either mean the works of the followers
of Pythagoras of Samos, or the books which were written by that
philosopher. Pliny, in Books 19, 20, and 24, speaks of several writings
of Pythagoras, and Diogenes Laertius mentions others; but it is more
generally supposed that he wrote nothing, and that everything that
passed by his name in ancient times was spurious.

[777] A Stoic philosopher of Apamea in Syria. He was the instructor
of Cicero, and the friend of Pompey. He wrote works on history,
divination, the tides, and the nature of the gods. Some fragments only
have survived.

[778] Of Miletus, was born B.C. 610, and was the successor of Thales,
the founder of the Ionian school of philosophy. He is said to have
first taught the obliquity of the ecliptic and the use of the gnomon.

[779] A philosopher of Rhodes or Byzantium. Seneca says that he boasted
of having studied astronomy among the Chaldeans. He is mentioned by
Varro and Columella as having written on rural matters, and is praised
by Censorinus.

[780] Of Alexandria, the great geometrician, and instructor of Ptolemy
I. He was the founder of the mathematical school of Alexandria.

[781] He was a Greek by birth, and lived in the time of Nero. He is
extolled by Tacitus, B. 14, for his superlative wisdom, beyond which
nothing is known of him.

[782] Of Cnidus, an astronomer and legislator who flourished B.C. 366.
He was a friend and disciple of Plato, and said to have been the first
who taught in Greece the motions of the planets. His works on astronomy
and geometry are lost, but his Phænomena have been preserved by Aratus,
who turned his prose into verse.

[783] Born at Abdera in Thrace, about B.C. 460. He was one of the
founders of the atomic theory, and looked upon peace of mind as
the _summum bonum_ of mortals. He wrote works on the nature and
organization of the world, on physics, on contagious maladies, on the
chameleon, and on other subjects.

[784] A Grecian astronomer. A work of his, called “Apotelesmatica,” is
said to be preserved in the Imperial Library at Vienna.

[785] An astrologer of Rhodes, patronized by Augustus and Tiberius. He
wrote a work on Stones, and a History of Egypt. Tacitus, in his Annals,
B. vi., speaks highly of his skill in astrology.

[786] A geographer of Antioch, and an opponent of the views of
Eratosthenes. Cicero declares that he himself was unable to understand
a thousandth part of his work.

[787] A Peripatetic philosopher and geographer, of Messina in Sicily.
He studied under Aristotle and wrote several works, the principal of
which was an account of the history, geography, and moral and religious
condition of Greece. A few fragments only are extant.

[788] Of Syracuse, the most famous mathematician of antiquity, born
B.C. 287. A few only of his works have come down to us, published at
Oxford in 1792, by Torelli.

[789] Born either at Astypalæa or Ægina. He was chief pilot of the
fleet of Alexander during the descent of the Indus and the voyage to
the Persian Gulf. He wrote a work called the “Alexandropædia,” or
Education of Alexander. In his description of what he saw in India,
many fables and falsehoods are said to have been interwoven, so much
so that the work (which is now lost) is said to have resembled a fable
more than a history.

[790] Of Cyrene, born B.C. 276. He was invited from Athens by Ptolemy
Euergetes, to become keeper of the library at Alexandria. He was a man
of most extensive erudition, as an astronomer, geographer, philosopher,
historian and grammarian. All of his writings have perished, with the
exception of a few fragments on geographical subjects.

[791] Of Massilia, now Marseilles, a celebrated navigator who
flourished about the time of Alexander the Great. In his voyages he
visited Britain and Thule, of which he probably gave some account
in his work “On the Ocean.” He has been wrongfully accused of
falsehood by Strabo. Another work written by him was his “Periplus,”
or ‘Circumnavigation’ from Gades to the Tanais, probably, in this
instance, the Elbe.

[792] Of Halicarnassus, the father of Grecian history; born B.C. 484.
Besides his great work which has come down to us, he is supposed to
have written a history of Arabia.

[793] Probably the most learned of the Greek philosophers. His works
were exceedingly numerous, and those which have survived to us treat
of natural history, metaphysics, physical science, ethics, logic, and
general literature.

[794] A native of Cnidus in Caria, and private physician to Artaxerxes
Mnemon, having been made prisoner by him at the battle of Cunaxa. He
wrote a History of Persia in 23 books, which, with the exception of
a small abridgement by Photius and a few fragments, is now lost. He
also wrote a book on India. He was much censured, probably without
sufficient reason, for the credulity displayed in his works.

[795] Of Ephesus, a geographer, who lived about B.C. 100. He wrote a
Periplus, and a work on Geography; a few fragments only of abridgements
of these have survived.

[796] Of Charax in Parthia, of which country he wrote an account which
still exists. He flourished in the reign of Augustus.

[797] Of Chios, a celebrated historian, and disciple of the orator
Isocrates. His principal works were a History of Greece, and a Life of
Philip of Macedon, father of Alexander the Great.

[798] Now the Straits of Gibraltar.

[799] This is said more especially in reference to the western parts
of Asia, the only portion which was perfectly known to the ancients.
His meaning is, that Asia as a portion of the globe does not lie so far
north as Europe, nor so far south as Africa.

[800] Now the Don. It was usually looked upon as the boundary between
Europe and Asia. Pliny’s meaning seems to be, that the Tanais divides
Asia from Europe, and the Nile, Asia from Africa, the more especially
as the part to the west of the Nile was sometimes considered as
belonging to Asia. It has been however suggested that he intends to
assign these rivers as the extreme eastern boundaries of the internal
or Mediterranean sea.

[801] At no spot are the Straits less than ten miles in width; although
D’Anville makes the width to be little less than five miles. This
passage of our author is probably in a corrupt state.

[802] This probably stood near the site of the town of Tarifa of the
present day.

[803] Probably the point called ‘Punta del Sainar’ at the present day.

[804] Now called Ximiera, Jebel-el-Mina, or Monte del Hacho.

[805] The Rock of Gibraltar.

[806] The fable was that they originally formed one mountain, which was
torn asunder by Hercules, or as Pliny says, “dug through.”

[807] This was the opinion of Herodotus, but it had been so strenuously
combated by Polybius and other writers before the time of Pliny, that
it is difficult to imagine how he should countenance it.

[808] He probably alludes to Leucopetra, now called Capo dell’ Armi.
Locri Epizephyrii was a town of Bruttium, situate north of the
promontory of Zephyrium, now called Capo di Bruzzano.

[809] So called from the Bætis, now the Guadalquivir or Great River.

[810] The situation of this town is not known, but it is supposed to
have been about five leagues from the present city of Mujacar, or
Moxacar. It was situate on the Sinus Urgitanus.

[811] So called from the city of Tarraco, on the site of the present
Tarragona.

[812] Corresponding nearly in extent with the present kingdom of
Portugal.

[813] Now Gaudiana, a corruption of the Arabic Wadi Ana, “the river
Ana.”

[814] According to Hardouin this place is the modern town of Montiel,
but Pinet and D’Anville make it the same as Alhambra.

[815] According to modern writers it conceals itself in this manner for
a distance of fifteen miles.

[816] From the Balearic Channel to the Gulf of Gascony or Bay of Biscay.

[817] Probably the Sierra Nevada is meant by this name; Hardouin
considers it the same as the Sierra de los Vertientes.

[818] Probably the Sierra Morena.

[819] The Monte de Toledo.

[820] The Sierra de las Asturias.

[821] The present Cadiz. It was originally a Phœnician colony.

[822] Now Cordova.

[823] Now Ecija.

[824] Now Seville.

[825] The _Roman_ colonies or colonies “civium Romanorum” are those
here meant. The colonists in such case enjoyed all the rights of
Roman citizens, the town in which they lived being founded under the
supervision of the Roman magistracy.

[826] “Municipia.” These were towns in conquered countries which were
_not_ founded by the Romans, but whose inhabitants retained their
original institutions, at the same time receiving certain of the rights
of Roman citizens; most frequently, immunity to a greater or less
degree from payment of tribute.

[827] “Latium;” also called “Jus Latii” and “Latinitas.” This was the
name given to those circumscribed or limited rights as Roman citizens
which were at first bestowed upon the conquered states of Italy,
before the time of the Social War. Indeed the _Latinus_ held a kind of
intermediate state between the _Civis Romanus_ with all his rights, and
the _peregrinus_ or foreigner with all his disabilities. These Latin
rights were afterwards extended to the people of other countries, but
retained their original name.

[828] The free towns were those, the inhabitants of which were at
liberty to enjoy their ancient institutions and modes of internal
government, though at the same time they enjoyed none of the privileges
of Roman citizens.

[829] “Fœderati civitates;” the inhabitants of which were called
‘fœderati’ or ‘socii.’ They were in alliance with the Romans, but in
some cases paid them tribute in the same manner as the ‘stipendiaria’
next mentioned. In some instances they also enjoyed the Latin rights.

[830] From the numerous creeks or æstuaries with which the coast is
here indented. Commentators are at a loss for the site of the town of
Onoba (or Ossonoba according to some readings). D’Anville considers it
to be the same with the present town of Moguer; other commentators have
suggested Gibraleon, and the vicinity of Palos.

[831] The Odiel and the Tinto; the Urium being supposed to be the same
with the Tinto of the present day.

[832] Some readings have “Hareni montes,” and others “Arenæ montes,”
the “mountains of sand.” There is no doubt that the sandy heights or
downs on this coast are here meant, which are called at the present day
“Dunes” by the French, and by the natives “Arenas gordas.”

[833] Probably the line of sea-shore between Roia and the city of
Cadiz, skirting the Bay of Cadiz. Hardouin however thinks that the
coast between the Guadalquivir and the Guadalete is meant, now occupied
in part by the town of San Lucar de Barameda.

[834] In the Fourth Book, c. 36.

[835] The present Cape Trafalgar.

[836] Hardouin says that the present Vejer is the place meant, while
others have suggested Puerto de Santa Maria, or Cantillana. Others
again identify it with Bejer de la Frontera, though that place probably
lies too far inland. The Roman ruins near Porto Barbato were probably
its site.

[837] Hardouin and other commentators suggest that the site of the
present Tarifa is here meant; it is more probable however that
D’Anville is right in suggesting the now deserted town of Bolonia.

[838] Probably the present Tarifa.

[839] The exact site of Carteia is unknown; but it is generally
supposed to have stood upon the bay which opens out of the straits on
the west of the Rock of Gibraltar, now called the Bay of Algesiras or
Gibraltar; and upon the hill at the head of the bay of El Rocadillo,
about half-way between Algesiras and Gibraltar.

[840] We learn also from Strabo, that Tartessus was the same place as
Carteia; it is not improbable that the former was pretty nearly the
Phœnician name of the place, and the latter a Roman corruption of it,
and that in it originated the ‘Tarshish’ of Scripture, an appellation
apparently given to the whole of the southern part of the Spanish
peninsula. Probably the Greeks preserved the appellation of the place
more in conformity with the original Phœnician name.

[841] By the “inland sea” Pliny means the Mediterranean, in
contradistinction to the Atlantic Ocean without the Straits of Cadiz.

[842] The ruins of this place, probably, are still to be seen on the
east bank of the river Guadiaro, here alluded to.

[843] With its river flowing by it. This place is probably the present
Marbella, situate on the Rio Verde.

[844] Probably the present Castillo de Torremolinos, or else Castillo
de Fuengirola.

[845] The present city of Malaga. Hardouin thinks that the river
Guadalquivirejo is here meant, but as that is some miles distant from
the city, it is more probable that Guadalmedina, which is much nearer
to it, is the stream alluded to.

[846] Not improbably Velez Malaga, upon a river of the same name.
Hardouin thinks that the place is the modern Torrox on the Fiu Frio,
and D’Anville the present city of Almunecar, on the Rio Verde.

[847] Most probably the present Almunecar, but it is uncertain.
D’Anville says the present Torre de Banas; others have suggested the
town of Motril.

[848] Now Salobrena.

[849] Either the present Adra or Abdera: it is uncertain which.

[850] Probably the present Mujacar. D’Anville suggests Almeria.

[851] Also called Bastitani, a mixed race, partly Iberian and partly
Phœnician.

[852] The Greek Λύσσα, “frantic rage” or “madness.” The etymologies
here suggested are puerile in the extreme.

[853] Plutarch, quoting from the Twelfth Book of the Iberica of
Sosthenes, tells us that, “After Bacchus had conquered Iberia [the
present Spain], he left Pan to act as his deputy, and he changed its
name and called the country _Pania_, after himself, which afterwards
became corrupted into _Spania_.”

[854] He alludes to the expedition of Hercules into Spain, of which
Diodorus Siculus makes mention; also his courtship of the nymph
Pyrene, the daughter of Bebryx, who was buried by him on the Pyrenæan
mountains, which thence derived their name.

[855] It is unknown where this town was situate; Hardouin and D’Anville
think it was on the site of the present village of San Thome, once an
episcopal see, now removed to Jaen. The people of Mentisa, mentioned in
c. 4, were probably inhabitants of a different place. D’Anville in his
map has two Mentisas, one ‘Oretana,’ the other ‘Bastitana.’

[856] According to D’Anville, the place now called Toia.

[857] Now the Segura.

[858] ‘Nova’ or ‘New’ Carthage, so called from having been originally
founded by a colony of Carthaginians B.C. 242. It was situate a little
to the west of the Saturni Promontorium, or Promontory of Palos. It was
taken by Scipio Africanus the elder B.C. 210.

[859] The present Lorca.

[860] This place is even now called by the inhabitants Sepulcro de
Scipion. Cneius Cornelius Scipio Calvus, after the defeat of his
brother P. Cornelius Scipio, in the year B.C. 211, by the forces of
Asdrubal and Mago, fled to a tower at this spot, which was set fire to
by the troops of Asdrubal, and he perished in the flames.

[861] So called from the town of Ossigi afterwards mentioned.

[862] It is unknown where this place stood; Medina Sidonia has been
suggested.

[863] Probably the present Fuentes del Rey, between Andujar and Jaen,
according to Pinet.

[864] D’Anville suggests that this is the present Arjona; but more
probably it was the village of Arjonilla, two leagues south of Andujar.
Gruter has an inscription found here, “MUNIC. ALBENSE URGANON.”

[865] There were five cities of this name in Spain. Hardouin thinks
that this is the modern Alcala la Real, between Granada and Cordova.

[866] Most probably the modern Sierra de Elvira, though some writers
have suggested the city of Granada.

[867] Probably near the modern Montilla. Hardouin takes it to be the
present Granada.

[868] Poinsinet thinks that this is the present Ecija, but other
writers take it to be Alhama, between Granada and Malaga.

[869] Perhaps the present Archidona. Some writers have suggested the
modern Faventia and Velez.

[870] Probably near the present Puente de Don Gonzalo, on the banks of
the Rio Genil.

[871] Probably near Aguilar on the river Cabra; or else the present
Teba, between Osuna and Antequera.

[872] Agla the Less.

[873] Probably the present Cabra. The sites of the two preceding towns
are not known.

[874] “The Encampment in the Vineyards.” Probably this was the same as
the Castra Postumiana mentioned by Hirtius in his Book on the Spanish
War as being four miles from Attegua. It appears to be the present
Castro, or Castro el Rio, situate on the banks of the river Guadajoz.

[875] In some readings “Episibrium.” Probably the present Espeja.

[876] Its present site is unknown.

[877] According to D’Anville, the present Puente de Pinos, six leagues
north of Granada. Others take it to be Illora, south of Alcala la Real.

[878] The present Huesca, according to Hardouin; more probably,
however, Huector, on the banks of the river Genil.

[879] Perhaps Escusar, five leagues from Granada. But according to some
it is the same as Truelo or Eruelo.

[880] Called Ucubis by Hirtius. Morales suggests that it is Sierra la
Ronda, but Pinet says Stoponda.

[881] The sites of this and the preceding place are unknown.

[882] In relation to the ‘conventus juridicus,’ we may here observe
that under the Roman sway, in order to facilitate the administration of
justice, a province was divided into a number of districts or circuits,
each of which was so called, as also ‘forum’ or ‘jurisdictio’. At
certain times of the year fixed by the proconsul or chief magistrate,
the people assembled in the chief town of the district (whence the name
‘conventus’), upon which judges were selected to try the causes of
litigant parties.

[883] Probably near the town at the present day called Espelui. Strabo,
in Book iii., tells us that Laconian institutions and customs were
prevalent in some parts of Spain.

[884] This place was ravaged by fire and levelled with the ground by
the troops of Scipio, in consequence of the vigorous defence they had
made, and the losses they had caused to the Roman army. It probably
stood about four miles from the present city of Baeza.

[885] The sites of this place and the next are unknown.

[886] Most probably the present town of Porcuna. Ubeda or Ubedos has
also been suggested.

[887] The present town of Montoro.

[888] Now Alcoorrucen, near Perabad.

[889] Ansart suggests that the reading is not Sacili of the Martiales,
but Onoba of the Martiales, to distinguish it from Onoba Æstuaria,
previously mentioned. It is not improbable that the place was so called
from the Martian or Martial legion having originally colonized it. The
site of Onoba is unknown.

[890] Cordova was so called from the great number of patricians, who
were among the original colonists, when it was founded by Marcellus.
To the present day it is noted for the pride of its nobles. The Great
Captain Gonzalo de Cordova used to say, that “other towns might be
better to live in, but there was none better to be born in.” It was the
birth-place of Lucan and the two Senecas.

[891] The site of these two places is unknown at the present day.

[892] Now called by the similar name of Genil or Xenil.

[893] Perhaps the present Alcolea.

[894] Perhaps the Cantillana of the present day: there is, however, the
greatest uncertainty as to the sites of these places.

[895] According to Hardouin, the modern city of Penaflor: D’Anville
places it about two leagues thence, and near the city of Lora.

[896] Now Sevilla la Vieja, or Old Seville; called by the lower classes
Santi-pone.

[897] Now Seville. This colony was founded by Julius Cæsar, and also
bore the name of Julia Romula.

[898] Or north side of the river.

[899] Probably on the site of the present Alcala del Rio.

[900] ‘The [good] genius of Julius,’ probably meaning Cæsar. Nothing
seems to be known of its site.

[901] Caura may be the present Coria, a town three leagues from Seville.



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