Pliny the Elder.

The Natural History of Pliny, Volume 1 (of 6) online

. (page 47 of 57)
Online LibraryPliny the ElderThe Natural History of Pliny, Volume 1 (of 6) → online text (page 47 of 57)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


of the department of the Eure. From them Lisieux takes its name.

[2995] They occupied the department of the Lower Seine.

[2996] They are supposed to have dwelt in the vicinity of Lillebonne,
in the department of the Lower Seine.

[2997] They gave name to the town of Vannes in the department of
Morbihan.

[2998] From them the city of Avranches, in the department of La Manche,
derives its name.

[2999] They occupied the modern department of Finisterre.

[3000] The Loire.

[3001] This spot is placed by D’Anville near the modern city of Saint
Brieuc. He refers here to the peninsula of Brittany, which ends in
Finisterre.

[3002] Ansart remarks that the circuit of the peninsula from Saint
Brieuc to the mouth of the river Vilaine is only 450 miles, but that if
taken from the city of Avranches to the mouth of the Loire, it is 650.

[3003] Ansart states that from Avranches to the mouth of the Loire, in
a straight line, is twenty miles less than the distance here given by
Pliny.

[3004] Inhabitants of the department of the Lower Loire or Loire
Inférieure.

[3005] This extensive people inhabited the present departments of the
Saone et Loire, Allier, Nievre, Rhone nord, and Loire nord. Autun and
Chalons-sur-Marne stand on the site of their ancient towns.

[3006] They inhabited the departments of the Eure et Loire, and
portions of those of the Seine et Oise, of the Loire et Cher, and of the
Loiret. Chartres occupies the site of their town.

[3007] They occupied a part of the department of the Allier. Moulins
stands on the site of their chief town.

[3008] Sens, in the department of the Yonne, stands on the site of
their chief town.

[3009] The chief town of the Aulerci Eburovices was on the site of the
present Passy-sur-Eure, called by the inhabitants Old Evreux, in the
department of the Eure.

[3010] They dwelt in the vicinity of the city of Le Mans, in the
department of the Sarthe.

[3011] Meaux, in the department of the Seine et Marne, denotes the site
of their principal town.

[3012] Paris, anciently Lutetia, denotes their locality.

[3013] The city of Troyes, in the department of the Aube, denotes their
locality.

[3014] Their chief town stood on the site of Angers, in the department
of the Maine et Loire.

[3015] D’Anville says that their chief town stood on the spot now known
as Vieux, two leagues from Caen, in the department of Calvados.

[3016] The reading here is not improbably “Vadicasses.” If so, they
were a people situate at a great distance from the other tribes here
mentioned by Pliny. They dwelt in the department De l’Oise, in the
district formerly known as Valois, their chief town or city occupying
the site of Vez, not far from Villers Cotterets.

[3017] D’Anville assigns to the Venelli, or Unelli, as some readings
have it, the former district of Cotantin, now called the department of
La Manche.

[3018] According to D’Anville, Corseuil, two leagues from Dinan, in the
department of the Côtes du Nord, denotes the site of their chief town.
Hardouin takes Quimper to mark the locality.

[3019] They are supposed by Ansart to have occupied that part of the
department of La Mayenne where we find the village of Jublains, two
leagues from the city of Mayenne.

[3020] D’Anville assigns to them the greater part of the department of
the Ile et Vilaine, and is of opinion that the city of Rennes occupies
the site of Condate, their chief town.

[3021] Tours, in the department of the Indre et Loire, marks the site
of their chief town.

[3022] They are supposed to have occupied a portion of the department
of the Loire.

[3023] They probably occupied a part of the department of the Loire, as
also of that of the Rhone. Their town, Forum Secusianorum, stood on the
site of the present Feurs, in the department of the Loire.

[3024] The city of Lyons occupies the site of ancient Lugdunum. It
is suggested by Hardouin, that the name Lugdunum is a corruption of
“Lucudunum,” a compound of the Latin word _lucus_, “a grove,” and the
Celtic _dun_, “a hill” or “mountain.”

[3025] They are mentioned by Cæsar (B. C. iii. 9), in conjunction with
the Nannetes, Morini, and others, but nothing can be inferred as to the
precise position they occupied.

[3026] Their locality also is unknown, but it is supposed that they
dwelt in the vicinity of the department of La Vendée.

[3027] From them ancient Poitou received its name. They are supposed to
have occupied the department of the Haute-Vienne, and portions of the
departments of La Vendée, the Loire Inférieure, the Maine et Loire, the
Deux-Sèvres, and La Vienne.

[3028] They gave name to the former Saintonge, now the department of
Charente and Charente Inférieure. The town of Saintes occupies the site
of their chief town.

[3029] They occupied the modern department of the Gironde. The city of
Bordeaux occupies the site of their chief town.

[3030] They gave name to Aquitaine, which became corrupted into
Guyenne. Pliny is the only author that makes the Aquitani a distinct
people of the province of Aquitanica. The Tarusates are supposed to
have afterwards occupied the site here referred to by him, with Atures
for their chief town, afterwards called Aire, in the department of the
Landes.

[3031] Their locality is unknown, but it has been suggested that they
occupied the departments of the Basses Pyrénées, or Lower Pyrenees.

[3032] So called from the Latin verb _convenire_, “to assemble” or
“meet together.” They are said to have received this name from the
circumstance that Ptolemy, after the close of the Sertorian war,
finding a pastoral people of predatory habits inhabiting the range
of the Pyrenees, ordered them to unite together and form a community
in a town or city. From them the present town of Saint Bertrand de
Comminges, in the S.W. of the department of the Haute Garonne, derives
its Latin name “Lugdunum Convenarum.”

[3033] By Cæsar called the Bigerriones. Their name was preserved
in that of the district of Bigorre, now the department of the
Hautes-Pyrénées. Their chief town was Turba, now Tarbes.

[3034] By calling the Tarbelli _Quatuorsignani_, he seems to imply that
their chief town was a place garrisoned by four maniples of soldiers,
each with a _signum_ or standard. Aquæ Tarbellicæ was their chief town,
the modern Acqs or Dax, in the S.W. of the department of the Landes.

[3035] Their chief town was probably garrisoned by six _signa_ or
maniples. Cocosa, or Coequosa, as it is written in the Antonine
Itinerary, is the first place on a road from Aquæ Tarbellicæ or Dax to
Burdegala or Bordeaux, now called Marensin. Their locality was in the
southern part of the department of the Landes, the inhabitants of which
are still divided into two classes, the Bouges, those of the north, or
of the Tête de Buch; and the Cousiots, those of the south.

[3036] Their locality is unknown.

[3037] D’Anville would read “Onobusates,” and thinks that they dwelt in
the district called Nébousan, in the department of the Hautes Pyrénées.
He is also of opinion that their town stood on the site of the modern
Cioutat, between the rivers Adour and Neste.

[3038] They occupied the southern part of the department of the Gironde.

[3039] From them Hardouin suggests that Moneins, in the department of
the Basses Pyrénées, takes its name.

[3040] D’Anville is of opinion that they inhabited and gave name to
the Vallée d’Ossun, between the Pyrenees and the city of Oléron in the
department of the Basses Pyrénées.

[3041] D’Anville places them in the Vallée de Soule, in the department
of the Basses Pyrénées.

[3042] From them Campon, a place in the department of the Hautes
Pyrénées, is supposed to have received its name.

[3043] Biscarosse, not far from Tête de Buch in the department of the
Landes, is supposed to derive its name from this tribe.

[3044] Nothing whatever is known of them.

[3045] The more general reading is “Sassumini.” Ansart suggests that
the town of Sarrum, between Cognac and Périgueux, in the department of
the Dordogne, may have received its name from them.

[3046] Ansart suggests that Rieumes, in the department of the Haute
Garonne, occupies the site of Ryesium, their chief town, mentioned by
Ptolemy.

[3047] They are supposed to have given name to Tournay, in the
department of the Hautes Pyrénées.

[3048] Supposed to be the same as the Consuarini, mentioned in B. iii.
c. 5.

[3049] They probably gave name to Auch, in the department of Gers.

[3050] Their chief town occupied the site of Euse or Eause, in the
department of Gers.

[3051] Their locality is marked by Soz, in the department of the
Lot-et-Garonne.

[3052] Or “Oscidates of the Plains.” They probably gave name to Ossun,
two miles from Tarbes, in the department of the Hautes Pyrénées.

[3053] From them the village of Cestas, three leagues from Bordeaux, in
the department of the Gironde, is supposed to derive its name.

[3054] The village of Tursan, in the department of the Landes, probably
derived its name from this tribe.

[3055] Their town was Cossio, afterwards Vasates, now Bazas, in the
department of the Gironde.

[3056] The site of the Vassei and the Sennates appears to be unknown.

[3057] D’Anville is of opinion that this tribe gave name to Aisenay
or Azenay, a village four leagues distant from Bourbon-Vendée, in the
department of La Vendée.

[3058] They occupied the district formerly known as Berry, but now the
departments of the Indre, the Cher, and the west of the department of
the Allier. Their chief town was Avaricum, now Bourges.

[3059] They inhabited the district formerly known as the Limosin, now
the departments of the Creuse, the Haute Vienne, and the Corrèze. Their
chief town was Augustoritum, afterwards Lemovices, now Limoges.

[3060] They occupied the district formerly known as Auvergne, forming
the present department of the Allier, and the southern part of the
Puy de Dôme and the Cantal. Augustonemetum was their chief town, now
Clermont.

[3061] Situate in the district formerly known as Gevaudan, now the
department of La Lozère. Their chief town stood on the site of the
present small town of Javoulx, four leagues from Mende.

[3062] They are supposed to have occupied the former district of
Rouergue, now known as the department of Aveyron. Their chief town was
Segodunum, afterwards Ruteni, now known as Rhodez.

[3063] They occupied the former district of Querci, the present
department of Lot and Lot-et-Garonne. Divona, afterwards Cadurci, now
Cahors, was their principal town.

[3064] According to Ptolemy their town was Aginnum, probably the modern
Agen, in the present department of Lot-et-Garonne. “Antobroges,”
however, is the more common reading.

[3065] They occupied the district formerly known as Périgord, in
the department of the Dordogne; their town was Vesanna, afterwards
Petrocori, now Périgueux.

[3066] Ansart says they are about 200 in number, consisting of Belle
Isle, Groaix, Houat, Hoedic, and others. Also probably Morbihan.

[3067] The Isle of Oleron, the fountain-head of the maritime laws of
Europe.

[3068] He means to say that it gradually increases in breadth after
leaving the narrow neck of the Pyrenees and approaching the confines of
Lusitania.

[3069] B. iii. c. 3.

[3070] From Ruscino to Gades.

[3071] In the province now known as Guipuzcoa.

[3072] Supposed to be the present Cabo de la Higuera.

[3073] Probably inhabiting the eastern part of the provinces of Biscay
and Alava, the eastern portion of Navarre, and, perhaps, a part of the
province of Guipuzcoa.

[3074] According to Hardouin the modern San Sebastian occupies the site
of their town.

[3075] On the same site as the modern Bermeo, according to Mannert.
Hardouin thinks, however, and with greater probability, that it was
situate at the mouth of the river Orio.

[3076] D’Anville considers this to be the site of the city of Bermeo.

[3077] Poinsinet thinks that this is Flavio in Bilbao, D’Anville calls
it Portugalette, and Mannert thinks that it is the same as Santander,
with which opinion Ansart agrees.

[3078] According to Ptolemy, the Cantabri possessed the western part of
the province of La Montana, and the northern parts of the provinces of
Palencia and Toro.

[3079] Most probably the present Rio de Suancès, by Mannert called
the Saya, into which the Besanga flows. Hardouin however calls it the
Nervio.

[3080] Ansart suggests that this is the modern San Vicente de la
Barquera. If the river Sauga is the same with the Suancès, this cannot
be the port of Santander, as has been suggested.

[3081] Or Ebro.

[3082] According to Ansart, this is either the modern Ensenada de
Ballota or else the Puerta de Pô.

[3083] According to Ansart, the Orgenomesci occupied the same territory
which Ptolemy has assigned to the Cantabri in general. See Note [3078]
above.

[3084] Hardouin takes this to be Villaviciosa. Ansart thinks that Ria
de Cella occupies its site.

[3085] They are supposed to have occupied the greater part of the
principality of the Asturias and the province of Leon.

[3086] Hardouin and Mannert consider this to be identical with Navia
or Nava, six miles to the east of Oviedo, an obscure place in the
interior. Ansart however would identify it with Villaviciosa.

[3087] No doubt the headland now known as the Cabo de Penas.

[3088] Now Lugo in Gallicia.

[3089] Supposed by Ansart to be the Rio Caneiro, into which the Rio
Labio discharges itself.

[3090] Supposed by Ansart to have dwelt in the vicinity of the Celtic
promontory, now Cabo de Finisterra or Cape Finisterre. Of the Egovarri
and Iadoni nothing whatever is known.

[3091] Their towns are mentioned by Ptolemy as being situate on a bay
near Nerium or the promontory of Cape Finisterre.

[3092] Mannert thinks that the Nelo is the same as the Rio Allones; the
Florius seems not to have been identified.

[3093] The inhabitants of Cape Finisterre.

[3094] Dwelling on the banks of the river which from them takes its
modern name of Tambre.

[3095] Mannert and Ansart are of opinion that this peninsula was
probably the modern Cabo Taurinan or Cabo Villano, most probably the
latter.

[3096] On the occasion probably of his expedition against the Cantabri.

[3097] Their towns, Iria Flavia and Lacus Augusti, lay in the interior,
on the sites of the present Santiago de Compostella and Lugo.

[3098] Probably the modern Noya.

[3099] They are supposed to have occupied the district in which the
warm springs are found, which are known as Caldas de Contis and Caldas
de Rey.

[3100] It is suggested by Ansart that the islands here meant are those
called Carreira, at the mouth of the river Ulla, and the Islas de Ons,
at the mouth of the Tenario.

[3101] See B. iii. c. 4.

[3102] Inhabiting the vicinity of the modern Pontevedra.

[3103] According to Ptolemy also their town was Tudæ, the modern Tuy.

[3104] The modern Islas de Seyas or of Bayona.

[3105] The town of Bayona, about six leagues from the mouth of the
river Minho.

[3106] The Minho.

[3107] They occupied the tract of country lying between the rivers, and
known as Entre Douro y Minho.

[3108] Now Braga on the Cavado.

[3109] The Lima.

[3110] The river Douro.

[3111] See B. iii. c. 3.

[3112] Both lead, properly so called, and tin.

[3113] In a great degree corresponding with modern Portugal, except
that the latter includes the tract of country between the Minho and
Douro.

[3114] To distinguish them from the nation of the same name sprung
from them, and occupying the Farther Spain. (B. iii. c. 3.) The Pæsuri
occupied the site of the present towns of Lamego and Arouca.

[3115] The modern Vouga, which runs below the town of Aveiro, raised
from the ruins of ancient Talabrica.

[3116] Agueda, which, according to Hardouin, is the name of both the
river and the town.

[3117] Coimbra, formerly Condeja la Veja.

[3118] Leiria is supposed to occupy its site.

[3119] According to Hardouin, the modern Ebora de Alcobaza, ten leagues
from Leiria.

[3120] The modern Cabo de la Roca, seven leagues from Lisbon.

[3121] Pliny, in C. 34, places the Arrotrebæ, belonging to the
Conventus of Lucus Augusti, about the Promontorium Celticum, which,
if not the same as the Nerium (or Cape Finisterre) of the others, is
evidently in its immediate neighbourhood; but he confuses the whole
matter by a very curious error. He mentions a promontory called
Artabrum as the headland _at the N.W. extremity of Spain_; the coast
on the one side of it looking to the north and the Gallic Ocean, on
the other to the west and the Atlantic Ocean. But he considers this
promontory to be the west _headland of the estuary of the Tagus_,
and adds, that some called it _Magnum Promontorium_, or the “Great
Promontory,” and others Olisiponense, from the city of Olisipo, or
Lisbon. He assigns, in fact, all the west coast of Spain, down to the
mouth of the Tagus, to the north coast, and, instead of being led
to detect his error by the resemblance of name between his Artabrum
Promontorium and his Arrotrebæ (the Artabri of his predecessors, Strabo
and Mela), he perversely finds fault with those who had placed above
the promontory Artabrum, a people of the same name who never were there.

[3122] On the site of which the present city of Lisbon stands.

[3123] See note [3121] in the preceding page.

[3124] See note [3121].

[3125] See note [3116] in the preceding page.

[3126] Among these is Pomponius Mela, who confounds the river Limia,
mentioned in the last chapter, with the Æminius, or Agueda.

[3127] Now the river Mondego.

[3128] See B. xxxiii. c. 21.

[3129] Now Cape St. Vincent.

[3130] Pliny continues his error here, in taking part of the western
side of Spain for the north, and part of the southern coast for the
western.

[3131] B. iii. c. 2.

[3132] With the Vettones, situate in the province of the Alentejo. See
B. iii. c. 3.

[3133] In the present province of Algarve.

[3134] Now Lisbon. Both Strabo, Solinus, and Martianus Capella make
mention of a story that Ulysses came to Spain and founded this city.

[3135] See B. viii. c. 67 of the present work.

[3136] According to Hardouin, followed by D’Anville and Uckert, this
place gives name to Alcazar do Sal, nearly midway between Evora and the
sea-shore. Mannert says Setuval, which D’Anville however supposes to be
the ancient Cetobriga.

[3137] On its site stands Santiago de Cacem, nearly midway between
Lisbon and Cape St. Vincent.

[3138] Or the “Wedge,” generally supposed to be Cabo de Santa Maria.
Ansart however thinks that it is the Punta de Sagres, near Cape St.
Vincent. Pliny’s words indeed seem to imply a closer proximity than
that of Capes St. Vincent and Santa Maria.

[3139] According to Hardouin, the modern Estombar; according to
D’Anville, in the vicinity of Faro; but ten leagues from that place,
according to Mannert.

[3140] Hardouin and D’Anville are of opinion that Tavira occupies its
site.

[3141] Now Mertola, on the river Guadiana.

[3142] Now Merida, on the Guadiana. A colony of veterans (Emeriti) was
planted there by Augustus.

[3143] Now Medellin, in the province of Estremadura.

[3144] Pax Julia, or Pax Augusta, in the country of the Turduli, or
Turdetani; now Beja, in the province of the Alentejo.

[3145] Now Alcantara, in the province of Estremadura.

[3146] Now Truxillo, so called from Turris Julia.

[3147] Now Caceres.

[3148] Now called Santarem, from Saint Irene, the Virgin.

[3149] “The Garrison of Julius.”

[3150] “The Success of Julius.”

[3151] Evora, between the Guadiana and the Tagus.

[3152] “The Liberality of Julius.”

[3153] B. iii. c. 3.

[3154] Hardouin takes Augustobriga to have stood on the site of Villar
del Pedroso on the Tagus. Other writers think that it is represented by
the present Ponte del Arcobispo.

[3155] From Ammia, now Portalegre, on the frontier of Portugal. The
sites of Arabrica and Balsa do not appear to have been ascertained.

[3156] Capera stood on the site now called Las Ventas de Capara,
between Alcantara and Coria. The site of Cæsarobrica has not been
ascertained.

[3157] Coria, in Estremadura, probably occupies the site of Caura.

[3158] Hardouin suggests that the modern Tomar occupies the site of
Concordia.

[3159] Mannert is of opinion that the city of Lancia was situate in
the north of Lusitania, on the river Durius, or Douro, near the modern
Zamora.

[3160] To distinguish them from the Mirobrigenses, surnamed Turduli,
mentioned in B. iii. c. 3. Some writers think that this Mirobriga is
the present Ciudad Rodrigo; but Ambrose Morales takes it to be the
place called Malabriga, in the vicinity of that city.

[3161] The name of Medubriga was afterwards Aramenha, of which Hardouin
says the ruins only were to be seen. They were probably called
_Plumbarii_, from lead mines in their vicinity.

[3162] According to Hardouin, Ocelum was in the vicinity of the modern
Capara.

[3163] From Cape de Creuz to the Promontory between the cities of
Fontarabia and Saint Sebastian.

[3164] From the Greek κασσίτερος, “tin.” It is generally supposed that
the “Tin Islands” were the Scilly Isles, in the vicinity of Cornwall.
At the same time the Greek and Roman geographers, borrowing their
knowledge from the accounts probably of the Phœnician merchants, seem
to have had a very indistinct notion of their precise locality, and to
have thought them to be nearer to Spain than to Britain. Thus we find
Strabo, in B. iii., saying, that “the Cassiterides are ten in number,
lying near each other in the ocean, towards the north _from the haven
of the Artabri_.” From a comparison of the accounts, it would almost
appear that the ancient geographers confused the Scilly Islands with
the Azores, as those, who enter into any detail, attribute to the
Cassiterides the characteristics almost as much of the Azores and the
sea in their vicinity, as of the Scilly Islands.

[3165] Cape Finisterre.

[3166] Or the “Islands of the Blest.” We cannot do better than quote a
portion of the article on this subject in Dr. Smith’s “Dictionary of
Ancient Geography.” “‘Fortunatæ Insulæ’ is one of those geographical
names whose origin is lost in mythic darkness, but which afterwards
came to have a specific application, so closely resembling the old
mythical notion, as to make it almost impossible to doubt that that
notion was based, in part at least, on some vague knowledge of the
regions afterwards discovered. The earliest Greek poetry places the
abode of the happy departed spirits far beyond the entrance of the
Mediterranean, at the extremity of the earth, and upon the shores of
the river Oceanus, or in islands in its midst; and Homer’s poetical
description of the place may be applied almost word for word to those
islands in the Atlantic, off the west coast of Africa, to which the
name was given in the historical period. (Od. iv. l. 563, _seq._)
‘There the life of mortals is most easy; there is no snow, nor winter,
nor much rain, but Ocean is ever sending up the shrill breathing
breezes of Zephyrus to refresh men.’ Their delicious climate, and their
supposed identity of situation, marked out the Canary Islands, the
Madeira group, and the Azores, as worthy to represent the Islands of
the Blest. In the more specific sense, however, the name was applied
to the two former groups; while, in its widest application, it may
have even included the Cape de Verde Islands, its extension being in
fact adapted to that of maritime discovery.” Pliny gives a further
description of them in B. vi. c. 37.

[3167] The strait between the island and the mainland is now called the
River of Saint Peter. The circuit of the island, as stated by Pliny,
varies in the MSS. from fifteen to twenty-five miles, and this last is
probably correct.

[3168] Julius Cæsar, on his visit to the city of Gades, during the
Civil War in Spain, B.C. 49, conferred the citizenship of Rome on all
the citizens of Gades. Under Augustus it became a _municipium_, with
the title of ‘Augusta urbs Julia Gaditana.’ The modern city of Cadiz is
built upon its site.

[3169] Or the Island of Venus.

[3170] From the Greek word κότινος, “an olive-tree.”

[3171] If Gades was not the same as Tartessus (probably the Tarshish of
Scripture), its exact locality is a question in dispute. Most ancient
writers place it at the mouth of the river Bætis, while others identify



Online LibraryPliny the ElderThe Natural History of Pliny, Volume 1 (of 6) → online text (page 47 of 57)