II. H. TRieE'S
.-rmji-ii. JV "% :>.^, "
TRANSLATION CALLED DRYDEN'S.
Corrected front the Greek and Revised
A. H. CLOUGH,
SOMETIME FELLOW AND TUTOR OF ORIEL COLLEGE, OXFORD, AND LATE
PROFESSOR OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE
AT UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, LONDON.
LITTLE, BROWN, AND COMPANY.
Entered according to Act of Congresi?, in the year 1859, by
Little, Brown, and Company,
In tlie Clerk's Office of tlie District Court of the District of Massachusetts.
elseif (getClientWidth() > 430)
John Wilsov and Son, Cameridge, U.S.A.
GENERAL TABI>E OF CONTENTS.
VOLUME 1 .
ρ AG Β
I'kefaci'; A.\i> LiFK of Plutarch . . . ν
i^IFE OF TlIKSFUa ...... 1
Life of Romulus ....... 39
CoMPAUisox of Romulus with Theseus . 78
Life of Lycukgus ....... 83
Life of Numa Pomimlius ...... 127
CoMPARisox OF NuMA WITH Lycurgus .... 160
Life of Solon ..... . 168
Life of Poplicola ....... 203
Comparison of Poplicola with Solon ... 226
i>ife of tliemistocles ..... 231
Life of Camillus ...... 26;»
Life of Pericles . . . . . .318
Life of Fabius . . . . . .372
Comparison of Far ι us with Pericles .... 405
Appendix ........ 40a
V L U Μ R 11
Life of ALCiniADKs ....... i
Life of Coriolant-^ .... .52
Comparison of Coinot.Axrs with Alcibiades . . lOl
Life of T'imoleon ...... 107
LfFF. OF ^milius Paulus ..... 15ii
GENERAL TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Comparison of /Emilius Paulus with Timoleox
Life of Pelopidas . . . .
Life of Marcellus ....
Comparison of Marcellus λυιτη Pelopidas
Life of Aristii>p',s ...
Life of Cato the Elder . . . .
Comparison of Cato the Elder with Aristides
Life op Philopcemkn .
Life of Flamininus
Comparison of Flamininus with Ριπι-οροϊμεν
Appendix . ...
Life of Pyrrhus
Life of Marius ....
Life of Lysander
Life of Sylla ....
Comparison of Sylla with Lysander
Life of Cimox ....
Life of Luoullus
Comparison of Lucullus with Cimon .
Life of Nicias ....
Life of Crassus ....
Comparison of Crassus with Nicias
Life of Sertorius ....
Life of Eumenes
Comparison of Eumenes with Sertorius
• • •
Life of Agesilaus ....
Life of Pompey ....
Comparison of Pompey with Agesilaus
Life of Alexander
GENERAL TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Life of C^^sar ....... 256
Life of Puocion ....... 829
Life of .Cato the Youxgkr . . . . .870
Life of Agis ........ 445
Life of Cleomenes .....,, 467
Life of Tiberius Gracchus ...... 506
Life of Caius Gracchus ...... 581
Comparison of Tiberius ανπ Caius (Jracchus wn π Agis and
Cleomenes ...... 558
Appendix ......... 559
VOLUME V .
Life of Demosthenes . . ...
Life of Cicero ......
Comparison of Cicero with Demosthenes
Life of Demetrius ......
Life of Antony ......
Comparison of Antony with Demetrius
Life of Dion .......
Life of Marcus Brutus .....
Comparison of Marcus Brutus with Dion
Life of Aratus ......
Life of Artaxerxks ......
Life of Galba ......
Life of Otho .......
Index of Historical and Geographical Propkr Names
Index for reference as to the Pronunciation of Proper
ALrUABKTICAL INDEX OF THK IJVES.
Cato the Younger
Mar I us
ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF THE COMPARISONiS.
Agesilaus and Pompey
Agis and Cleomknes and the (Jracchi
Alcibiades and Coriolanus
Aristides and Marcus Cato
CiMON and Lucullus
Demetrius and Antony
Demosthenes and Cicero
Dion and Brutus .
Lycurgus and Numa
Lysandkr and Sylla
NiCIAS AND CrASSUS .
Pelopidas and Mahcellus
Pericles and Fabius
Philopcemkn and Flaminixus
Sertorius and Eumenes
Solon and Poplicola
Theseus and Romulus
TlMOLEON AND ^MILIUS PaULU»
CONTAINIiiG A LIFE OF PLUTAPtCH.
The collection so well known as " Plutarch's
Lives," is neither in form nor in arrangement
what its author left behind him.
To the proper work, the Parallel Lives, nar-
rated in a series of Books, each containing the
accounts of one Greek and one Roman, followed
by a Comparison, some single lives have been
appended, for no reason but that they are also
biographies. Otlio and Galba belonged, prob-
ably, to a series of Roman Emperors from
Augustus to Vitellius. Artaxerxes and Aratus
the statesman are detached narratives, like oth-
ers whicii once, we are told, existed, — Hercules,
Aristomenes, Hesiod, Pindar, Daiphantus, Crates
the cynic, and Aratus the poet.
In the Parallel Lives themselves there are
gaps. There was a Book containing those of
Epaminondas and Scipio the younger. Many
of the comparisons are wanting, have either been
lost, or were not completed. And the reader
will notice for himself that references made here
and there in the extant Uves, show that then-
original order ΛYas different from the present. In
the very first page, for example, of the book,
in the life of Theseus, mention occurs of the lives
of Lycurgus and Numa, as already written.
The plain facts of Plutarch's own life may be
given in a very short compass. He Avas born,
probably, in the reign of Claudius, about A.D. 45
or 50. His native place was Chseronea, in Boeotia,
ivhere his family had long been settled and was of
good standing and local reputation. He studied
at Athens under a philosopher named Ammonius.
He visited Egypt. Later in life, some time be-
fore A.D. 90, he was at Rome " on public busi-
ness," — a deputation perhaps, from Chaeronea.
He continued there long enough to giΛ^e lectures
which attracted attention. Whether he visited
Italy once only, or more often, is uncertain.
He was intimate with Sosius Senecio, to all
appearances the same who was four times consul.
The acquaintance may have sprung up at Rome,
where Sosius, a much younger man than him-
self,* may have first seen him as a lecturer ; or
they may ha\^e previously known each other in
To Greece and to Ch^ronea he returned, and
appears to have spent in the little town, which
he was loth " to make less by the withdrawal of
* Unless the expression "my to be taken as a piece of pleas-
sons your companions " ought antry.
even one inhabitant," tlie remainder of his life.
He took part in the pnbhc business of the place
and the neia'hborhood. He was archon in the
town, and officiated many years as a priest of
Apollo, apparently at Delphi.
He was married, and Λvas the father of at least
five children, of whom tv^o sons, at any rate,
surAdved to manhood. His greatest work, his
Biographies, and several of his smaller writings,
belong to this later period of his life, under the
reign of Trajan. Whether he survived to the
time of Hadrian is doubtful. If A.D. 45 be taken
by way of conjecture for the date of his birth,
A.D. 120, Hadrian's fourth year, may be assumed,
in like manner, as pretty nearly that of his death.
All that is certain is that he lived to be old ; that
in one of his fictitious dialogues he describes him-
self as a young man conversing on philosophy
with Ammonius in the time of Nero's A'isit to
Greece, A.D. 66-07 ; and that he was certainlv
alive and still writing in A.D. 106, the winter
which Trajan, after building his bridge over the
Danube, passed in Dacia. " We are told," he
says, in his "Inquiry into the Principle of Cold,"
"by those who are now wintering with the Em-
peror on the Danube, that the freezing of water
will crush boats to pieces."
To this bare outline of certainties, several
names and circumstances mav be added from his
writings; on which indeed alone we can safely
rely for the very outline itself. There are a few
allusions and anecdotes in the Lives ; and from
his miscellaneous compositions, his Essays, Lec-
tures, Dialogues, Table-Talk, etc., the imagina-
tion may furnish itself with a great variety of
curious and interesting suggestions.
The name of his great-grandfather, Nicarchus,
is incidentally recorded in the life of Antony.
"My great-grandfather used," he says, "to tell
how in Antony's last war the whole of the citi-
zens of Chaeronea were put in requisition to bring
down corn to the coast of the gulf of Corinth,
each man carrying a certain load, and soldiers
standing by to urge them on with the lash."
One such journey was made, and they had
measured out their burdens for the second, when
news arrived of the defeat at Actium.* Lam-
prias, his grandfather, is also mentioned in the
same life. Philotas, the physician, had told him
an anecdote illustratino; the luxuriousness of
Antony's life in Egypt. His father is more than
once spoken of in the minor works, but never
mentioned by his name.
The name of Ammonius, his teacher and pre-
ceptor at Athens, occurs repeatedly in the minor
works, and is once specially mentioned in the
* There appears, however, to bered seeing his great-grand-
be no sure reason for saying father, and hearing him tell the
that Plutarch himself remem- story.
Lives ; a descendant of Themistocles had studied
with Plutarch under Ammonius. AVe find it
mentioned that he three times held the ofiice,
once so momentous in the world's history, of
strategics at Athens.* This, like that of the
Boeotarchs in Boeotia, continued under the Em-
pire to be intrusted to native citizens, and judg-
ing from what is said in the little treatise of
Political Precepts, was one of the more important
places under the Roman provincial governor.
'' Once," Plutarch tells us, " our teacher, Am-
monius, observing at his afternoon lecture that
some of his auditors had been indulging too
freely at breakfast, gave directions, in our pres-
ence, for chastisement to be administered to his
own son, because, he said, the young man has de-
clined to take his breakfast unless he has sour ivine
with it, fixing his eyes at the same time on the
offending members of the class."
The following anecdote appears to belong to
some period a little later than that of his studies
at Athens. '* I remember, when I myself was still
a young man, I was sent in company with another
on a deputation to the proconsul ; my colleague,
* This may throw some doubt Plutarch was certainly skilled
on the statement (with which, in all the wisdom of the Grseco-
however, it is perhaps not abso- Egyptians (see his treatise ad-
lutely incompatible) made by dressed to the learned lady Clea,
the Byzantine historian Eunapi- on Isis and Osiris) ; but he may,
us, that "Ammonius, the teacher for anything we know, have
of the divine Plutarch, was an staid long and studied much at
it SO happened, was unable to proceed, and I
saw tlie proconsul and performed the commission
alone. Upon my return, when I Avas about to
lay down my office, and to give an account of its
discharge, my father got up in the assembly and
bade me privately to take care not to say / went,
but we went, nor / said, but we said, and in
the Avhole narration to give my companion his
Of his stay in Italy, his visit to or residence
in liome, we know little beyond the statement
which he gives us in the life of Demosthenes,
that public business and visitors who came to see
him on subjects of philosophy took up so much
of his time that he learned, at that time, but
little of the Latin language. He must have
travelled about, for he saw the bust or statue of
Marius at Eavenna, as he informs us in the
beOTnnino: of Marius's life. He undertook, he
tells us in his essay on Brotherly Afiection, the
office, whilst he was in Rome, of arbitrating
between two brothers, one of whom was con-
sidered to be a lover of philosophy. ''But he
had," he says, "in reality, no legitimate title to
the name either of brother or of philosopher.
When I told him I should expect from him the
behavior of a philosopher towards one who ivas
first of all an ordinary person making no such
profession, and in the second place, a brother, as
for the first point, replied he, it may he ivell
enough; hut I clonH attach any great importance
to the fact of two people having come from the
same pair of hocUes ; " an impious piece of free-
tliinking wliicli met, of course, with Plutarch's
indignant rebuke and reprobation.
A more remarkable anecdote is related in his
discourse on Inquisitiveness. Among other pre-
cepts for avoiding or curing the fault, ''We
should habituate ourselves," he says, " when
letters are brought to us, not to open them in-
stantly and in a hurry, not to bite the strings in
two, as many people will, if they do not succeed
at once Avitli their fingers ; when a messenger
comes, not to run to meet him ; not to jump up,
when a friend says he has something new to tell
us, — rather, if he has some good or useful advice
to give us. Once Λvhen I \vas lecturing at Rome,
Eusticus, whom Domitian afterwards, out of
jealousy of his reputation, put to death, was one
of my hearers ; and Λγΐήΐε I was going on, a
soldier came in and brought him a letter from
the Emperor. And when every one was silent,
and I stopped in order to let him read the letter,
he declined to do so, and put it aside until I had
finished and the audience withdrew, — an example
of serious and dignified behavior which excited
L. Junius Arulenus Rusticus, the friend of
Pliny and Tacitus, glorified among the Stoic
martvrs whose names are written in the life of
AgricoLa, Avas in youth the ardent disciple of
Thrasea Paetus ; and when Psetus was destined
by Nero for death, and the Senate was prepared
to pass the decree for his condemnation, Rusticus,
in the fervor of his feeKngs, was eager to inter-
pose the veto still attaching in form to the office
— which he happened then to hold — of tribune,
and was scarcely w^ithheld by his master from
a demonstration which w^ould but have added
him, before his time, to the catalogue of Λdctims.
After performing, in the civil wars ensuing on
the death of Nero, the duties of prgetor, he pub-
lished in Domitian's time a life of Thrasea, as did
Senecio one of Helvidius, and Tacitus, probably,
himself, that of Ag-ricola : the bold lanmiag-e of
which insured his death. Among the teachers
Avho afterwards gave instruction to the youth-
ful Marcus Aurelius, we read the name of an
Arulenus Rusticus, probably his grandson, united
with that of Sextus of Chgeronea, Plutarch's
nephew, '' who taught me," says the virtuous
Emperor, " by his own example, the just and
wise habits he recommended," and to whose door,
in late life, he was still seen to go, still desirous,
as he said, to be a learner.
It does not, of course, follow from the terms
in which the story is related, that the incident
occurred in Domitian's time, and that it was to
Domitian's letter that Plutarch'^ discourse was
preferred. But that Plutarch was at Rome in or
after Domitian's reign, seems to be fairly inferred
from the language in which he speaks of the
absurd magnificence of Domitian's palaces and
other imperial buildings.
His two brothers, Timon and Lamprias, are
frequently mentioned in his Essays and Dia-
logues. They, also, appear to have been pupils
of Ammonius. In the treatise on Affection be-
tween Brothers, after various examples of the
strength of this feeling, occurs the following
passage : " And for myself," he says, " that
among the many favors for which 1 have to
thank the kindness of fortune, my brother Ti-
mon's affection to me is one, past and present,
that may be put in the balance against all the
rest, is what every one that has so much as met
with us must be aware of, and our friends, of
course, know \vell."
His wife was Timoxena, the daughter of Alex-
ion. The circumstances of his domestic life
receive their best illustration from his letter
addressed to this wife on the loss of their one
daughter, born to them, it would appear, late in
life, long after her brothers. " Plutarch to his
wife, greeting. The messengers you sent to an-
nounce our child's death apparently missed the
road to Athens. I was told about my daughter
on reaching Tanagra. Everthing relating to the
funeral I suppose to have been already performed ;
my desire is that all these arrangements may have
been so made as will now and in the future be
most consoling to yourself. If there is anything
which you have wished to do and have omitted,
awaiting my opinion, and think would be a relief
to you, it shall be attended to, apart from all ex-
cess and superstition, which no one would like
less than yourself Only, my wife, let me hope
that you will maintain both me and yourself
witlihi the reasonable limits of grief What our
loss really amounts to, I know and estimate for
myself But should I find your distress exces-
sive, my trouble on your account will be greater
than on that of our loss. I am not a ' stock or
stone,' as you, my partner in the care of our
numerous children, every one of whom we have
ourselves brought up at home, can testify. And
this child, a daughter, born to your wishes after
four sons, and affording me the opportunity of
recording your name, I am well aware Λvas a
special object of affection."
The sweet temper and the pretty ways of the
child, he proceeds to say, made the privation pe-
culiarly painful. " Yet why," he says, " should
we forget the reasonings Ave have often addressed
to others, and regard our present pain as obliter-
ating and effacing our former joys?" Those who
had been present had spoken to him in terms of
admiration of the calmness and simplicity of her
behavior. The funeral had been devoid of any
useless and idle sumptuosity, and her own house
of all display of extravagant lamentation. This
was indeed no wonder to liini, who knew how
much her plain and unluxurious living had sur-
prised his philosophical friends and visitors, and
who well remembered her composure under tlie
previous loss of the eldest of her children, and
a2:ahi, " Λνΐιοη our beautiful Charon left us." "I
recollect," he says, ''that some acquaintance from
abroad were coming up Avitli me from the sea
when the tidino-s of the child's decease Λvere
brought, and they followed with our other friends
to the house ; but the perfect order and tran-
quillity they found there made them believe, as
I afterwards was informed they had related, that
nothing had happened, and that the previous
intellio^ence had been a mistake."
The Consolation (so the letter is named) closes
with expressions of belief in the immortality of
each human soul ; in which the parents are
sustained and fortified by the tradition of their
ancestors, and the revelations to which they
had both been admitted, conveyed in the mystic
There is a phrase in the letter which might be
taken to imply that at the time of this domestic
misfortune, Plutarch and Timoxena were already
grandparents. The marriage of their son Auto-
bulus is the occasion of one of the dinner-parties
recorded in the Symposiac Questions ; and in one
of the dialogues, there is a distinct allusion to
Antobulus's son. Plutarch inscribes the little
treatise in explanation of the Timseus to his two
sons, Antobulus and Plutarch. They must cer-
tainly have been grown up men, to have anything
to do Λνίίΐι so difficult a subject. In his Inquiry
as to the Way in which the Young should read
the Poets, "It is not easy," he says, addressing
Marcus Sedatus, *' to restrain altogether from
such reading young people of the age of my
Soclarus and your Oleander." But whether So-
clarus was a son, or a grandson, or some more
distant relative, or, which is possible, a pupil, does
not appear. Eurydice, to whom and to Polli-
anus, her newly espoused husband, he addresses
his Marriage Precepts, seems to be spoken of
as a recent inmate of his house ; but it cannot
be inferred that she was a daughter, nor does it
seem likely that the little Timoxena's place was
ever filled up.*
The office of Archon, which Plutarch held in
his native municipality, was probably only an
annual one ; but very likely he served it more
than once. He seems to have busied himself
about all the little matters of the town, and to
haΛ'e made it a point to undertake the humblest
duties. After relating the story of Epaminondas
* Tliat he had more than two sons having staid too long at the
sons who grew np, at any rate, theatre, and being, in conse-
to youth, appears from a passage que nee, too late at supper,
where he speaks of his younger
giving dignity to the office of Chief ScaΛ"enger,
''And I, too, for that matter," he says, ''am
often a jest to my neighbors,, when they see me,
as they frequently do, in pnbUc, occupied on
yerj simiL-ir duties ; but the story told about
Antisthenes comes to my assistance. When some
one expressed surprise at his carryhig home some
pickled fish from market in his own hands. It is,
he answered, for 7nyself. Conversely, when I
am reproached with standing by and watching
while tiles are measured out, and stone and mor-
tar brought up, This service, I say, is not for
myself ; it is for my country."
In the little essay on the question. Whether
an Old J\lan should continue in Public Life,
written in the form of an exhortation to Eu-
phanes, an ancient and distinguished member of
the Areopagus at Athens, and of the Amphic-
tyonic council, not to relinquish his duties, " Let
there be no severance," he says, "in our long
companionship, and let neither the one nor the
other of us forsake the life that was our choice."
And alluding to his own functions as priest of
Apollo at Delphi, " You know," he adds in
another place, " that I have served the Pythian
God for many ijythiads^ past, yet you Avould not
now tell me, you have taken part enough in the
sacrifices, processions, and dances, and it is high
* Periods for four 3'ears elaps- the Pythian games, like the Olym-
ing between the celebrations of piads for the Olympic games.
lime, Plutarch, Jiow you are an old man, to lay
aside your garland, and retire as superannuated
from the oracle.''^
Even in these, the comparatively few, more
positive and matter-of-fact passages of allusion
and anecdote, there is enough to bring up some-
thing of a picture of a happy domestic life, half
academic, half municipal, passed among affection-
ate relatives and well-known friends, inclining
most to literary and moral studies, yet not cut off
from the duties and avocations of the citizen.
We cannot, of course, to go yet further, accept
the scenery of the fictitious Dialogues as his-
torical ; yet there is much of it which may be