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3 1822 00139 '2505

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Corrected from the Greek and Revised









Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1859, by

Little, Brown, and Company,

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts.

SEmucrstts Press:
JoiiN Wilson and Son, Cambridge, U.S.A.



Life op Pyrrhus .... ... 1

Life op JSLirius 48

Life op Lysandeb 104

Life of Sylla . . 141

Comparison of Sylla with Lysandeb . , , 192

Life op Cimon 198

Life of Lucullus 227

Comparison of Lucullus ΛνιτΗ Cimon .... 284

Life of Nicias 289

Life op Crassus 331

Comparison of Crassus with Nicias 376

Life of Sertorius 382

Life op Eumenes . . .416

Comparison of Eumenes witu Sertorius . . . 441

Appendix, . . ....... 445


ρ γ RRH us.

Of the Thesprotians and Molossians after the great in-
undation, the first king, according to some historians, was
Phaethon, one of thoss Avho came into Epirns with Pelas-
gus. Others tell us that Deucalion and Pyrrha, having set
up the worship of Jupiter at Dodona, settled there among
the Molossians. In after time, Neoptolemus, Achilles's son,
planting a colony, possessed these parts himself, and left a
succession of kings, who, after him, were named Pyrrhida3 ;
as he in his youth was called Pyrrhus, and of his legitimate
children, one born of Lanassa, daughter of Cleodieus, Hyl-
lus's son, had also that name. From him, Achilles came to
have divine honors in Epirus, under the name of Aspetus,
in the language of the country. After these first kings,
those of the following intervening times becoming bar-
barous, and insignificant both in their power and their
lives, Tharrhypas is said to have been the first, Λνΐιο by
introducing Greek manners and learning, and humane
laws into his cities, left any fame of himself Alcetas was
the son of Tharrhypas, Arybas of Alcetas, and of Arybas
and Troas his queen, ^acides : he married Phthia, the
daughter of Menon, the Thessalian, a man of note at the
time of the Lamiac war, and of highest command in the
confederate army next to Leosthenes. To ^Eacides were

VOL. 111. 1 (1)


born of Phthia,Deiclainia and Troas claugliters, and Pyr-
rhus a son.

The Molossians, afterwards falling into factions, and ex-
pelling ^acides, brought in the sons of Neoptolemus, and
such friends of ^acides as they could take were all cut
off; Pyrrhus, yet an infant, and searched for by the ene-
my, had been stolen away and carried off by Androclides
and Angelus; who, however, being obliged to take with
them a few servants, and women to nur^e the child, were
much impeded and retarded in their flight, and when
they were now overtaken, they delivered the infant to
Androcleon,Hippias, and Neander, faithful and able young
fellows, giving them in charge to make for Megara, a
town of Macedon, with all their might, while they them-
selves, partly by entreaty, and partly by force, stopped
the course of the pursuers till late in the evening. At
last, having hardly forced them back, they joined those
who had the care of Pyrrhus ; but the sun being already
set, at the point of attaining their object they suddenly
found themselves cut off from it. For on reaching the
river that runs by the city they found it looking formida-
ble and rough, and endeavoring to pass over, they discov-
ered it was not fordable ; late rains having heightened
the water, and made the current violent. The darkness
of the night added to the horror of all, so that they durst
not venture of themselves to carry over the child and
the women that attended it ; but, perceiving some of the
country people on the other side, they desired them to
assist their passage, and showed them Pyrrhus, calling
out aloud, and importuning them. They, however, could
not hear for the noise and roaring of the water. Thus
time was spent while those called out, and the others did
not understand Λvhat was said, till one recollecting himself
stripped off a piece of bark from an oak, and wrote on
it with the tono-ue of a buckle, stating the necessities and


the fortunes of the child, and then rolhng it aboTit a
stone, Avhich was made use oC to give force to the motion,
threw it over to the other side, or, as some say, fastened
it to the end of a javeHn, and darted it over. When
the men on the other shore read what was on the bark,
and saw how time pressed, Avitliout deLaj they cut down
some trees, and hishing them together, came over to
them. And it so fell out, that he who first got ashore,
and took Pyrrhus in his arms, Λvas named Achilles, the
rest being helped over by others as they came to hand.

Thus being safe, and out of the reach of pursuit, they
addressed themselves to Glaucias, then king of the Illyr-
ians, and finding him sitting at home with his wife, they
laid down the child before them. The kinu; bes-an to
Λveigh the matter, fearing Cassander, Λvho was a mortal
enemy of -^acides, and, being in deep consideration, said
nothing for a long time ; whde Pyrrhus, crawling about
on the ground, gradually got near and laid hold Λvith his
hand upon the king's robe, and so helping himself upon
his feet against the knees of Glaucias, first moved laugh-
ter, and then pity, as a little humble, crying petitioner.
Some say he did not throw himself before Glaucias, but
catching hold of an altar of the gods, and spreading his
hands about it, raised himself up by that ; and that Glau-
cias took the act as an omen. At present, therefore, he
gave Pyrrhus into the charge of his wife, conmianding he
should be brought up with iiis own children ; and a little
after, the enemies sending to demand him, and Cassander
himself offering two hundred talents, he Λvould not de-
liver him up ; but when he was twelve years old, bring-
ing him witli an arm\^ into Epirus, made him king. Pyr-
rhus in the air of his face had something more of the
terrors, than of the augustness of kinglj' power ; he had
not a regular set of upjier teeth, hut in the place of them
one continued bone, with suiall \hw< maiked on it, resem-


bling the divisions of a row of teeth. It was a general
belief he could cure the spleen, by sacrificing a white
cock, and gently pressing with his right foot on the
spleen of the persons as they lay down on their backs,
nor was any one so poor or inconsiderable as not to be
welcome, if he desired it, to the benefit of his touch. He
accepted the cock for the sacrifice as a reward, and was
always much pleased with the present. The large toe of
that foot was said to have a divine virtue ; for after his
death, the rest of the body being consumed, this was
found unhurt and untouched by the fire. But of these
things hereafter.

Being ηοΛν about seventeen years old, and the govern-
ment in appearance well settled, he took a journey out of
the kingdom to attend the marriage of one of Glaucias's
sons, with whom he was brought up ; upon Λvhich oppor-
tunity the Molossians again rebelling, turned out all of
his party, plundered his property, and gave themselves up
to Neoptolemus. Pyrrhus, having thus lost the kingdom,
and being in want of all things, applied to Demetrius the
son of Antigonus, the husband of his sister Deidamia, who,
while she was but a child, had been in name the Λvife of
Alexander, son of Roxana, but their affiiirs afterwards
proving unfortunate, when she came to age, Demetrius
married her. At the great battle of Ipsus, where so
many kings Λvere engaged, Pyrrhus, taking part with
Demetrius, though yet but a youth, routed those that
encountered him, and highly signalized himself among all
the soldiery ; and afterwards, when Demetrius's fortunes
were low, he did not forsake him then, but secured for him
the cities of Greece with Λvllich he was intrusted ; and upon
articles of agreement being made between Demetrius
and Ptolemy, he w^ent over as an hostage for him into
Eg3^t, where both in hunting and other exercises, he
gaA'e Ptolemy an ample proof of his courage and strength.


Here observing Berenice in greatest power, and of all
Ptolemy's wives highest in esteem for virtue and under-
standing, he made his court principally to her. He had
a particular art of gaining over the great to his own in-
terest, as on the other hand he readily overlooked such
as were below him ; and being also well-behaved and tem-
perate in his life, among all the young princes then at
court, he w^as thought most fit to have Antigone for his
w^ife, one of the daughters of Berenice by PhiHp, before
she married Ptolemy.

After this match, advancing in honor, and Antigone being
a very good wife to him, having procured a sum of money,
and raised an army, he so ordered matters as to be sent
into his kingdom of Epirus, and arrived there to the great
satisfaction of many, from their hate to Neoptolemus,
who was governing in a violent and arbitrary way. But
fearing lest Neoptolemus should enter into alliance with
some neighboring princes, he came to terms and friend-
ship with him, agreeing that they should share the gov-
ernment between them. There were people, however,
who, as time went on, secretly exasperated them, and
fomented jealousies between them. The cause chiefly
moving Pyrrhus is said to have had this beginning. It
was customary for the kings to offer sacrifice to Mars, at
Passaro, a place in the Molossiiin country, and that done
to enter into a solemn covenant with the Epirots ; they
to govern according to law, these to preserve the govern-
ment as by law established. This was performed in the
presence of both kings, λυΙιο were there Λvith their imme-
diate friends, giving and receiving many presents ; here
Gelo, one of the friends of Neoptolemus, taking Pyrrhus
by the hand, presented him with two pair of draught
oxen. Myrtilus, his cup-bearer, being then by, begged
these of Pyrrhus, who not giving them to him, but to
another, Myrtilus extremeh• resented it, which Gelo took


notice of, and, inviting him to a banquet, (amidst drinking
and other excesses, as some relate, Myrtilus being then in
the flower of his youth,) he entered into discourse, per-
suading him to adhere to Neoptolemus, and destroy Pyr-
rhus by poison. Myrtilus received the design, appearing
to approve and consent to it, but privately discovered it
to Pyrrhus, by whose connnand he recommended Alexi-
crates, his chief cup-bearer, to Gelo, as a fit instrument
for their design, Pyrrhus being very desirous to have
proof of the plot by several evidences. So Gelo being
deceived, Neoptolemus, who was no less deceived, imagin-
ing the design went prosperously on, could not forbear,
but in his joy spoke of it among his friends, and once at
an entertainment at his sister Cadmea's, talked openly of
it, thinking none heard but themselves. Nor was any one
there but Phsenarete the wife of Samon, who had the care
of Neoptolemus's flocks and herds. She, turning her face
towards the Avail upon a couch, seemed fast asleep, and
having heard all that passed, unsuspected, next day came
to Antigone, Pyrrhus's wife, and told her what she had
heard Neoptolemus say to his sister. On understanding
which Pyrrhus for the present said little, but on a sacrifice
day, making an invitation for Neoptolemus, killed him ;
being satisfied before tliat the great men of the Epirots
were his friends, and that they Avere eager for him to rid
liimself of Neoptolemus, and not to content himself with
a mere petty share of the government, but to follow his
own natural vocation to great designs, and now when a
just ground of suspicion appeared, to anticipate Neoptol-
emus by taking him off first.

In memory of Berenice and Ptolemy, he named his
son by Antigone, Ptolemy, and having built a city in the
peninsula of Epirus, called it Berenicis. From this time
he began to revolve many and \'ast projects in his
thoughts; but his first special hope and design lay near


home, and lie found means to engage himself in the
Macedonian affairs under the following pretext. Of Cas-
Sander's sons, Antipater, the eldest, killed Thessalonica his
mother, and expelled his brother Alexander, who sent to
Demetrius entreating his assistance, and also called in
Pyrrhus; but Demetrius being retarded by multitude of
business, Pyrrhus, coming first, demanded in reward of
his service the districts called Tymphoea and Parauaea in
Macedon itself, and, of their new conquests, Ambracia,
Acarnania, and Amphilocliia. The young prince giving
way, he took possession of these countries, and secured
them Avith good garrisons, and proceeded to reduce for
Alexander himself other parts of the kingdom which
he gained froiu Antipater. Lysimachus, designing to send
aid to Antipater, was involved in much other business, but
knowing Pyrrhus would not disoblige Ptolemy, or deny
him any thing, sent pretended letters to him as from Ptol-
emy, desiring him to give up his expedition, upon the
payment of three hundred talents to him by Antipater.
Pyrrhus, opening the letter, quickly discovered the fraud
of Lysimachus ; for it had not the accustomed style of
salutation, " The father to the son, health," but " King
Ptolemy to Pyrrhus, the king, health ; " and reproaching
Lysimachus, he notwithstanding made a peace, and they
all met to confirm it by a solemn oath upon sacrifice. A
goat, a bull, and a ram being brought out, the ram on a
sudden fell dead. The others laughed, but Theodotus the
prophet forbade Pyrrhus to swear, declaring that Heaven
by that portended the death of one of the three kings,
upon which he refused to ratify the peace.

The affairs of Alexander beino; now in some kind of
settlement, Demetrius arrived, contrary, as soon appeared,
to the desire and indeed not without the alarm of Alex-
ander. After they had been a few days together, their
mutual jealousy led them to conspire against each other;


and Demetrius taking advantage of the first occasion, was
beforehand with the young king, and slew him, and pro-
claimed himself king of Macedon. There had been for-
merly no very good understanding between him and Pyr-
rhus ; for besides the inroads he made into Thessaly, the
innate disease of princes, ambition of greater empire,
had rendered them formidable and suspected neighbors
to each other, especially since Deidamia's death ; and both
having seized Macedon, they came into conflict for the
same object, and the difference between them had the
stronger motives. Demetrius having first attacked the
-^tolians and subdued them, left Pantauchus there with
a considerable army, and marched direct against Pyrrhus,
and Pyrrhus, as he thought, against him ; but by mistake
of the ways they passed by one another, and Demetrius
falling into Epirus wasted the country, and Pyrrhus,
meeting with Pantauchus, prepared for an engagement.
The soldiers fell to, and there was a sharp and terrible
conflict, especially where the generals were. Pantauchus,
in courage, dexterity, and strength of body, being con-
fessedly the best of all Demetrius's captains, and having
both resolution and high spirit, challenged Pyrrhus to
fight hand to hand ; on the other side Pyrrhus, professing
not to yield to any king in valor and glory, and esteem-
ing the fame of Achilles more truly to belong to him for
his courage than for his blood, advanced against Pantau-
chus through the front of the army. First they used
their lances, then came to a close fight, and managed
their swords both with art and force ; Pyrrhus receiving
one wound, but returning two for it, one in the thigh, the
other near the neck, repulsed and overthrew Pantauchus,
but did not kill him outright, as he was rescued by his
friends. But the Epirots exulting in the victory of their
king, and admiring his courage, forced througti and cut
in pieces the phalanx of the Macedonians, and pursuing


those thai fled, killed many, and took five thousand

This fight did not so much exasperate the Macedonians
with anger for their loss, or with hatred to Pyrrhus, as it
caused esteem, and admiration of his valor, and great dis-
course of him among those that saAV what he did, and
were engaged against him in the action. They thought
his countenance, his swiftness, and his motions expressed
those of the great Alexander, and that they beheld here
an image and resemblance of his rapidity and strength
in fight ; other kings merely by their purple and their
guards, by the formal bending of their necks, and lofty
tone of speech, Pyrrhus only by arms, and in action, rep-
resented Alexander. Of his knowledge of military tac-
tics and the art of a general, and his great ability that
way, we have the best information from the commenta-
ries he left behind him. Antigonus, also, we are told,
being asked who was the greatest soldier, said, " Pyrrhus,
if he lives to be old," referring only to those of his own
time ; but Hannibal of all great commanders esteemed
Pyrrhus for skill and conduct the first, Scipio the second,
and himself the third, as is related in the life of Scipio.
In a word, he seemed ever to make this all his thought
and philosophy, as the most kingly part of learning;
other curiosities he held in no account. He is reported,
when asked at a feast whether he thought Python or Ca-
phisias the best musician, to have said, Polysperchon Avas
the best soldier, as though it became a king to examine
and understand only such things. Towards his familiars
he was mild, and not easily incensed ; zealous, and even
vehement in returning kindnesses. Thus when Aeropus
was dead, he could not bear it ν,'Ίύι moderation, saying,
he indeed had suflered what was common to human
nature, but condemning and blaming himself, that by
puttings off and delays he had not returned his kindness


in time. For our debts may be satisfied to the creditor's
heirs, but not to have made the acknowledgment of re-
ceived favors, while they to whom it is due can be sensi-
ble of it, afflicts a good and a Λvorthy nature. Some
thinking it fit that Pyrrhus should banish a certain ill-
tongued fellow in Ambracia, who had spoken very inde-
cently of him, " Let him rather," said he, " speak against
us here to a few, than rambling about to a great many."
And others wlio in their wine had made reflections upon
him, being afterward questioned for it, and asked by him
whether they had said such words, on one of the young
fellows answering, " Yes, all that, king ; and should have
said more if we had had more wine ; " he laughed and dis-
charged them. After Antigone's death, he married sev-
eral wives to enlarge his interest and power. He had the
daughter of Autoleon, king of the Poeonians, Bircenna,
Bardyllis the Illyrian's daughter, Lanassa, daughter of
Agathocles the Syracusan, who brought with her in dower
the city of Corcyra which had been taken by Agathocles.
By Antigone he had Ptolemy, Alexander by Lanassa, and
Helenus, his youngest son, by Bircenna ; he brought them
up all in arms, hot and eager youths, and by him sharp-
ened and whetted to war from their very infancy. It is
said, Λvhen one of them, while yet a child, asked him to
which he would leave the kingdom, he replied, to him
that had the sharpest sword, which indeed Λvas much like
that tragical curse of Oedipus to his sons : ■ —

Not by the lot decide.
But with the sword the heritage divide.

So unsocial and wild-beast-like is the nature of ambition
and cupidity.

After this battle Pyrrhus, returning gloriously home,
enjoyed his fame and reputation, and being called "Eagle"
by the Epirots, " By you," said he, " I am an eagle ; for


how should I not be such, while 1 have your arms us
wings to sustain me ? " A little after, having intelligence
that Demetrius was dangerously sick, he entered on a
sudden into Macedonia, intending only an incursion, and
to harass the country ; but was very near seizing upon
all, and taking the kingdom without a blow. He marched
as far as Edessa unresisted, great numbers deserting, and
comino; in to him. This danoer excited Demetrius be-
yond his strength, and his friends and commanders in a
short time got a considerable army together, and with all
their forces briskly attacked Pyrrhus, λυΙιο, coming only
to pillage, Avould not stand a fight, but retreating lost part
of his army, as he went off, by the close pursuit of the
Macedonians. Demetrius, however, although he had
easily and quickly forced Pyrrhus out of the country, yet
did not slight him, but having resolved upon great de-
signs, and to recover his father's kingdom wdth an army
of one hundred thousand men, and a fleet of five hun-
dred ships, would neither embroil himself with Pyrrhus,
nor leave the Macedonians so active and troublesome a
neighbor ; and since he had no leisure to continue the Avai
with him, he was \villing to treat and conclude a peace,
and to turn his forces upon the other kings. Articles
being agreed upon, the designs of Demetrius quickly dis-
covered themselves by the greatness of his preparation.
And the other kings, being alarmed, sent to Pyrrhus am-
bassadors and letters, expressing their wonder that he
should choose to let his own opportunity pass by, and
wait till Demetrius could use his ; and whereas he waa
now able to chase him out of Macedon, involved in de-
signs and disturbed, he should expect till Demetrius at
leisure, and grown great, should bring the war home
to his own door, and make him fight for his temples and
sepulchres in Molossia ; especially having so lately, by his
means, lost Corcyra and his wife together. For Lanassa


had taken offence at P\'1tIius for too great an inclination
to tliose wives of his that were barbarians, and so with-
drew to Corcyra, and desiring to marry some king, invited
Demetrius, knowino; of all the kim?s he was most read ν
to entertain offers of marriage ; so he sailed thither, mar
ried Lanassa, and placed a garrison in the city. The
Idngs having written thus to Pyrrhus, themselves likewise
contrived to find Demetrius work, while he was delaying
and making his preparations. Ptolemy, setting out Avith a
great fleet, drew off many of the Greek cities. Lysi-
machus out of Thrace wasted the upper Macedon ; and
Pyrrhus, also, taking arms at the same time, marched to
Beroea, expecting, as it fell out, that Demetrius, collecting
his forces against Lysimachus, would leave the lower coun-
try undefended. That very night he seemed in his sleep
to be called by Alexander the Great, and approaching
saw him sick abed, but was received with very kind
words and much respect, and promised zealous assistance.
He making bold to reply : " How, Sir, can you, being
sick, assist me ? " " With my name," said he, and mounting
a Nisaean horse, seemed to lead the way. At the sight of
this vision he was much assured, and with swift marches
overrunning all the interjacent places, takes Beroea, and
making his head-quarters there, reduced the rest of the
country by his commanders. When Demetrius received
intelligence of this, and perceived likewise the Macedo-
nians ready to mutiny in the army, he was afraid to ad-
vance further, lest coming near Lysimachus, a Macedo-
nian king, and of great fame, they should revolt to him.
So returning, he marched directly against Pyrrhus, as a
stranger, and hated by the Macedonians. But while he
lay encamped there near him, many who came out of
Beroea infinitely praised Pyrrhus as invincible in arms, a
glorious warrior, who treated those he had taken kindly
and humanely. Several of these Pyrrhus himself sent


private!}', pretending to be Macedonians, and saying, now
was the time to be delivered from the severe govern-
ment of Demetrius, by coming over to Pyrrhus, a gracious
prince, and a lover of soldiers. By this artifice a great part
of the army Λvas in a state of excitement, and the soldiers
began to look every way about, inquiring for Pyrrhus.
It happened he was without his helmet, till understand-

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