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LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY




PLUTARCH'S LIVES

XI

ARATUS, ARTAXERXES
GALBA, OTHO




Translated by
BERNADOTTE PERRIN



Printed in Great Britain



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PLUTARCH'S LIVES

XI



PLUTARCH'S
LIVES

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY
BERNADOTTE PERRIN

IN ELEVEN VOLUMES
XI

ARATUS.. ARTAXERXES, GALBA AND OTHO

INDEX TO ALL THE LIVES BY
J. W. COHOON




CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS

LONDON

WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD

MCMLSII



First printed 1926
Reprinted 1943, 1954, 1962



Printed in Great Britain



CONTENTS

PAGE

ORDER OF THE PARALLEL LIVES IN THIS EDITION . . vi

TRADITIONAL ORDER OF THE PARALLEL LIVES ... vii

ARATUS 1

ARTAXERXES 127

GALBA 205

OTHO 275

INDEX , 321



ORDER OF THE PARALLEL LIVES IN THIS

EDITION IN THE CHRONOLOGICAL SEQUENCE

OF THE GREEK LIVES.



VOLUME I.

(1) Theseus and Romulus.
Comparison.

(2) Lycurgus and Numa.
Comparison.

(3) Solon and Publicola.
Comparison.

VOLUME II.

(4) Themistocles and

Camillus.



(9) Aristides and Cato the

Elder.
Comparison.

(13) Cimon and Lucullus.
Comparison.

VOLUME III.

(5) Pericles and Fabius Max-

imus.
Comparison.

(14) Nicias and Crassus.
Comparison.

VOLUME IV.

(6) Alcibiades and Coriola-

nus.

Comparison.

(12) Lysander and Sulla.
Comparison.

VOLUME V.

(16) Agesilaiis and Pompey.

Comparison.

(8) Pelopidas and Marcellus.
Comparison.



VOLUME VI.
(22) Dion and Brutus.
Comparison.
Timoleon and Aemilius

Paul us.
Comparison.

VOLUME VII.
Demosthenes and Cicero.
Comparison.
Alexander and Julius

Caesar.



(7)

(20)
(17)



VOLUME VIII.
(15) Sertorius and Eumenes.
Comparison.

(18) Phocion and Cato the

Younger.



VOLUME IX.

(21) Demetrius and Antony.

Comparison.
(11) PyrrhusandCaiusMarius.

VOLUME X.

(19) Agis and Cleomenes, and

Tiberius and Caius

Gracchus.
Comparison.
(10) Philopoemen and Flam-

ininus.
Comparison.

VOLUME XI.

(23) Aratus.

(24) Artaxerxes

(25) Galba.

(26) Otho.



VI



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER OF THE
PARALLEL LIVES.

(1) Theseus and Romulus.

(2) Lycurgus and Numa.

(3) Solon and Publicola.

(4) Themiatocles and Camillus.

(5) Pericles and Fabius Maximus.

(6) Alcibiades and Coriolanus.

(7) Timoleon and Aemilius Paulus.

(8) Pelopidas and Marcellus.

(9) Aristides and Cato the Elder.

(10) Philopoemen and Flamininus.

(11) Pyrrhus and Caius Marius.

(12) Lysander and Sulla.

(13) Cimon and Lucullus.

(14) Nicias and Crassus.

(15) Sertorius and Eumenes.

(16) Agesilaiis and Pompey.

(17) Alexander and Julius Caesar.

(18) Phocion and Cato the Younger.

(19) Agis and Cleomenes, and Tiberius aud Caius

Gracchus.

(20) Demosthenes and Cicero.

(21) Demetrius and Antony.

(22) Dion and Brutus.

(23) Aratus.

(24) Artaxerxes.

(25) Galba.

(26) Otho.



Vll



ARATUS



APATO2

I. Ylapoiaiav riva 7ra\atdv, &> IloXv/c pares, Paris

r ~ v * ' JL >~ < ^ ' ' * E

/u,ot OOKGL TO ova 977 /JLOV avrrjs, o (pih.oaocpos a.



ov e^ei rpoTrov, a\V cu? auro? 102*7



wero /3e\riov elvai,



rt? Trarep* alvrjaei, el prj euSatytto^e? utot ;

5e o Toi,iviQ<; e\i<i)v avrbv



TTJV a\r}divrjv OUTCO? e
t? vrare/j' alv^crei, el fjirj K a KO& alcoves viol ;

2 /cat ^o-t TOU? a0' CLUTWV ovftevbs a^iou<; 6Wa?,
v7ro$vo/jL6vov$ Be Trpo^ovwv Tiv&v a 1



eV rot? eicelvtov CTraivois VTTO



t. dXX* w 76 (fivaei TO
yevvaiov eimrpeTTei e'/c Trarepcov, Kara Tliv&apov, 2
Mcrirep crol Trpo? TO Ka\\icrTov dtyo/jLOtovvri
OL/coOev Trapabeiy/JLCLTCov TOV ftiov, evSaifjLov av
TO /jLe/jLvijcrBai rwv CLTTO yevovs dpiarcov, dtcovovra^
3 7re/)l avTwv del TL KOI Xeyovras. ov yap I&L



Sint. and Ziegler with SB ; Bekker has a
with inferior MSS.

8 . viii. 44f. ((f>ua . . . e/c iraTepuv iraiffl



ARATUS



I. There is an ancient proverb, Polycrates, 1 which
the philosopher Chrysippus puts not as it really is,
but as he thought better :

"Who will praise a father, except happy
sons? "

But Dionysodorus of Troezen corrects him, and
restores the true form thus :

" Who will praise a father, except unhappy

?>

And he says that the proverb stops the mouths
of those who, being worthless in themselves, take
refuge in the virtues of certain ancestors and are
forever praising them. But surely for a man in
whom, to use Pindar's words, "the noble spirit
naturally displayes itself as inherited from sires,"
and who, like thee, patterns his life after the
fairest examples in his family line, for such men it
will be good fortune to be reminded of their noblest
progenitors, ever and anon hearing the story of them,
or telling it themselves. For it is not that they lack

1 A friend of Plutarch, not otherwise known, to whom he
thus dedicates this Life. See the note on the Theseus, i. 1.



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

drfopia Ka\(ov e^aprwcriv d\\orpiayv erraivwv rr
B6av, aXXa roi? eteewow rd olfceia cruvdrcrovres,
&)? Kal rov yevovs Kal rov ftiov KaOr)jea6va<f
eLx^rj^Lovcri. BLO /cdyco rov ' Apdrov TOV crov 7ro\i-
TOV Kal TrpoTrdropos ftiov, ov oi/re rf) $O!;T) TTJ



croi crwyypafjLevos, ov% a)? ov\ Trvrwv
Tard <JOL /A6yLt6X?;/co? e'^ /o%^9 eTricrraadai
4 ra? ereeivov 7rpdj;eis, aXX' OTTO)? ol TralSes aov
Ylo\vtcpdTijs ical n.v0oK\rj<f olfCLOi<s TT a palely /Jia-
aiv evrpifywvrai, ra pev CLKQVQVTZS, rd & dva-
yivcoffKOVTes, direp avrovs fjLipelaQai TrpocnjKei.
(f)L\.avTOV <ydp dvBpos, ov (j)i\oKa\ov, Tra^ro? del



II. 'H ^<lKV(i>vi(i)V TToXf?, fcVei TO TTpWTOV K

aKpdrov Kal &wpiKr)<s dpicrTOKparias wcnrep

everreae



Brj/jLayayycov, OVK erraixraro voaovaa Kal
raparro/JLevrj Kal rvpai>vov K rvpdvvov fMera/3d\-
\ovaa, /jiexpi ov KXetofo? dvaipeOevros ei\ovro
TtfjLOK\eiBav dp^ovra Kal KXeiviav, dvBpas ev-
Botfovs rd fjid\t(rra Kal ev Svvdfjiei rwv TTO\ITWV

2 oWa?. TJBrj Be riva T>}? TroXireia^ Kardcrraaiv
e^eiv BoKoixTij 1 ? TiuoK\iBa<t fj.ev drredavev,' Aftav - 1028
rt'Sa? Be 6 llaaeov rvpavviBa rrpdrrwv eavrw

rov }L\eiviai> drreKreive Kal r>v (friXwv Kal oiKeiwv
rot/? fjiev ee/3a\e, TOI)? Be dvelXev. efyjrei, Be
Kal rov vlov avrov, "Aparov, dve\elv, errraerrj

3 Kara\\ei/j./j,vov. ev Be rfj rrepl rrjv olfciav ra-

1 In 264 B.C.



ARATUS i. 3-n. 3

noble qualities of their own and make their reputa-
tion dependent on their praises of others, nay rather,
they associate their own careers with the careers of
their great ancestors, whom they hail both as founders
of their line and as directors of their lives. And
therefore, now that I have written the life of Aratus,
who was thy countryman and forefather, and to
whom thou thyself art no discredit in either reputa-
tion or influence, I send it to thee, not as though
thou hadst not been at pains from the beginning to
have the most precise knowledge of thy great an-
cestor's career, but in order that thy sons Polycrates
and Pythocles may be reared, now by hearing and
now by reading, after examples found in their own
family line examples which it well becomes them
to imitate. For it is the lover of himself, and not
the lover of goodness, who thinks himself always
superior to others.

II. The city of Sicyon, as soon as it had fallen
away from its pure Doric form of aristocracy (which
was now like a harmony dissolved) and had become
a prey to factions and the ambitious schemes of
demagogues, was without cease distempered and
agitated, and kept changing one tyrant for another,
until, after the murder of Cleon, Timocleides and
Cleinias were chosen chief magistrates, men of the
highest repute and influence among the citizens.
But no sooner did the government appear to be
somewhat settled than Timocleides died, and Aban-
tidas the son of Paseas, attempting to make himself
tyrant, slew Cleinias, 1 and, of the friends and kinsmen
of Cleinias, banished some and killed others. He
tried to kill also the son of Cleinias, Aratus, left
fatherless at the age of seven. But in the confusion



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

fj crvveKTrecrwv Tot? favyovaiv 6 Trat?, KOI
rr\ava)/jLvo<? ev rfj TroXet Trepi^o/So^ KOI d(3or)9ri-
TO?, Kara Tv^yv eXadev et? oliciav Trape\0u>v
yvvaiKos, aSeX^)?}? ftev *A/3avTiBov, UpotydvTO) Be
T<W KXeiviov dBe\<f)o> jeyafiTj/jievr^, ovofjia SwcroO?.
aim; Be KOI TO r]6os OVGCL yevvaia teal GVV dew
TIVI TO Trai&iov olopevr) KaTO,7r(f)v<yevai, TT/?O?
avrrjv a.7TKpvfyev ev^ov, elra VVKTOS et? "Apyos



III. OVTCO 8'

yovri, TOV KIV'&VVOV evOvs [JLZV eveveTO /ca
avvrjv^ero TO crfyobpov KCLI SiaTrvpov fjueros eVi
TGI/? Tvpdvvov^. Tpetyopevos Be jrapa TO?? eV



teal TO crw/xa ftXaardvov opwv els eve^iav KOI
/Jieye0os, eTreSwfcev eavrov dcr/tr/crei rfj Trepl 7ra\at-
(Trpav, axrre KOI r 7revTaO\ov dywvicracrOai tcai
2 cne(f)dvci)v TV)(elv. 7TL(f)aLverai, S' d/jLe\ei /cal
Tat? eiiCQGiv ad\^TiKr] Tt? t'Sea, /cat TO arvverbv

TOV TrpOCTCOTTOV Kal (3aCTL\lKOV OV TTCLVrdTTCifTlV

dpvelrai TTJV dSyj^ayiav KOI TO crKa^elov. o6ev
evSeearepov t<7&)? 17 7ro\inKU) 7rpocrr}Kov r)V dvBpl
Trepl rov \,6joi> ea-TTOi/Baae' KCIITOI, yeyovei'dL
KOjJL^roTepov eiirelv rj So/cet THJIV e/c TWV v7rofAV7j/j,d-
TCOV Kpivovcriv, a Trapepjo)? /cal VTTO %et/oa Bid TWV



Be vcrTepov 'AjSavriBdv [lev 01 Trepl Aet-
viav Kal 'A/otcrTOTX?7 TOZ^ Bia\KTi/c6v, elwOoTa
Tot? \oyois avTwv /IT' dyopdv a^o\a^6vTa)v efcd-



1 A contest involving the five arts of running, leaping,
hurling the spear, boxing, and wrestling.

6



ARATUS n. 3-111. 3

which prevailed about the house the boy made his
escape with the fugitives, and wandering about in
the city,, full of fear and helpless, by chance got un-
noticed into the house of a woman who was a sister
of Abantidas, but had married Prophantus the brother
of Cleinias. Her name was Soso. This woman, who
was of a noble nature, and thought it a divine dis-
pensation that the boy had taken refuge with her,
hid him in the house, and at night sent him secretly
off to Argos.

III. Thus was Aratus stolen away from the peril
that threatened him, and at once that vehement and
glowing hatred of tyrants for which he was noted
became a part of his nature and grew with his growth.
He was reared in liberal fashion among the guests
and friends of his father's house at Argos, and since
he saw that his bodily growth promised high health
and stature, he devoted himself to the exercises of
the palaestra, going so far as to win wreaths of victory
in contesting the pentathlum. 1 And indeed even his
statues have plainly an athletic look, and the sagacity
and majesty of his countenance do not altogether
disown the athlete's full diet and wielding of the
mattock. Wherefore his cultivation of oratory was
perhaps less intense than became a man in public
life ; and yet he is said to have been a more ornate
speaker than some think who judge from the Com-
mentaries which he left ; these were a bye- work,
and were composed in haste, off-hand, and in the
words that first occurred to him in the heat of
contest.

Some time after the escape of Aratus, Abantidas
was slain by Deinias and Aristotle the logician. The
tyrant was wont to attend all their public disputations



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



crrore rrapelvat, /cal o~v^L\oveiKelv, fji/3a\ovr<;
et? roiavrijv Biarpiftrjv /cal /caracrKevdcravres
7ri/3ov\rjv dvei\ov, Tlacreav Be rov 'AftavriBov
Trarepa rrjv dp^v V7ro\a/36vra Ni^o/eXr;? Bo\o-
4 (fiovTJcras eavrbv dveBet^e rvpavvov. rovrov /JL-
\eyov(7i TTJV o^friv TlepidvSpw TG>



TOV Tlepayv 'OpovTijv/'EjKTopi Be rov
AafceBai/jioviov vectTiGKOv, ov io-ropei
UTTO 7r\ijQov<; ra)v 0ewJiV(*)V , co? TOVTO



KaraTrarrjdrjvai.

IV. Tou Be NiKOK\eov<; recrcrapas pfjvas rvpav-
VOVVTOS, v ol? TroXXa KCLKCL Trjv TToXt^ epjacrd-
e/civBvvevo'ev VTTO AtrcoXco^ eTriftovXevofAevrjv
d7ro/3a\eli>, rfBr] fjieipdreiov o "A/?aro? wv
\afjiTrpov el%e Bi evyeveiav teal (fipovrj/jia,
o &ie(f)aivev ov [jiLKpov ovBe dpyov, fj,/3pi0e<i Be /cal
Trap' r]\iKiav dcr<j>a\e(nepq yvcofjLy /ce/cpa/uevov.

2 oOev OL re tfiwydBes /^dXiara rov vovv /ce[v<a Trpotr-
efyov, o re NIKOK\T)<; OVK ?}/z,eXet rwv rrparro-
fjbevayv, aXX' dBrj\a)<; drreOeaypei /cal 7rape<f)v\arrev
avrov rrjv op^rjv, rok^^a /JLCV ovBev rrjXifcovrov
BeBiais ovBe epyov ovBev ovrto Trapa/ce/civBuvev-
fjievov, vTTOTrrevwv Be roi? (BaGi\.evaiv avrov Bia-

3 \eyea0ai ^>tX,ot? overt /cal evoi<; Trarpwois. /cal
jap d\i)6ws o "Aparos eTre^eiptjo'e rrjv 6Bov e/cei-
vrjv fiaBi^eiv. 009 Be 'Avriyovos fjuev vrfia"%vov-

/cal Trapfjye 1 rov %povov, al Be arc*



1 trapriye Coraes and Ziegler, with Ss : Trapse (let the time
pass).

1 251 B.C.
8



ARATUS in. 3~iv. 3

in the market-place and to take part in them ;
they encouraged him in this practice, laid a plot, and
took his life. Paseas also, the father of Abantidas,
after assuming the supreme power, was treacherously
slain by Nicocles, who then proclaimed himself tyrant.
This man is said to have borne a very close resemblance
to Periander the son of Cypselus, just as Orontes the
Persian did to Alcmaeon the son of Amphiaraiis, and
as the Spartan youth mentioned by Myrtilus did to
Hector. Myrtilus tells us that when the throng of
spectators became aware of this resemblance, the
youth was trampled underfoot.

IV. Nicocles was tyrant of the city for four months,
during which he wrought the city much harm, and
narrowly escaped losing it to the Aetolians when
they plotted to seize it. By this time 1 Aratus, now a
young man, was held in marked esteem on account of
his high birth, and of his spirit. This was showing
itself to be not insignificant nor yet unenterprising,
but earnest, and tempered with a judgement safe
beyond his years. Wherefore the exiles from Sicyon
had their minds fixed most of all upon him, and
Nicocles was not neglectful of what was going on, but
kept secret watch and ward over his undertakings,
not because he feared any deed of so great daring
and hazard as that in which Aratus finally engaged,
but because he suspected that Aratus was in com-
munication with the kings who had been on terms
of friendship and hospitality with his father. And
in truth Aratus had attempted to travel along that
path. But since Antigonus 2 neglected his promises
and prolonged the time, and since the hopes derived

* Antigonus Gouatas, king of Macedonia 283-239 B.C.



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

AlyvTTTov KCU Trapa TlroXefjiaiov fj,afcpdv rj
t'X7uSe9, eyi'O) &i avTOV KCLTa\veiv TOV Tvpavvov.

V, UpCOTOl? Be KOLVOVTai T7JV yVCt)fJLr)V 'AptO~TO-



KCU 'E/cS?/Xft>. TOVTCOV 6 /jLV K

6 Se "EA:Sr;Xo9 'A/o/ca? etc
avrip (fiiXo&cxfios fcal Trpa/cTiKos,
(Ti\dov TOV 'AKaSrjfjLiafcov 76701^0)? ev acrrei avv-
2 t]0r)s. ^e^afjievwv 8e rovrcov irpo0vfj,co
.rot? aXXoi? (frvydcriv, wv o\i<yoi fjiev al

lv rrjv e\7ri8a /jLerel^op rwv irpar- 1029
, ol Se TroXXol KOI rov "ApaTov eireipwvTO
KaTaKco\i>iv &)? aireipiq TrpayfjidTwv Opacrvvo-



3 Bov\evo/ji<lvov S' avTOV ^wpiov TL
KOLTakafBelv, o0ev (ap/jLtjfjLevos
TOI^ Tvpavv'ov, fjfcev eh "Apyos dvrjp HiKvavios eic
eiprcTr/s dTroSeSpaxa)?' 7)V Se TWV <f)vyd$a)v
He^o/cXeof? aSeX^o?' real TW 'A/oarw Trpocr-
t? VTTO TOV Hei^o/cXeof? e\eye TOV TCi^ov^
* ov VTrepfids LTO? (T(t>6r) TOTTOV, eVro? /Jikv
b\lyov $elv eTTLTreBov elvai, TrpocrTre^vKOTa ^wpLois

'^ vr i-\^ V 5- V "j- Q '' r f v

TreTpoooeai Kai uy-^Xot?, TO oe e^wuev i/yo? VTTO
K\Lp,dK(>v ov Tcdvv avkfyiKTOV. &)? Be TavTa ijfcov-
o~ev 6 "A/3aTo?, eKTrefJLTcei, //.era roO Hei/o/cXeo^
loiovs Svo, ^evBav re /cal Te^i^co^a, KCLTO,-
[jievov^ TO T6t%09, eyvcoKcos, el SvvaiTO,
KOI ?rpo9 eW KIV^VVOV o^eco9 TO ?ra^ dvap-
/&a\\ov 77 pa/cpa) TroXeyLto) /cai (pavepois
dywcriv iStooTrjs avTiKaQiGTacrQai 7T/309 Tvpavvov.
5 W9 S' 7ravtj\0ov ol irepl TOV Hei>o/eXea TOU /ze^

teal TOV TOTTOV TTJV



10



ARATUS iv. 3 -v. 5

from Egypt and Ptolemy 1 were a long way off, he
resolved to overthrow the tyrant by his own efforts.

V. The first to whom he imparted his design were
Aristomachus and Ecdelus. Of these, the one was
an exile from Sicyon, and Ecdelus was an Arcadian
of Megalopolis, a student of philosophy and a man of
action, who had been an intimate friend of Arcesilaiis
the Academic at Athens. These men eagerly adopted
his proposals, and he then began conversations with
the other exiles. A few of these took part in the
enterprise because they were ashamed to disappoint
the hope placed in them, but the majority actually
tried to stop Aratus, on the ground that his in-
experience made him over-bold.

While he was planning to seize some post in the
territory of Sicyon from which he might sally forth
and make war upon the tyrant, there came to Argos
a man of Sicyon who had run away from prison. He
was a brother of Xenocles, one of the exiles ; and
when he had been brought to Aratus by Xenocles,
he told him that the part of the city's wall over
which he had climbed to safety was almost level
with the ground on the inside, where it had been
attached to steep and rocky places, and that on the
outside it was not at all too high for scaling-ladders.
When Aratus had heard this, he sent with Xenocles
two servants of his own, Seuthas and Technon, to
make an examination of the wall ; for he was resolved,
if he could, to hazard the whole enterprise on one
secret and swift attempt, rather than in a long war
and in open contests to match his private resources
against those of a tyrant. So when Xenocles and
his party came back with measurements of the wall

1 Ptolemy Philadelphia, king of Egypt 283-247 B.C.

II



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ARATUS v. 5-vi. 4

which they had taken, and with a report that the
place was by nature not impassable nor even difficult
(although they declared that it was hard to get to
it undetected owing to a certain gardener's dogs,
which were little beasts, but extraordinarily fierce
and savage), Aratus at once undertook the business.

VI. Now the laying in of arms was nothing un-
usual, since almost everybody at that time indulged
in robberies and predatory forays ; and as for scaling-
ladders, Euphranor the engineer made them openly,
since his trade screened him from suspicion ; and he
too was one of the exiles. As for men, each of the
friends of Aratus in Argos furnished him with ten
out of the few they had, and he himself equipped
thirty of his own servants with arms. Through
Xenophilus, the foremost of the robber captains, he
also hired a few soldiers, to whom it was given out
that a foray was to be made into the territory of
Sicyon to seize the horses of Antigonus. And most
of them were sent on ahead in small bands to the
tower of Polygnotus, with orders to wait there.
Aratus also sent on in advance Caphisias, lightly
armed, with four companions ; their orders were to
come to the gardener's when it was dark, pretending
to be travellers, and after taking up quarters there
for the night, to shut up him and his dogs ; for there
was no other way to get past them. The scaling-
ladders, which could be taken apart, were packed in
boxes, and thus concealed were sent on ahead in
waggons.

In the meantime some spies of Nicocles appeared
in Argos and were reported to be secretly going
about and watching the movements of Aratus. As
soon as it was day, therefore, Aratus left his house

13



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