Plutarch.

Plutarch's Lives (Volume 5) online

. (page 1 of 36)
Online LibraryPlutarchPlutarch's Lives (Volume 5) → online text (page 1 of 36)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


i [Ut

P^ Bjc



LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY



s- I PLUTARCH'S LIVES

:. [UCJ

v I

FS as AGESILAUS AND POMPEY I

PELOPIDAS AND MARCELLUS



B-


-






.




Translated by

BERNADOTTE PERRIN

a

8



1'iintt'ii in (, .,////



VOLUMES PUBLISHED



GREEK AUTHORS



ARISTOTLE
ARISTOTLE
ARISTOTLE
ARISTOTLE
ARISTOTLE
ARISTOTLE
ARISTOTLE
ARISTOTLE
ARISTOTLE
ARISTOTLE
ARISTOTLE
ARISTOTLE
ARISTOTLE



ACHILLES TATIUS

AELIAN: ON ANIMALS. 3 vols.

AENEAS TACTICUS. ASCLEPIODOTUS. ONASANDER

AESCHINES

AESCHYLUS. 2 vols.

ALC1PHRON. AELIAN. PHILOSTRATUS: THE LETTERS

ANTIPHON AND ANDOCIDES, see MINOR ATTIC ORATORS

APOLLODORUS. 2 vo!

APOLLONIUS RHODIUS

THE APOSTOLIC FATHERS. 2 vols.

APPIAN: ROMAN HISTORY. 4 VOls.

ARISTOPHANES. 3 vols.
ARISTOTLE: ART OF RHETORIC

ATHFNIAN CONSTIH r>\, IUDIMIAN i THICS

GENERATION OF ANIMALS

METAPHYSICS. 2 vols.

MKTEOROLOGIA

MINOR WORKS

NICOMACHEAN

OECONOMICA, MAGNA MORAL IA (with METAPHYSICS

ON THE HEAVENS Vol.11)

ON THE SOUL, PARVA NATURALIA, ON BREATH

CATEGORIES, ON INTERPRETATION, PRIOR ANALYTICS.

POSTERIOR ANALYTICS, TOPICS

ON SOPHISTICAL REFUTATIONS, and others.

PARTS, MOVEMENT, PROGRESSION OF ANIMALS
ARISTOTLE: PHYSICS. 2 vols.
ARISTOTLE: POETICS. LONGINUS: ON THE SUBLIME

DEMETRIUS: ON STYLE
ARISTOTLE: POLITICS
ARISTOTLE: PROBLEMS. 2

ARISTOTLE: RHETORICA AD AUEXANDRUM (with Problems, Vol. II)
ARRIAN: HISTORY OF ALEXANDER AND INDICA. 2 vols.
ATHENAEUS: THE DUPNOSOPHISTS. 7 vols.
ST. BASIL: LETTERS. 4 vols.
CALLIMACHUS: FRAGMENTS

CALLIMACHUS. HYMNS, EPIGRAMS. LYCOPHRON. ARATUS
CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA
DEMOSTHENES I: OLYNTHIACS, PHILIPPICS and MINOR

ORATIONS: I-XV1I and XX

DEMOSTHENES II: DF. CORONA and DI FALSA IIGATIONE
DEMOSTHENES III: MEIDIAS, ANDROIION, ARISTOCRATES,

TIMOCRATES and ARISTO I and II

DEMOSTHENES IV-V1: PRIVATE ORATIONS and IN NEAERAM
DEMOSTHENES VII: UMRAL SPEECH, EROTIC ESSAY, EXOEDIA

and LETTERS
DIO C A SSI US. 9 \
DIO CHRYSOSTOM. 5 vols.

DIODORUS SICULUS. 12 vols. Vols. I-VII, IX, X, XI
DIOGENES LAERTIl

DIONYSIUS OFHALICARNASSUS: ROMAN ANTIQUITIES. 7 vols.
EPICTETUS. 2 i
IP1DES. 4

HBIUS: ECCLESIASTIC Al HISTORY. 2 VOls,

GALEN: ON THE NATUR ; TIES

THE GREEK ANTHOLOGY. 5 vols.

THE GREEK BUCOLIC POETS: THEOCRITUS, BION,

MOSCHUS

< .REEK I \\1BUS with the ANACREONTEA. 2 vols.

GREEK MATHEMATICAL WORKS. 2 vols.
HERODOTUS. 4 v

HESIOD and the HOMERIC HYMNS
HIPPOCRATES. 4 \
HOMER: ii IAD. 2 v
HOMER: ODYSSEY. 2 vi
ISAEUS
1SOCRATES. 3 v<

JOHN DAMASCENE: BARLAAM AND IOASAPH
josr-pii Vois. I-VFI

IE. l'\Rli)INH [ S
VII



255 net

America
L.OO




C . t '/ 3 \

r

V/.5



H 9465

Rim

3 3333 6'8668






FROM TRE



THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY

FOUNDED BY JAMES LOEB, LL.D.

EDITED BY
fT. E. PAGE, C.H., LITT.D.

fE. CAPPS, PH.D., LL.D. fW. H. D. ROUSE, LITT.D.

L. A. POST, L.H.D. E. H. WARMINGTON, M.A., F.R.HIST.SOC.



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



PLUTARCH'S
LIVES

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY
BERNADOTTE PERRIN

IN ELEVEN VOLUMES
V



AGESILAUS AND POMPEY
PELOPIDAS AND MARCELLUS




CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS

LONDON

WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD

MCMLXI



First printed '1917
Reprinted 1955, 1961



Printed in Great Britain



CONTENTS



PAGE

PREFATORY XOTB vi

ORDER OF THE PARALLEL LIVES IN THIS EDITION . . . viii

TRADITIONAL ORDER OF THE PARALLEL LIVES .... ix

AGESILAU3 1

f'OMPEY 115

COMPARISON OF AGESILAUS AND POMPEV 326

PKLOPIDA8 339

MARCELLU8 435

COMPARISON OF PELOPIDAS AND MARCELLUS 5'J'J

DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 533



PREFATORY NOTE

As in the preceding volumes of this series, agree-
ment between the Sintenis (Teubner, 1873-1875)
and Bekker (Tauchnitz, 1855-1857) editions of the
Parallel Lives lias been taken as the basis for the
text. Any preference of one to the other, and any
departure from both, have been indicated. An
abridged account of the manuscripts of Plutarch
may be found in the Introduction to the first
volume. Of the Lives presented in this volume, the
Agesilaus and Pompey are contained in the Codex
Sangermanensis (S s ) and the Codex Seitenstettensis
(S), and in a few instances weight has been given
to readings from the Codex Matritensis (M :t ), on
the authority of the collations of Charles Graux, as
published in Bursians Jahresbcricht (1884). No
attempt has been made, naturally, to furnish either
a diplomatic text or a full critical apparatus. For
these, the reader must still be referred to the major
edition of Sintenis (Leipzig, 1839-1846, 4 voll., 8vo).
The reading which follows the colon in the critical
notes is that of the Teubner Sintenis, and also, unless



VI



PREFATORY NOTE

otherwise stated in the note, of the Tauchnitx
Bekker.

All the standard translations of the Lives have
been carefully compared and utilized, including that
of the Pom pei/ by Professor Long.

B. PERRIN.

NEW HAVKK, CONNECTICUT, U.S.A.
March, 1917.



Vll



ORDER OF THE PARALLEL LIVES IN THIS

EDITION IN THE CHRONOLOGICAL SEQUENCE

OF THE GREEK LIVES.



VOLUME I.

(1) Theseus and Romulus.
Comparison.

(2) Lycurgus and Numa.
Comparison.

(3) Solon and Publicola.
Comparison.

VOLUME II.

(4) Themistocles and

Camillas.



(9) Aristides and Cato the

Elder.
Comparison.

(13) Cimon and Lucullus.
Comparison.

VOLUME III.

(5) Pericles and Fabius Max-

imus.
Comparison.

(14) Nicias and Crassus.
Comparison.

VOLUME IV.

(6) Alcibiades and Coriola-

nus.

Comparison.

(12) Lysander and Sulla.
Comparison.

VOLUME V.

(16) Agesilaiis and Pompey.

Comparison.

(8) Pelopidas and Marcellus.
Comparison.



VOLUME VI.
(22) Dion and Brutus.

Comparison.
(7) Timoleon and Aemilius

Paulus.
Comparison.

VOLUME VII.

(20) Demosthenes and Cicero.

Comparison.

(17) Alexander and Julius
Caesar.



VOLUME VIII.

(15) Sertorius and Eumenes.

Comparison.

(18) Phocion and Cato the
Younger.

*

VOLUME IX.

(21) Demetrius and Antony.

Comparison.
(11) Pyrrhus aridCaiusMarius.



VOLUME X.

(19) Agis and Cleomenes, and
Tiberius and Cains
Gracchus.
Comparison.
(10) Philopoemen and Flam-

ininus.
Comparison.

VOLUME XI.

(24) Aratus.
(23) Artaxerxes.

(25) Galba.

(26) Otho.



vin



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER OF THE
PARALLEL LIVES.

(1) Theseus and Romulus.

(2) Lycurgus and Nil ma.

(3) Solon and Publicola.

(4) Themistocles and Camillas.
(">) Pericles and Fabius Maximus.

(6) Alcibiades and Coriolanus.

(7) Timoleon and Aeniilius Paulas.

(8) Pelopidas and Marcellus.

(9) Aristides and Cato the Elder.

(10) Philopoemen and Flamininus.

(11) Pyrrhus and Cains Marias.

(12) Lysander and Sulla.

(13) Cimon and Lucullus.

(14) Nicias and Crassus.

(15) Sertorius and Eumenes.

(16) Agesilaus and Pompey.

(17) Alexander and Julius Caesar.

(18) Phocion and Cato the Younger.

(19) Agis and Cleomenes, and Tiberius and Caius

Gracchus.

(20) Demosthenes and Cicero.
("21) Demetrius and Antony.

(22) Dion and Brutus.

(24) Aratns.

(23) Artaxerxes.

(25) Galba.

(26) Otho.



IX



AGESILAUS



AFH2IAAO2



I. ^Ap%i&a/jtos 6 Zev^iBd/JLOV ftaaiXevaai GTTL- ^

A ' t ' '-v t\ i \ Edition.

Aatc6oai[jioviwv, KaTtXiirev viov etc yvvai/cos a . 1624,
/ATuSou?, ^Ayiv, fcal TTO\V vewrepov
TT}? MeX^criTTTrtSa dvyarpos, 'Ayy-
eVel 8e TT}? /SacriXeta? "A7tSi irpocrr)-
Kara rbv VO/JLOV tSttwt^s e&OKei ftiorevGeiv
o A'yr/o'tXao?, ^ixP 1 ! T *l v \6<yo/jL6V'rjv dycoyijv ev
Aa/ceSaifjiovi, <TK\ripav fjiev ovaav rfj Stairy KOL
7TO\i>7rovov, iraiSevouo-av Se TOU? veovs

2 lb KCtl fydGlV V7TO TOV ZtlfJLWVi^OV TT)V



Sia TWV edwv TOU? TroXtra? rot? i/oyu-Oi?
KCLI y$ipor)Q i<$ iroiovcrav, wcnrep tV-Trou? e

6



TO?? eVl



. 'AyycriXdw Se KCLI TOVTO vrr^p^ev i
ejrl TO ap^eiv fir) dTrai&ewrov TOV a
G0ai. 1 Bib teal TroXv TWV ftacriXewv evap/Aocrro-
rarov avrov Tot? vm^Kooi^ nrapea-^e, ry (frixrei

?}y6/J,OVl,K(p KOi {BaCTi\LK$) 7rpO(TKTr)adjA6VO$ 0.7TO
T>}? ^76)77}? TO SrHJLOTlKOV KOI $>L\dv6pW7TOV.

II. 'Ei' Se Tat? Ka\ovp,evais dyeXat? TCOI' o"i>i/-
Tpe(f)0/Ava)v TraiBcov AvaavSpov a-%6V cpacrrrfv,



TOU &pxecr0ai with M a and Cobet :



AGESILAUS

I. ARCHIDAMUS, the son of Zeuxidamas, after an
illustrious reign over the Lacedaemonians, left
behind him a son, Agis, by Lampido, a woman of
honourable family ; and a much younger son,
Agesilaiis, by Eupolia, the daughter of Melesippidas.
The kingdom belonged to Agis by law, and it was
thought that Agesilaiis would pass his life in a private
station. He was therefore given the so-called
"agoge," or course of public training in Sparta, which,
although austere in its mode of life and full of
hardships, educated the youth to obedience. For
this reason it was, we are told, that Simonides gave
Sparta the epithet of " man-subduing," since more
than in any other state her customs made her



citizens obedient to the laws and tractable, like
horses that are broken in while yet they are colts.
From this compulsory training the law exempts the
heirs-apparent to the throne. But Agesilaiis was
singular in this also, that he had been educated to
obey before he came to command. For this reason
he was much more in harmony with his subjects
than any of the kings ; to the commanding and
kingly traits which were his by nature there had
been added by his public training those of popularity
and kindliness.

II. While he was among the so-called "bands"
of boys who were reared together, he had as his



PLUTARCH S LIVES



rq>



avrov. (pi'XoveifcoraTo? yap wv teal G
araros ev TO<? veots teal rrdvra rrpwreveiv $ov\o-
fjievos, KOI TO <T(f)oBpov e^wv /cal payBalov a/jLa%ov
teal SvaetcftiacrTov, evTreideia 7rd\LV av /ecu Trpao-
TTJTL TOLOVTOS r)V olo9 (j)6/3(o {Arj&ev, ai(T')(vvr) Be



Trdvra Troielv rd TrpocfraTTo^eva, KCLI rot?
d\yvvecr0ai /AO\\OV rj TOU? TTOVOV?

2 rr)V Be TOV (rK\ovs Trrjpwaiv % re wpa rov
yLtaro? avOovvros eirercpvirTe, /cal TO paStw?
KOI i'Xa/)a? TO Toiovro, Trai^ovra /cal

eavrov, ov piKpov r)V e'rravopOwp.a TOV
aXXa /cal rrjv (^Ckoii^iav efcB^\OTepav
TTolei, Trpo? [MiBeva irovov /ArySe Trpa^iv dira-
ryopevovros avrov Bia rr)v ^&)/VoT?;Ta. TT}? Be
/jLOp(j)f)<; elfcova [jiev OVK e-^o/jiev (awTo? yap ovtc
r)6\r)crev, a\\a teal InroQvridKwv aTreiTre " ju,iJT
TrXacrTaz/ /uujre fjLifjir]\dv" Tiva -noiricraaBai rov
orco/jiaros iKova\ \eyerai Be fMfcpos re yevecrdat

3 /cal rrjv o^iv evKarafipovrjros' 77 Be i\ap6rT]<f KOL
TO evdvfjiov ev arravn Kaipfi) /cal iraiyviwBes,
a'\6eLvov Be /cal rpaj(y p,t]Be7rore {tyre (frcovfj fjnjre

, r&v ica\wv /cal (vpaLatv epacr/^icarepov avrov
7r;/?a>? rrapel^ev. co? Be eo^^ao'TO? laropel,
rov 'Ap%iBafAOv e^rj/jiiaxrav oi efyppou y^avra
yvval/ca /jurcpdv " Ov yap /SacriXet?," efyaaav, 597
" aJLifJiiv, aXXri /3a(TL\iBia yevvdaei"

III. Ba<7XeiWro9 ^e "AyiBo? rficev 'AX/a/^mS?;?
K St^eXia? (f>vyas els Aa/ceBaifioi'a' /cal %povov
ovrrw rro\vv ev rfj rro\ei Bidycov, air lav e'cr^e rfj

4



AGES1LAUS, ii. i-m. i

lover Lysander, 1 wlio was smitten particularly with his
native decorum. For although he was contentious
and high-spirited beyond his fellows, wishing to be
first in all things, and having a vehemence and fury
which none could contend with or overwhelm, on the
other hand he had such a readiness to obey and such
gentleness, that he did whatever was enjoined
upon him, not at all from a sense of fear, but always
from a sense of honour, and was more distressed
by censure than he was oppressed by hardships. As
for his deformity, the beauty of his person in its
youthful prime covered this from sight, while the
ease and gaiety with which he bore such a
misfortune, being first to jest and joke about himself,
went far towards rectifying it. Indeed, his lameness
brought his ambition into clearer light, since it led
him to decline no hardship and no enterprise
whatever. We have no likeness of him (for he
himself would not consent to one, and even when he
lay dying forbade the making of " either statue or
picture " of his person), but he is said to have been
a little man of unimposing presence. And yet his
gaiety and good spirits in every crisis, and his
raillery, which was never offensive or harsh either in
word or look, made him more lovable, down to his
old age, than the young and beautiful. But
according to Theophrastus, Archidamus was fined
by the ephors for marrying a little woman, " For
she will bear us," they said, "not kings, but
kinglets."

III. It was during the reign of Agis that
Alcibiades came from Sicily as an exile to Sparta,
and he had not been long in the city when he
incurred the charge of illicit intercourse with Timaea,

1 Cf. Lyurgus, xvii. 1 ; Lysander, xxii. 3.



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

yvvaifcl TOV j3acri\ea)<;, Ti/jLaia, crvvelvaL. KOL TO
<yevvr]6ev e% avri}s TraiBdpiov OVK etyrf yivaxr/cetv
6 T A7^?, a\V e 'A\Ki/3idBov yeyovevai. TOVTO
Be ov Trdvv Sucr/coXo)? rrjv Ti^aiav eveyxelv (jy^cri
AoO/H?, d\\a teal ^TLOvpi^ovcrav OLKOI vrpo? TO.?
e/Xft)r/Sa? 'A.\Ki/3id$rjV TO TraL&iov, ov AWTV)(L-
2 Sijv, KaXeiv Kal /JLEVTOL Kal TOV *
avTov ov 7T/30? vfipiv Ty Ti/jLaio, <pdvai
a\\a <f)i\OTi,/JLOViJi6Vov /3a(n\6ve<r0ai
VTro TWV % eavTOv yeyovoTwv. Sia TavTa



t? TOV 'Ayw 6 Se Trat? TOV /j,ev a\\ov ypovov

UTTOTTTO? T)V TO) "AjiSi, KOL Jl>1](TLOV TlfjJr]V OVK

el^e Trap 1 avTW, VOO-OVVTL Be Trpoo-TreGcov Kal
SaKpvojv eTTGLcrev viov aTcor]VCii TTO\\O)V GVCLVTIOV.
3 Ov i^rjv d\\a TeXevTijaavTos TOV "AytSos o
Avcravo'pos, ?;S?; KaTavevavfia^KO)^
Kal fj-eyiarTov ev ^TrdpTrj Swdfjievos, TOV
\aov eirl TTJV /3acu\iav Trpofjyev, &)? ov



Kovcrav OI-TL



Kal TO)V a\\0)V TTO\t,TWV, Bid TTfV dpGTTJV l TOV

' A<yr)(TL\dov Kal TO (rvvTeTpd(f)@ai Kal yu-ereiJ^-
Kevau TT}? dywyfjs, e^iXoTL/JLOvvro Kal crvveTrpaTTOv
avT& TrpoOvfJLWS. T)V Be AiOTret^T;? dvrjp xprjcr /zoXo-
709 eV ^TrdpTrj, fjiavTeiwv re Tra\aiwv u
Kal BOKWV Trepl Ta 6eia cro^>o? elvai Kal
4 OUTO? OVK <pr} OefJiiTov elvat, %w\ov <yeve<jOai
AaKeBaifjLOvos fiacriXea, Kal %/o?;<r JJLOV ev TTJ
roiovTov



B?j, ^TrdpTr), Kairrep fie^dkav^o^ eovaa,
) aredev dpTLTroBos ^KdcrTrj %<wX^ (3acri\ia'
T$IV apfr^v Coraes and Bekker, after Bryan . T-/JV



AGRSILAUS, in. T-4

the wife of the king. The child, too, that was born
of her, Agis refused to recogni/e as his own,
declaring that Aleibiades was its father. Duris says
that Timaea was not very much disturbed at this,
but in whispers to her Helot' maids at home
actually called the child Aleibiades, not Leotychides ;
moreover, that Aleibiades himself also declared that
he had not approached Timaea out of wanton passion,
but because he was ambitious to have the Spartans
reigned over by his descendants. 1 On this account
Aleibiades withdrew from Sparta, being in fear of
Agis ; and the boy was always an object of suspicion
to Agis, and was not honoured by him as legitimate.
But when the king lay sick, the supplications and
tears of Leotychides prevailed upon him to declare
him his son in the presence of many witnesses.

Notwithstanding this, after the death of Agis, 2
Lysander, who by this time had subdued the
Athenians at sea and was a man of the greatest
influence in Sparta, tried to advance Agesilaiis to the
throne, on the plea that Leotychides was a bastard
and had no claim upon it. Many of the other citizens
also, owing to the excellence of Agesilaiis and the fact
that he had been reared with them under the common
restraints of the public training, warmly espoused
the plan of Lysander and co-operated with him. But
there was a diviner in Sparta, named Diopeithes, who
was well supplied with ancient prophecies, and was
thought to be eminently wise in religious matters.
This man declared it contrary to the will of Heaven
that a lame man should be king of Sparta, and cited
at the trial of the case the following oracle :

" Bethink thee now, O Sparta, though thou art
very glorious, lest from thee, sound of foot, there

1 Cf. Aleibiades, xxiii. 7 f. a In 398 B.C.

7



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

Sijpov yap vovcToi ore Karaayj)GOv<Jiv ae\rrroi

<J)0lO-t/3p6rOV T' 7TL KVfJLO, KV\lvB6fjiVOV 7TO\
fjLOlO.

5 7T/3O? ravra AvaavSpos e\eyev o>?, el irdvv <f>o-
ftoivro TOP ^ptja/jLov ol ^TTapridrai, <pv\aKreoi>
avrols etrj rov AecoTv^iSrjv ov yap el irpoa-
r/? TOV iroSa /3aari\evoi, TW 6e(o



el
TOVTO Tr)v %co\r)i> elvai /Saaiheiav. 6



<rtXao9 fj>i] Kal TOV ITocre^co Karapaprvpelv rov
Aecoru^iSov TI^V vodelav, tfcftakovTa areicr/jiu) rov
da\afJLOv rov *Ayw arc* eiceivov be vr\je.ov r) Se/ca



rov



IV. Ovrco 8e Kal &ia ravra /3a<rtXeu? CLTTO-
6 'Ayrj(TL\aos evOvs et^e Kal ra %pr)-
fj.ara rov "AyiSos, <w? voOov o-TreXao-a? rov Aew-
opwv Se rovs CLTTO



7TLlK6L<f /Ji6V 6Wa?, tV%U/3W? Se 7TVO/HVOV<;, CLTTe-

aurot? ra r;/u'crea rwv ^prujiarwv, evvotav



eavrw Kal S6av avrl (fiOovov Kal
7rl rfj K\rjpovo/jLia Karao~Kva6/Avo<>. o Be
6 EZevotywv, on rrdvra rfi rrarpiot, rreido-
io"%ve rr\el(7TOv, ware TTOICIV o fiov\oiro,
2 roLOvrov ecrri. r&v ecfropwv rjv rore Kal rwv
yepovrwv ro fjieyicrrov ev rfj 7ro\ireia Kpdros,
MV ol fjuev eviavrov ap^ovcri, novov, ol Be yepovres
Bia ftiov ravrrjv e%ovo~i rrjv ri/jiijv, eVt r<w
rrdvra TO?? j3aaiX,6vo-iv e^elvai,



AGESILAUS. in. 4-iv. 2

spring a maimed royalty : lor long will unexpected
toils oppress thee, and onward-rolling billows ot
man-destroying war."

To this Lysander answered that, in case the
Spartans stood in great fear of the oracle, they must
he on their guard against Leotychides ; for it
mattered not to the god that one who halted in his
gait should be king, but if one who was not lawfully
begotten, nor even a descendant of Heracles, should
be king, this was what the god meant by the
" maimed royalty." And Agesilaiis declared that
Poseidon also had borne witness to the bastardy of
Leotychides, for he had cast Agis forth from his bed-
chamber by an earthquake, and after this more than
ten months elapsed before Leotychides was born. 1

IV. In this way, and for these reasons, Agesilaiis
was appointed king, and straightway enjoyed
possession of the estates of Agis as well as his throne,
after expelling Leotychides as a bastard. But seeing
that his kinsmen on his mother's side, though worthy
folk, were excessively poor, he distributed among
them the half of his estates, thereby making his
inheritance yield him good-wall and reputation
instead of envy and hatred. As for Xenophon's
statement 2 that by obeying his country in every-
thing he won very great power, so that he did what
he pleased, the case is as follows. At that time the
ephors and the senators had the greatest power in
the state, of whom the former hold office for a year
only, while the senators enjoy their dignity for life,
their offices having been instituted to restrain the
power of the kings, as I have said in my Life of

1 Cf. Alcibiades, xxiii. 8; Ly^andtr, xxii. 3ff. ; Xenophon,
UtlUnica, iii. 3, 2. * Xenophon's Agesilaiis, vi. 4.



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

Co? e/' rot? Trepl AvKovpyou yeypaTrrat. Bio teal
TrarpiKrjv rtva TT/JO? avrovs drrb rov TraXaiov
Bi6Te\ouv [email protected]<$ ol /3aai\.els (friXovei/ciav Kal Bia-
3 (fropav Trapa\a/ji/3dvovTes. o Be *Ayr)a-i\aos eVi
rrjv ivavTiav 6Bbv r)\0e, /cal TO TroXe^elv KCU
TO Trpocr/cpoveiv auroZ? eacra? eOepd-rreve, irda'7]^
(Jbev air eiceivwv Trpd^ecos dp-%6/jLi'o$, el Be K\TI-
6eirj, OaTTOv r) ftdBrjv TTi,y6/Jivos, ocraKis Be



V TO) /3a(Tl\lKti) @(i)KO) KCll



, eTciovori rot? efyopois vTrejfavia'TaTO, TWV
8' et? Tr)i> yepovaiav del /caTaTaTTO/Aevcov eKdara) 598
4 ^Kalvav erre/jLTre KOI ftovv dpiaTelov. etc Be
TOVTtov Ti/Jiav BOKWV Koi jjLe r ya\vviv TO d^iw/na
TT}? e/cetvwv dpxrjs, e\dv9avev av^wv T^P eav-
TOV BvvctfMiv /cal Ty ftacri\6La



etc TIJS Trpo? avTov evvoias

V. 'Ei' Be rai? TT/OO? TOU? aXXoi/?

d/jie/JLTTTOTepos rj <pu\o^. TOU?
fj,ev jap e-)(9povs dBiKO)? OVK e/3Xa7TTe, rot? Be
(friXois /cal TO, fir) BiKaia avveTcpaTTe. KOI

/jiV ^0/901'? rja-^VVBTO fJLYf Tl/jidv

TOU? Be (fciXovs OVK eBvvaTO
ra?, d\\a KCU fiorjdwv ^-yaXXero Kal avve^a-
fjLapTavwv aurot?' ovBev yap coero TWV (f)i\iKwv
2 vTTovpyri/uidTwv alcr^pbv elvai. rot? B' av Bia-
<}>6pOi$ TTTaLcracn rrpWTos (rvva%06/iievcs Kal Berj-
Oelcn crvfj,TrpdTTO)v Trpo0v[Jiu>s eBrj/nayayyei, Kal
Trpoa-tfyeTO TrdvTas. 6/ow^re? ovv ol e'(j)opoL Tavra
Kal (f)0/3ovjjievoi TTJV Bvva/jiiv e^rjfiLtocrav avTov,
aiTiav VTreiTrovTes OTL TOU? KOIVOVS TroX/ra? IBiovs

KTCLTCU.



10



AGESILAUS, iv. 2-v. 2

Lycurgus. 1 Therefore from the outset, and from
generation to generation, the kings were traditional Iv
at feud and variance with them. But Agesilaiis took
the opposite course. Instead of colliding and fighting
with them, he courted their favour, winning their
support before setting out on any undertaking ; and
whenever he was invited to meet them, hastening to
them on the run. If ever the ephors visited him
when he was seated in his royal chair and administer-
ing justice, he rose in their honour ; and as men
were from time to time made members of the senate,
he would send each one a cloak and an ox as a mark
of honour. Consequently, while he was thought to
be honouring and exalting the dignity of their office,
he was unawares increasing his own influence and
adding to the power of the king a greatness which
was conceded out of good-will towards him.

V. In his dealings with the rest of the citizens he
was less blame-worthy as an enemy than as a friend ;
for he would not injure his enemies without just
cause, but joined his friends even in their unjust
practices. And whereas he was ashamed not to
honour his enemies when they did well, he could not
bring himself to censure his friends when they did
amiss, but actually prided himself on aiding them and
sharing in their misdeeds. For he thought no aid
disgraceful that was given to a friend. But if, on the
other hand, his adversaries stumbled and fell, he was
first to sympathize with them and give them zealous
aid if they desired it, and so won the hearts and
the allegiance of all. The ephors, accordingly, seeing
this, and fearing his power, laid a fine upon him,
alleging as a reason that he made the citizens his own,
who should be the common property of the state.

1 Chapters v. 6 f . ; vii. 1 f.

ii



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

3 KaOuTrep jap ol <f)V(TiKol TO veiKos oiovrai
Kal Trjv epiv, el TWV o\a>v e^aipeffeiij, arrival
fjiev av TO, ovpdvia, TraixjaaQai &e TrdvTwv 1 rrjv
yeve&iv KOI Kivrjcnv VTTO r?}? Trpos Trdvra TrdvTwv
, ot/Tft>9 eoiicev o AaffwviKos vo/jLoOerr)^
TT}? dperrjs e[ji{Ba\elv et? rrjv TTO\I-
Ttiav TO (fciKoTifJiOV KOL <j)i\ov6iKOV, dei nva



KOL ajiLav evai



fBov\ofj,i>os, Trjv Be dvOvTreitcovaav
dv\ejKT(p yjiipiv dpyrjv teal dvaywvicrTov ov&av
4 OVK [email protected])$ ofjiovoiav \e f year9ai. TOVTO 8e ayu-eXe^
(TwewpaKtvai KOL rbv ''Ofjurfpov olovraL rives' ov
<ydp av TOV ^Aya/jLe/j-vova Troirjcrat. ^aipovra rov
/cal TOV 'A^iXXew? et? \oioopiav
efC7rdy\ois eVe'ecrcr^," el fjurj jueya
rot? Koivols ayaOov evofjiL^ev elvai TOV Trpos d\\r)-
Xou? %rf\ov real TTJV Sia<popav TMV apia-TWV.
[lev ovv OVK av euro)? T9 aTrXco? crvyyw-

al yap vTrep^o\al TWV (f)i\,ovei/
Tral rat? TroXecrt /cal f^eyaXovs KIV&VVOVS e
VI. Tov Be 'Ayrj(n,\dov TTJV fiaaiXeiav
"napeiXi^oTOS, aTT^yye\\6v Tives e 'Acrta? ijfcov-
re? a)? o Hepo-wv /^acrtXez)? Trapa&Kev

AaK&aijjLoviov$ K/3a\elv
o & AvaavSpos 7ri0V[jiwv

et'v 'Acrtar aTrocrTa\r}vai Kal ftoriQr]Gai Tot?
(>i\ot,$, oy? auTO? /JLCV dp%ovTas Kal
TWV 7r6\ea)V aTreXtTre, tcaKcos Be %pci)/uivot,
{3iaia>s TOt9 Trpdy/uiacriv e^eTTtTTTov VTTO TWV TTO\I-
TWV Kal aired vriaKov, dveTreiae TOV 'AyrjcriXaov
7Ti0ecr0ai, Trj GTpaTeia Kal 7rpO7ro\/jir)crai



Coraes and Bekker have iravrus (utterly), an
early, anonymous correction.



12



AGKSILAUS, v. 3 vi. i

Natural philosophers are of the opinion that, if
strife and discord should be banished from the
universe, the heavenly bodies would stand still, and
all generation and motion would cease in consequence
of the general harmony. And so the Spartan law-
giver seems to have introduced the spirit of ambition
and contention into his civil polity as an incentive to
virtue, desiring that good citi/ens should always be
some what at variance and in conflict with one another,
and deeming that complaisance which weakly yields
without debate, which knows no effort and no
struggle, to be wrongly called concord. And some
think that Homer also was clearly of this mind ; for
he would not have represented Agamemnon as
pleased when Odysseus and Achilles were carried



Online LibraryPlutarchPlutarch's Lives (Volume 5) → online text (page 1 of 36)