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PLUTARCH'S LIVES

IX

DEMETRIUS AND ANTONY

PYRRHUS AND GAIUS

MARIUS




BERNADOTTE PERRIN



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Translated by [!=:

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te list of Loeb titles can be
found at the end of each volume



PLUTARCH (Plutarchus, c. A.D. 45-
1 2o, was born at Chaeronea in Boeotia
in central Greece, studied philosophy at
Athens, and, after coming to Rome as a
teacher in philosophy, was given consular
rank by the emperor Trajan and a procura-
torship in Greece by Hadrian. Married
and father of one daughter and four sons,
he appears as a man of kindly character
and independent thought. Studious and
learned, he wrote on many subjects. Most
popular have always been the 46 Parallel
Lives, biographies planned to be ethical
examples in pairs (in each pair one Greek
person and one similar Roman), though
the last four lives are single. All are in-
valuable sources of our knowledge of the
lives and characters of Greek and Roman
statesmen or soldiers or orators. Plutarch's
many other varied extant works, about
60 in number, are known as 'Moral
Essays' or 'Moral Works'. They are of
high literary value, besides being of great
use to people interested in philosophy,
ethics and religion.






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9?i'6




NY PUBLIC LIBRARY THE BRANCH LIBRARIES


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3 3333 08668 391 5



-0203376



NOT TO BE TAKEN ROM IKE RO






THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY

FOUNDED BY JAMES LOEB, LL.D.
EDITED BY

E. H. WARMINGTON, M.A., F.R.HIST.SOC.

FORMER EDITORS

|T. E. PAGE, C.H., LITT.D. -j-E. CAPPS, PH.D., LL.D.

fW. H. D. ROUSE, LITT.D. L. A. POST, L.H.D.



PLUTARCH'S LIVES
IX



101



PLUTARCH'S
LIVES

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY
BERNADOTTE PERRIN

IN ELEVEN VOLUMES
IX



DEMETRIUS AND ANTONY
PYRRHUS AND CAIUS MARIUS




CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS

LONDON

WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD

MOMLXVIH



First printed 1920
Reprinted 1950, 1959, 1968



Printed in Great Britain



CONTENTS



PAGE

PREFATORY NOTE vii

ORDER OF THE PARALLEL LIVES IN THIS EDITION ... ix

TRADITIONAL ORDER OF THE PARALLEL LIVES X

DEMETRIUS 1

ANTONY 137

COMPARISON OF DEMETRIUS AND ANTONY 333

PYRRHUS 345

CAIUS MARIUS 463

DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 601



PREFATORY NOTE

As in the preceding volumes of this series, agree-
ment between the Sintenis (Teubner, 1873-1875)
and Bekker (Tauchnitz, 1855-1857) editions of the
Parallel Lives has been taken as the basis for the
text. Any preference of one to the other, and an}^
important deviation from both, have been indicated.
An abridged account of the manuscripts of Plutarch
may be found in the Introduction to the first volume.
Of the Lives presented in this volume, the last part
of the Antony (from chapter Ixxvii.), and the Pyrrhus
and Marius are contained in the Codex Sanger-
manensis (S s ), but none in the Codex Seitenstet-
tensis (S). These are the two oldest and most
authoritative manuscripts. The readings of the
excellent Paris manuscript No. 1676 (F a ) are not
accessible for any of them. No attempt has been
made, naturally, to furnish either a diplomatic text
or a full critical apparatus. For these, the reader
must be referred to the major edition of Sintenis
(Leipzig, 1839-1846, 4 voll., 8vo), or to the new
text of the Lives by Lindskog and Ziegler, in the
Teubner Library of Greek and Latin texts (now

vii



PREFATORY NOTE

half published). In the present edition, the reading
which follows the colon in the brief critical notes is
that of the Teubner Sintenis, and also, unless other-
wise stated in the note, of the Tauchnitz Bekker.

The Siefert-Blass edition of the Pyrrhus, in the
Teubner series of annotated Greek and Latin texts,
has been of great service.

All the standard translations of the Lives have
been carefully compared and utilized, including
those of the Antony and Marius by Professor Long.



B. PERRIN.



NEW HAVEN, CONNECTICUT, U.S.A.
June, 1920.



Mil



ORDER OF THE PARALLEL LIVES IN THIS

EDITION IN THE CHRONOLOGICAL SEQUENCE

OF THE GREEK LIVES.



VOLUME I.

(1) Theseus and Romulus.
Comparison.

(2) Lycurgus and Numa.
Comparison.

(3) Solon and Publicola.
Comparison.

VOLUME II.

(4) Themistocles and

Camillus.



(9) Aristides and Cato the

Elder.
Comparison.

(13) Cimon and Lucullus.
Comparison.

VOLUME III.

(5) Pericles and Fabius Max-

imus.
Comparison.

(14) Nicias and Crassus.
Comparison.

VOLUME IV.

(6) Alcibiades and Coriola-

nus.

Comparison.
12) Lysancler and Sulla.
Comparison.

VOLUME V.

16) Agesilaiis and Pompey.

Comparison.
(8) Pelopidas and Marcellus.

Comparison.



VOLUME VI.
(22) Dion and Brutus.

Comparison.
(7) Timoleon and Aemilius

Paul us.
Comparison.

VOLUME VII.
(20) Demosthenes and Cicero.

Comparison.

(17) Alexander and Julius
Caesar.



VOLUME VIII.

(15) Sertorius and Eumenes.

Comparison.

(18) Phocion and Cato the
Younger.

VOLUME IX.
(21) Demetrius and Antony.

Comparison.
(11) Pyrrhus and Caius Marius.



(19)



(10)



(24)

(23)
(25)
(26)



VOLUME X.
Agis and Cleomenes, and

Tiberius and Caius

Gracchus.
Comparison.
Philopoemen and Flam-

ininus.
Comparison.

VOLUME XI.

Aratus.
Artaxerxes
Galba.
Otho.



IX



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER OF THE
PARALLEL LIVES.

(1) Theseus and Romulus.

(2) Lycurgus and Numa.

(3) Solon and Publicola.

(4) Themistocles and Camillas.

(5) Pericles and Fabius Maximus.

(6) Alcibiades and Coriolanus.

(7) Timoleon and Aernilius Paulus.

(8) Pelopidas and Marcellus.

(9) Aristides and Cato the Elder.

(10) Philopoemen and Flamininus.

(11) Pyrrhus and Caius Marius.

(12) Lysander and Sulla.

(13) Cimon and Lucullus.

(14) Nicias and Crassus.

(15) Sertorius and Eumenes.

(16) Agesilaiis and Pompey.

(17) Alexander and Julius Caesar.

(18) Phocion and Cato the Younger.

(19) Agis and Cleomenes, and Tiberius and Caius

Gracchus.

(20) Demosthenes and Cicero.

(21) Demetrius and Antony.

(22) Dion and Brutus.

(23) Artaxerxes.

(24) Aratus.

(25) Galba.
(20) Otho.



DEMETRIUS



AHMHTPIO2



I. Qi irpwroi rd$ re^vas eoiKevai, rals alcrQr)- Part
(recrtv V7ro\a/36vr6S ov% iJKiard JJLOL BOKOIHTI rr)v a. 1024



ra? Kpicreis avr&v Karavotja-ai, ^vvafjav, 17



rovro yap
KOLVQV ecrri' rfj Be 77/309 rd re\rj rwv

2 dva(f)0pa Bia\\drrov<ri,v. rj /jLev yap alcrOriais
ovoev n fjidXXov eVl \evKwv rj p,e\dvwv Biayvw-
aei yeyovev, ovBe yXvKewv rj rfiKpwv, ovBe fjba\a-
KWV Kat, eiKovrwv rj crKXrjpwv Kal dvrLrvirwv, aXX'
kpyov auTr}9 eKdarois evrvy%dvovaav VTTO Trdv-

re KLvelcrOai Kal Kivov^kvi^v 77/009 TO fypovovv
a>9 TreiTovOev. al Be re^vai /jierd \oyov
Tr/309 aipecriv Kal \ri-ty-iv OLKeiov rivos,
Be Kal SuiKpovcnv d\\orplov, rd fjiev a<^>'
TTporjyovfjLevws, rd Be VTrep rov (f>v\dt;acr0ai

3 Kara av^e/SfjKo^ 7ri0ecopovcrr Kal <vdp larpiK-fj

9 I I 4/

TO voaepov Kal dpjjLOVLKf) TO eVyu-eXe^, 6V&)9 e^et,

(TKOTreLV crv^peprjKe 77/009 TTJV rwv ei'avriwv drrep-

' r/ / n

ya&uav, at Te Tracrco^ reXeiorarai re^vwv,

^ \ ^ f \ /

pocrvvrf Kai oiKaiocrvvri KCLI dtpovriffis, ov

1 eV fKUTtpcf Coraes and Bekker, after Reiske :

2



DEMETRIUS

I. THOSE who first assumed that the arts are like
the bodily senses, seem to me to have perceived very
clearly the power of making distinctions which both
possess, by which power we are enabled to apprehend
opposites, as well in the one case as in the other.
For the arts and the senses have this power in
common ; though in the use to which we put the
distinctions made, they differ. For our sense-
perception has no greater facility in distinguishing
white objects than black, or sweet things than bitter,
or soft and yielding substances than hard and re-
sisting ones, but its function is to receive impressions
from all objects alike, and having received them, to
report the resulting sensation to the understanding.
The arts, on the other hand, which proceed by the
use of reason to the selection and adoption of what
is appropriate, and to the avoidance and rejection of
what is alien to themselves, contemplate the one
class of objects with direct intent and by preference,
and yet incidentally contemplate the other class also,
and in order to avoid them. For instance, the art
of healing has incidentally studied the nature of
disease, and the art of harmony the nature of
discord, in order to produce their opposites ; and
the most consummate arts of all, namely, temper-
ance, justice, and wisdom, since their function is
to distinguish, not only what is good and just



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



Kal biKaiwv KOI (t)(f)\i/ji(i)v, d\\d Kal j3\a- 889

KOI ala"%pwv /cal dSiKtov Kpicreis ova-ai,
cnreipia rwv Ka/cwv Ka\\a)7ri^o/jLvr)v dfcaKiav
OVK tiraivovGiv, a XX' dftekrcpiav rjyouvrai
ayvoiav &v /maXiaTa yivdxTKeiv Trpoarjicei

4 opOws /3ia)<ro[ivou<;. 01 p.ev ovv TraXaiol
riarai TOU? ftXcora? eV rat? eoprals TTO\VV dva<y-
Kd^ovTes 'nlve.iv axparov elafjyov et? ra av/jLTrocna,

TOt? VeOlS OIQV <JTl TO /jL0l>eiV 7TlSlKVVVT<i'

fj/jiels Be Tr]v fjiev e/c ^acrrpoc^T)? erepwv ejravop-
Owcriv ov irdvv (})i\dvdpa)7rov ovBe TroXiTircrjv

5 rjyovjAeOa, rwv Be Ke^piffjievwv dar/c7n orepov av-
Tot? KOL yeyovorwv ev e^ovaLai^ /cal
/jbyd\oi<; eTrifyavwv ei? KdKiav, ov ^elpov
ecrrl crv^vyiav fjLiav rj Bvo Trape/z/SaXet^ et? rd
irapaBeiyfiara rwv ftiwv, OVK e'</>' ifiovf), /JLCL At'a,
Kal Siaycoyfj r&v Gvrvy^apovrwv

6 TrjV ypafirjv, aXX' wcnrep t l<r/j, l t]via<; 6
7riSi/cvv/jLvo5 rot? paO i]T al<$ Kal TOL? ev /cal
TOU? KaKws av\ovvTa<$ elcoOet, \yeiv, "
av\elv Set," Kal ird\iv t " OI/TCO? av\elv ov

o 5' 'AvriyeviSas Kal TI^LOV coero rwv dyaflaw
aKpoaaOai TOU? i/e'ou? av\.r)rwv edv Kal TWV



ovra)



Kal T^yttet? TrpoOufjiorepoL TWV (3e\Ti6vwv e
Kal flearal Kal fjLi/jLrjral ftlwv el /jirjoe rwv <$av\wv
Kal ^Ireyo/jLevcav di'KTToprjrws e^OLfiev.
7 Ylepie^eL Brj TOVTO TO (SifSKiov rov ^tj/jirjrpiov
rov Tlo\iop/fr/rov fiiov Kal ' KVTWVLOV rov avro-
Kpdropos, dvSpwv /jLaXiara Brj TU>

on Kal /ca/cta? fieydXas, w



DEMETRIUS, i. 3-7

and expedient, but also what is bad and unjust
and disgraceful, have no praises for a guilelessness
which plumes itself on its inexperience of evil, nay,
they consider it to be foolishness, and ignorance of
what ought especially to be known by men who
would live aright. Accordingly, the ancient Spartans
would put compulsion upon their helots at the
festivals to drink much unmixed wine, and would
then bring them into the public messes, in order to
show their young men what it was to be drunk.
And though I do not think that the perverting of
some to secure the setting right of others is very
humane, or a good civil policy, still, when men have
led reckless lives, and have become conspicuous, in
the exercise of power or in great undertakings, for
badness, perhaps it will not be much amiss for me to
introduce a pair or two of them into my biographies,
though not that I may merely divert and amuse my
readers by giving variety to my writing. Ismenias
the Theban used to exhibit both good and bad
players to his pupils on the flute and say, " you must
play like this one," or again, "you must not play like
this one " ; and Antigenidas used to think that
young men would listen with more pleasure to good
flute-players if they were given an experience of bad
ones also. So, I think, we also shall be more eager
to observe and imitate the better lives if we are not
left without narratives of the blameworthy and the
bad.

This book will therefore contain the Lives of
Demetrius the City-besieger and Antony the Im-
perator, men who bore most ample testimony to the
truth of Plato's saying 1 that great natures exhibit

1 It is uncertain what passage in Plato is meant.



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

dperds, at ueyd\ai (pvcreis exfpepovcri. yevoaevoi

S' 6yU,OtCt)9 epCOTlKOl, 7TOTLKOL, CTTpaTLCOTlKOL, fjL6ja-

\oBa>poi, TToXureXefc, vftpio~Tai, KOI ra? Kara
8 TV^]V ouoioTrjras aKO\ov6ov<s ea^ov. ov jap
jjiovov ev TO) XotTro) ftiw aeyd\a fjiev /caropOovvres,
/jiyd\a Be a(f)a\\6/j,evii, 7r\Lcrr(i)v Se eTritcpa-
ToO^Te?,7rXeZ(TTa Se a7ro/5aXXo^re?, a7r/?ocr8o/c?/Ta)9
Be TTTaiovres, dv~\,7ricrTti>s Be ira\iv dvatyepovres
BieTe\ecrai>, aXXa KOI Karecrrpe^ap, 6 /Jiev aXou?
VTTO TWV 7ro\e/j,L(i)i>, 6 Be eyjiara rov ira9e.lv
rovro yevo/jbevos.

II. \\VTLyova) Toivvv Bveiv viwv e/c ^rparoi'L-
/c?7? rr}? Koppdyov yevojJLevwv, TOV /^ev eirl rd-
Be\(fxp ArjijLiJTpioy, TOV 8' eVl ru> Trarpl Qi

dt)VO/jia<TV. OUT09 (TTIV 6 TWV 7T\L(TT(0V

Be TOV Ar)/u.iJTpiov ov% viov, aXX' dBe\(f)tBovv
t, TOV 'AvTiyovov \eyovcriv eVi vrjTrlq)
ydp avTW iravTaTracri TOV 7rar/3o? T6\6VTrjaavTO^,
eiTa TT}? /T^T/JO? ev9vs TCO 'Avriyovcp

2 VLOV e/ceuvov vo^io6r]vai. TOV /lev ovv

ov TroXXot? T(7L TOV Arj^rjTpiOV ve(t)Tpov ovTa
reXeur^crat* Ar;yu.//TyOio? Be /j,eye0et, fjiev
TOV 7rarpo9 eXarTcoi/, /calrrep wv /j.eyas, IBea
Be Kal /taXXet TrpoaayTrov Oav^acrTO^ Kal rrepiTTos,
wcrre TMV Tr\aTTovTMV Kal ypatyovTwv ar/0eva
T?}9 6aoioTr)TO$ e(f)iKecr0ai. TO yap avTo X a P lv
KOL /3a^oo9 Kal <po/3ov Kal wpav el^e, Kal avveKe-
KpaTO T) veapw Kal LTaau) BVCT/JLI^ITO^ iipwiKi']

3 Tt9 eTTidtdveta Kal ftacriXiKr aeavoTi^. OVTW Be



TO r)o<$ 7re()VKei 77/009 eKTrrjiv v-
d/na Kal %dpiv. '>]Sio~TO<> yap a>v crvy-
yeveaffai, o")^o\d^wv re Trepl TTOTO^ xal

6



DEMETRIUS, i. 7-11. 3

great vices also, as well as great virtues. Both alike
were amorous, bibulous, warlike, munificent, extrava-
gant, and domineering, and they had corresponding
resemblances in their fortunes. For not only were
they all through their lives winning great successes,
but meeting with great reverses ; making innumerable
conquests, but suffering innumerable losses ; unex-
pectedly falling low, but unexpectedly recovering
themselves again ; but they also came to their end,
the one in captivity to his enemies, and the other on
the verge of this calamity.

II. To begin, then, Antigonus had two sons by
Stratonice the daughter of Corrhagus, one of whom
he named Demetrius, after his brother, and the other
Philip, after his father. This is what the majority
of writers say. But some have it that Demetrius
was not the son, but the nephew of Antigonus ; for
his own father died when the boy was quite young,
and then his mother immediately married Antigonus,
so that Demetrius was considered to be his son.
Well then, Philip, who was a few years younger than
Demetrius, died. Demetrius, the surviving son, had
not the height of his father, though he was a tall
man, but he had features of rare and astonishing
beauty, so that no painter or sculptor ever achieved a
likeness of him. They had at once grace and
strength, dignity and beauty, and there was blended
with their youthful eagerness a certain heroic look
and a kingly majesty that were hard to imitate.
And in like manner his disposition also was fitted to
inspire in men both fear and favour. For while he
was a most agreeable companion, and most dainty
of princes in the leisure devoted to drinking and



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

/col SiaiTas d/3po/3icoTaTos /3a(ii\e(i)v, evepyoTaTov
av Trakiv /cal G^o^poTaTOV TO 7T6pl Ta?

eVSeXe^e? ^X Ka ^ $P a < rri lP i v' V Ka ^

Bewv eZrjXov TOV Aiovvcrov, &>? 7roXe'yu,&) re
Beivorarov, eiptfvrjv re avOis CK 7ro\e/j,ov
vrpo? v(f>pocruv^v teal xdpiv e/jifj,e\ea'Tarov.
III. ^Hv fiev ovv /cal fyiXoTraTwp ^ia^epovrw^'
fi Se Trepl Ti~)V pr/repa (nrov&f] /cal TOV Trarepa 890



evvotav



depaireiav TT}? SumyLtea)?. /eat Trore Trpecrffeia
rivl TOV 'AvTiyovov cr^oXa^o^ro? CLTTO 6i]pas o
A?;//, 77-773 to ? eTreaTT)' /cal TrpocreXdwv TCO TraTpl /cal
<^L\i]o-a^, axTTrep et^e ra? /3oX,tSa?, e/cdOicre trap*
2 avTov. 6 Be 'AvTiyovos airiovTa^ ?;Sr; TOU?
cr/?ei? eyovras ra? aTTOKpicreis /JLeyd\rj
'7rpoa-ayopV(ra<;, " Kal TOUTO," elirev, " w a



6 irepl j^wr, <m TT/JO? a\X?;Xou9 ou-
TCO? exo/jLv" &)? Ivyvv TWO, 7r pay /jLaTwv



Kal $vvd/Aa)<; 67riSeij;iv ovcrav TTJV TT/OO? viov
3 ofjiovoiav Kal TTLCTTIV. OVTWS dpa



vr)TQV i] dp%)], /cal jnea~Tov



dydXXecrdai TOV fieyidTOv TWV '

v /cal TrpevftvTaTov OTI /JLIJ (^oySetrat TOV
vlov, a\\d 7rpocriTai TTJV Xoy^iji' e^ovTa TOV
(Tco/^aro? Tr\rfo-iov. ov /jirjv d\\d Kal /JLOVOS, co?
elirelv, 6 ol/vo? OVTO<$ 7rl TrXetVra? SiaBo^a^
TO)V TOLOVTWV KaKwv KaddpV(7e, /jidX\ov Se et?
/jiovos TWV air AvTiyovou ^tX^TTTro? dvel\V vlov.
8



DEMETRIUS, n. 3-111. 3

luxurious ways of living, on the other hand he had a
most energetic and eager persistency and efficiency
in action. Wherefore he used to make Dionysus
his pattern, more than any other deity, since this
god was most terrible in waging war, and on the
other hand most skilful, when war was over, in
making peace minister to joy and pleasure.

III. Moreover, Demetrius was also exceedingly
fond of his father ; and from his devotion to his
mother it was apparent that he honoured his father
also from genuine affection rather than out of de-
ference to his power. On one occasion, when
Antigonus was busy with an embassy, Demetrius
came home from hunting ; he went up to his father
and kissed him, and then sat down by his side just
as he was, javelins in hand. Then Antigonus, as the
ambassadors were now going away with their answers,
called out to them in a loud voice and said : " O
men, carry back this report also about us, that this is
the way we feel towards one another," implying
that no slight vigour in the royal estate and proof of
its power were to be seen in his haimionious and
trustful relations with his son. So utterly unsociable
a thing, it seems, is empire, and so full of ill-will and
distrust, that the oldest and greatest of the suc-
cessors of Alexander could make it a thing to glory
in that he was not afraid of his son, but allowed him
near his person lance in hand. However, this house
was almost the only one which kept itself pure from
crimes of this nature for very many generations, or,
to speak more definitely, Philip was the only one of
the descendants of Antigonus who put a son to death. 1

1 Philip V., King of Macedonia. Cf. the Aemilius Paulus,
viii. 6.



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



4 at e aXXou o-%&bv aTracrai BiaBo^al rro\\a)v fjiev
iraiSwv* TTO\\O)V Be /jLrjrepcov </>6Vof? KOI
TO fiev jap d&e\(f)ov$ dvaipelv, Mairep
ol yew^erpai ra alnj/jLara \a/ji{3dvovo~iv, OVTCO
crvve^wpeLTO KOIVOV TI vofja^op.evov airrj/jia teal
ftacriXiKQV VTrep acr^aXeta?.

IV. Tov /jLevroi /cal $>i,\dv6 PWTTOV (pvcrei real
(f)i\Taipov yeyovevai TOV &r//ji?JTpiov ev dp^f}
7rapd$iy/jia TQIOVTOV euTiv eiTreli'. Mt^piSaTT;?
6 'Apioftap^dvov 7rat9 eratyoo? rjv avTOU teal tcaff
r)\i/ciav - 1 (JW^Or)^, eOepdrreve Se 'AvTiyoyov, ovre



ovre SOKCOV irovro^, etc 8e evvTrviov



2 vTTo-friav 'Avriyovw irapk(jye.v. eSo/cei yap f^e
teal Ka\ov Trebiov eiriaiv o P^vriyovo^ ^r^^d TI 2
KarcKnreipeiv e avrov Be irpwrov JJLZV
6epos %pvcrovv, oXiyw 5' vaiepov GTT-
ovBev aXX' fj rer^irj/^ei'rjv Ka\d/jLrjv.
e teal 7repi7ra0a)i> dteovcrai TIVWV
\e<yovTwv &>? dpa M 10 piSdri^ et? TLovrov Eu-
%eivov o"%Tai, TO ^pvcrovv Oepos e



3 e/e TOVTOU SiaTaa-de}^ teal TOV vlov



, e<ppacre Tr/v b'tfriv avTw, teal OTL Trdv-
TOV dvOpcoTTOV eKTTo&oov TTOielffOai teal

eyvwtcev. d/covcra? Se 6 AT^^T/K
a(f)6Bpa, teal TOV veaviaieov, teaddrrep elu>6ei,
yevo/mevov Trap avTw teal avi>6vTos eVl

fjiev ovtc TO\^jcrev ovSe Trj
Sid TOV opteov, vTrayayoov Se teaTa
ov aTTO TWV (j)i\o)v, &>9 eyeyoveffav /JLOVOI teaQ*
avfov?, TO) aTvpatei TT}? ^07%^? teaTeypa^ev et



10



1 /cal K0.6' T)\iKlav Ziegler : /cafl' riXinlav KO.I.

2 ^r/y/jid. Ti Ziegler : ty-fi



DEMETRIUS, in. 4 -iv. 3

But almost all the other lines afford many examples
of men \vho killed their sons, and of many who
killed their mothers and wives ; and as for men
killing their brothers, just as geometricians assume
their postulates, so this crime came to be a common
and recognized postulate in the plans of princes to
secure their own safety.

IV. In proof that in the beginning Demetrius was
naturally humane and fond of his companions, the
following illustration maybe given. Mithridates the
son of Ariobarzanes was a companion of his, and an
intimate of the same age. He was one of the
courtiers of Antigonus, and though he neither was
nor was held to be a base fellow, still, in consequence
of a dream, Antigonus conceived a suspicion of him.
Antigonus dreamed, namely, that he was traversing
a large and fair field and sowing gold-dust. From
this, to begin with, there sprang up a golden crop,
but when he came back after a little while, he could
see nothing but stubble. In his vexation and dis-
tress, he heard in his dream sundry voices saying
that Mithridates had reaped the golden crop for
himself and gone off to the Euxine Sea. Antigonus
was much disturbed by this vision, and after he had
put his son under oath of silence, told it to him,
adding that he had fully determined to destroy
Mithridates and put him out of the way. On hearing
this, Demetrius was exceedingly distressed, and when
the young man, as was his wont, came to share his
diversions with him, though he did not venture to
open his lips on the matter or to warn him orally,
because of his oath, he gradually drew him away
from his friends, and when they were by themselves,
with the sharp butt of his lance he wrote on the

ii



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



TTf]v yijv opwvTos avTov, " <&evye,
4 avvels Be eVetz'o? aTreBpa VVKTOS et? Ka7T7raSo/aai>.
Kal Ta%v Trfv 'AvTiyovw yevo^ivriv o \jriv vjrap
avTw avv6Te\t, TO ^pecov. TroXX?}? jap KOI aya-
6fj<i Kpdrr)(7 %oopas, Kal TO TWV TLovTi/cwv fiaai-



TTOU iao r navadvov VTTO



KLVOS Trapecf^e. ravra /Jiei> ovv ev-



SeiyfJiaTa TOV A.rjfjL^rpiov Trpos
KOI BiKaiO(Ti>vr)v.

V. 'Evrel Be, wcnrep ev Tot? '
(TTOf^etoi? Sia TO veitcos /cal rr]V <$>L\lav evevri
Bia<f>opa TTyOo? aX\t]\a Kal TroXe/zo?, /^dXX-ov Be
T049 a\\tj\ct)V aTTTOfjievois Kal Trekd^ovcnv, ovrw
rov Tracri TO?? 'A\%dvBpov Sia&6%ois TT/QO? a
Xou? ofTa (Tvve'xrj rr6\/jiov al TWV

l TO)V TOTTCOV <JVvdlCLl 7T/00? GvloVS 67TOLOVV

ov Kal fjia\\ov e^eKaov, wairep
2 yovy TOTG Trpos Hro\ef^aLOv, avro? [lev '

ev Qpvyiq Sierpifte, UToXe/^aiov S' UKOVWV GK 891
SiajSdvra Tropdelv ^vpiav Kal Ta?
Kal ftid%eG0ai, KareTre/jL^e TOV viov
Bvo Kal elKOcnv TO)V ovTa Kal
TOT6 TrpcoTOV avTOT\w<; eVl irpdy/jiao-

ola Be veos Kal aTret/oo? dvBpl



TroXXou? Kal yLte^aXou? /ta^' avTov a/yco/'a?, ecr(f)d-

\rj Trepl TTO\IV Td^av rjTTrjQeis, oKTaKid^tXiwv

3 aXo^Tft)^ Kal TrevTaKKTiXicDV aTroOavovTM. dire-



12



DEMETRIUS, iv. 3 -v. 3

ground so that he could see it, " Fly, Mithridates."
Mithridates understood, and ran away by night to
Cappadocia. And soon the vision of Antigonus was
accomplished for him by fate. For Mithridates
made himself master of a large and fair territory,
and founded the line of Pontic kings, which, in the
eighth generation, was brought to an end by the
Romans. 1 This, then, is an illustration of the strong
natural bent of Demetrius towards kindness and
justice.

V. But just as among the elements of the universe,
according to Empedocles, love and hate produce
mutual dissension and war, particularly among those
elements which touch or lie near one another, so the
continuous wars which the successors of Alexander
waged against one another were aggravated and more
inflamed in some cases by the close proximity of
interests and territories, as at this time in the case
of Antigonus and Ptolemy. Antigonus himself was
tarrying in Phrygia, and hearing there that Ptolemy
had crossed over from Cyprus and was ravaging Syria
and reducing or turning from their allegiance its
cities, he sent against him his son Demetrius, who
was only twenty-two years of age, and was then for
the first time engaging with sole command in an
expedition where great interests were at stake. But
since he was young and inexperienced, and had for
his adversary a man trained in the training-school of
Alexander who had independently w r aged many
great contests, he met with utter defeat near the
city of Gaza, 2 where eight thousand of his men were
taken prisoners and five thousand were slain. He

1 In 63 B.C., when Pompey conquered Mithridates VI. and
dismembered his kingdom. 2 In the spring of 312 s,c.

13



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

fBa\e Be Kal o-fcrjvrjv Kal %pt][j.aTa Kal oXw? crvfji-



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