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Cochlaeus, also addressed to the Scottish king, occasioned
a second letter from Alesius, in which he not only amplifies
his argument with great force, but enters into more general
questions connected with the Reformation. In August 1534
he and a few others were excommunicated at Holyrood by the
deputy of the archbishop of St Andrews. When Henry VIII.
broke with the church of Rome Alesius was induced to go to
England, where he was very cordially received (August 1535)
by the king and his advisers Cranmer and Thomas Cromwell.
After a short residence at Lambeth he was appointed, through
the influence of Cromwell, then chancellor of the university,
to lecture on theology at Cambridge; but when he had delivered
a few expositions of the Hebrew psalms, he was compelled by
the opposition of the papal party to desist. Returning to
London he supported himself for some time by practising as a
physician. In 1537 he attended a convocation of the clergy,
and at the request of Cromwell conducted a controversy with
Stokesley, bishop of London, on the nature of the sacraments.
His argument was afterwards published under the title Of
the Auctorite of the Word of God concerning the number of
the Sacraments. In 1539 Alesius was compelled to flee for
the second time to Germany, in consequence of the enactment
of the statute of the Six Articles. He was appointed to a
theological chair in the university of Frankfort-on-Oder,
where he was the first professor who taught the reformed
doctrines. In 1543 he quitted Frankfort for a similar
position at Leipzig, his contention that it was the duty of
the civil magistrate to punish fornication, and his sudden
departure, having given offence to the authorities of the
former university. He was in England again for a short
time during Edward VI.'s reign, and was commissioned by
Cranmer to make a Latin version of the First Prayer-Book
(1549) for the information of Bucer, whose opinion was
desired. He died at Leipzig on the 17th of March 1565.

Alesius was the author of a large number of exegetical,
dogmatic and polemical works, of which over twenty are
mentioned by Bale in his List of English Writers. (See also
the British Museum catalogue.) In his controversial works he
upholds the synergistic views of the Scottish theologian John
Major. He displayed his interest in his native land by the
publication of a Cohortatio ad Concordiam Pietatis, missa in
Patriam suam (1544), which had the express approval of Luther,
and a Cohortatio ad Pietatis Concordiam ineundam (1559).

The best early account of Alesius is the Oratio de Alexandro
Alesio of Jacob Thomasius (April 1661), printed in the
latter's Orationes (No. XIV., Leipzia, 1683): the best
modern account is by Dr A. W. Ward in the Dictionary of
National Biography. See also A. F. Mitchell's introduction
to Gau's Richt Vay (Scottish Text Society, 1888).

ALESIA, the ancient name for a hill in central France, now
Alise-Ste-Reine (department Cote d'Or), where in 52 B.C.
Caesar besieged the Gaulish national leader Vercingetorix
within enormous entrenchments, forced him to surrender, and thus
practically ended his conquest of Gaul. The siege-works have
been excavated by Napoleon III. and others, down to the present
day. The site seems to have been inhabited also during the
Roman empire, but its importance is limited to Caesar's siege.

ALESSANDRI, ALESSANDRO (ALEXANDER AB ALEXANDRO) (1461-1523),
Italian jurist, was born at Naples about the year 1461.
He studied law at Naples and Rome, and afterwards practised
for a time as advocate in both cities. He is said to have
been royal proto-notary at Naples in 1490. Dissatisfied,
according to his own account, with the corrupt administration
of justice, he at length quitted the bar and devoted himself
entirely to literary pursuits, especially to the study of
philology and antiquities. A sinecure appointment, which
he owed to the favour of the pope, enabled him to lead a
life of learned leisure at Rome, where he died on the 2nd
of October 1523. His work entitled Dies Geniales appeared
at Rome in 1522, and was constructed after the model of the
Noctes Atticae of Aulus Gellius, and the Saturnalia of
Macrobius. It consists of a confused mass of heterogeneous
materials relating to philology, antiquities, law, dreams,
spectres, &c., and is characterized by considerable credulity.

ALESSANDRIA, a city and episcopal see of Piedmont, Italy,
capital of a province which bears its name, situated on the
river Tanaro, 57 m. E. by S. of Turin by rail. Pop. (1901)
71,298, of which about half reside in the actual town: the
rest are distributed over the suburbs. Alessandria was founded
in 1168 by the inhabitants of the district in order to defend
themselves against the marquis of Monferrato and the town of
Pavia, at whose request it was besieged in 1174 by Frederick
Barbarossa for six months, but without success. The Lombard
League now included it among the allied cities and named it
Alessandria, after Pope Alexander III. The traditional account
of its foundation by the Lombard League has been disproved
by F. Graf, Die Grundung Alessandrias: ein Beitrag zur
Geschichte des Lombardenbunides (1888). After falling
into various hands, it was ceded to Savoy by the peace of
Utrecht in 1713, and its citadel was begun in 1728. During
the French occupation (1800-1814), which began after the
battle of Marengo, it was still more strongly fortified; the
works were entirely destroyed by the Austrians in 1815, but
were afterwards reconstructed, and Alessandria is still an
important fortress and the headquarters of the second army
corps. The citadel is on the left bank of the Tanaro, the
town being on the right bank. It is regularly built and
contains few buildings of architectural interest, but is a
flourishing and important commercial town, not merely owing
to its own manufactures (which are miscellaneous) but for
the products of the district, and one of the greatest railway
centres in Italy. Lines diverge from it to Turin via Asti,
to Valenza (and thence to Vercelli, Mortara - for Novara or
Milan - and Pavia), to Tortona, to Novi, to Acqui and to Bra.

ALESSI, GALEAZZO (1512-1572), Italian architect, was born
at Perugia, and was probably a pupil of Caporali. He was an
enthusiastic student of ancient architecture, and his style gained
for him a European reputation. Genoa is indebted to him for
a number of its most magnificent palaces, and specimens of his
skill may be seen in the churches of San Paolo and Santa Vittoria
at Milan, in certain parts of the Escurial, and in numerous
churches and palaces throughout Sicily, Flanders and Germany.

See Rossi, Di Galeazzo Alessi memorie (Perugia, 1873).

ALETHIOLOGY (from the Gr. aletheia, truth), an
uncommon expression for the doctrine of truth, used by Sir
William Hamilton in his philosophic writings when treating
of the rules for the discrimination of truth and error.

ALETRIUM (mod. Alatri), a town of the Hernici, about 6
m. due N. of Frusino, Italy, mentioned in 306 B.C. for its
fidelity to Rome. In Cicero's time it was a municipium,
and continued in this position throughout the imperial
period. It is chiefly remarkable for its finely preserved
fortifications constructed of tetrahedral and polygonal blocks
of local limestone well jointed, with maximum dimensions
of about 3 by 1 1/2 ft.; the outer circuit of the city wall
measures about 2 1/2 m. It is almost entirely an embanking
wall, as is the rule in the cities of this part of Italy, with
a maximum height, probably, of about 30 ft. Two of the gates
(of which there were perhaps five) are still to some extent
preserved, and three posterns are to be found. In the centre
of the city rises a hill (1647 ft.) which was adopted as the
citadel. Remains of the fortifications of three successive
periods can be traced, of which the last, perhaps a little more
recent than that of the city wall, is the best preserved. In
the first two periods the construction is rough, while in the
third the blocks are very well and finely jointed, and the
faces smoothed; they are mostly polygonal in form and are much
larger (the maximum about 10 by 6 ft.) than those of the city
wall. A flat surface was formed partly by smoothing off the
rock and partly by the erection of huge terrace walls which
rise to a height of over 50 ft., enclosing a roughly rectangular
area of 235 by 115 yds. Two approaches to the citadel were
constructed, both passing through the wall; the openings of
both are rectangular. The architrave of the larger, known
as Porta di Civita, measures about 17 ft. in length, 5 ft.
in height, 6 ft. in thickness; while that of the smaller
is decorated with three phalli in relief. Later, though
probably in ancient times, a ramp was added on the northern
side. In the centre of the arx was a building on the site
of the present cathedral, of which only a small portion is
preserved. Remains of a high-pressure aqueduct, which
supplied the town with water and was constructed with other
public buildings (Corp. Inscr. Lat. x., Berlin, 1883,
p. 5807) by L. Betilienus Varus, may still be traced. A
temple was excavated in 1889 about 1/2 m. to the north of
the town and many fragments of the painted terra-cottas
with which it was decorated were found. A reconstruction of
it has been erected in the Museo di Villa Giulia at Rome.
The present town (pop. in 1901, 15,322) has a picturesque
aspect, and contains many buildings in the Gothic style.

See R. Bassel, Centralblatt der Bauverwaltung, 1881, 121,
p. 134; H. Winnefeld, Romische Mitteilungen, 1889, 126;
G. Fiorelli in Notizie degli Scavi, 1882, 417. (T. As.)

ALEURITES (Gr. aleuritus, pertaining to aleuron, ground
meal, from alein, to grind), a genus of trees belonging
to the natural order Euphorbiaceae. Aleurites moluccana,
or triloba, is widely cultivated throughout the tropical
and sub-tropical parts of the world for its fruit, which
is about the size of a walnut, and contains several seeds
which are rich in oil. The oil is extracted and used
for food and light; it is known in India as kekuna, and
the tree as the ``candle-nut.'' In the Sandwich Islands
the nuts are strung upon strips of wood and used as
torches. The oil is exported to Europe for candle-making.
A. cordata flourishes in China, where it is known as the
varnish- tree, on account of the lac contained in its seeds.

ALEUTIAN ISLANDS (possibly from Chukchi aliat, ``island''),
a chain of small islands situated in the Northern Pacific
Ocean, and extending about 1200 m. westward from the
extremity of the Alaskan peninsula toward the peninsula of
Kamchatka; they constitute part of the District of Alaska,
U.S.A. The islands, of which an alternative collective
name is the Catherine Archipelago, comprise four groups - the
Fox, Andreanof, Rat and Near Islands. They are all included
between 52 deg. and 55 deg. N. lat. and 172 deg. E. and 163 deg. W. long.

The axis of the archipelago near the mainland of Alaska
has a S.W. trend, but near the 129th meridian its direction
changes to the N.W. This change of direction corresponds
to a curve in the line of volcanic fissures which have
contributed their products to the building of the islands.
Such curved chains are repeated about the Pacific Ocean in
the Kurile Islands, the Japanese chain, the Philippines,
&c. The general elevation is greatest in the eastern islands
and least in the western. The island chain is really a
western continuation of the Aleutian Range on the mainland.

The great majority of the islands bear evident marks of
volcanic origin, and there are numerous volcanic cones on
the north side of the chain, some of them active; many of
the islands, however, are not wholly volcanic, but contain
crystalline or sedimentary rocks, and also amber and beds of
lignite. The coasts are rocky and surf-worn and the
approaches are exceedingly dangerous, the land rising
immediately from the coasts to steep, bold mountains.

The climate of the islands is oceanic, with moderate and
fairly uniform temperatures and heavy rainfall. Fogs are
almost constant. The summers are much cooler than on the
mainland at Sitka (q.v.), but the winter temperature of
the islands and of south-eastern Alaska is very nearly the
same. The mean annual temperature for Unalaska, the most
important island of the group, is about 38 deg. F.; being about
30 deg. for January and about 52 deg. for August. The highest
and lowest temperatures recorded on the islands are 78 deg. and
5 deg. . The average annual amount of rainfall is about 80 in.,
and Unalaska, with about 250 rainy days per year, is said
to be the rainiest place within the territory of the United
States. The growing season lasts about 135 days, from early
in May till late in September, but agriculture is limited
to the raising of a few vegetables. With the exception of
some stunted willows the islands are practically destitute of
trees, but are covered with a luxuriant growth of herbage,
including grasses, sedges and many flowering plants. On the
less mountainous islands the raising of sheep and reindeer
is believed to be practicable. The principal occupations
of the natives have always been fishing and hunting, and the
women weave basketry of exquisite fineness. From the end
of the 18th century the Russian fur traders had settlements
here for the capture of the seal and the sea otter and the
blue and the Arctic fox. Under the American regime seal
fishing off the Aleutians save by the natives has never been
legal, but the depletion of the Pribilof herd, the almost
complete extinction of the sea otter, and the rapid decrease
of the foxes and other fur animals, have threatened the
Aleuts (as the natives are commonly called) with starvation.
In recent years enterprising traders have raised foxes by
culture and by especially protecting certain small islands,
and this has furnished employment to whole communities of
natives. Fish and sea-fowl are extremely abundant.

The natives are rather low in stature, but plump and well
shaped, with short necks, swarthy faces, black eyes and long
black hair. They are a branch of the Esquimauan family, but
differ greatly from the Eskimo of the mainland in language,
habits, disposition and mental ability. They were good
fighters until they were cowed by the treatment of the Russians,
who practically reduced them to slavery. Sporadic efforts
to Christianize the Aleuts were made in the latter half of
the 18th century, but little impression was made before the
arrival in 1824 of Father Ivan Venyaminov, who in 1840 became
the first Greek bishop of Alaska. While the missionaries
of the Greek Church have nominally converted the natives to
Christianity, white adventurers have more effectually converted
them to various bad habits. In dress and mode of life they
have adopted outwardly civilized customs. From the position
of the Aleutian islands, stretching like a broken bridge
from Asia to America, some ethnologists have supposed that by
means of them America was first peopled. Raised shore-lines,
occasional earthquakes, and slow measurable elevation of the
land about active volcanoes, indicate that elevation is now in
progress, but the geological evidence shows no sign of former
submergence of a connecting isthmus. There is granite at the
core of the Shaler range of mountains in southern Unalaska.

It is stated that before the advent of the Russians there were
25,000 Aleuts on the archipelago, but that the barbarities of the
traders eventually reduced the population to one-tenth of this
number. The number of Aleuts in 1890 was reported as 968;
the total population of the archipelago in 1900 was 2000.

The principal settlements are on the Unalaska Island. Of
these Iliuliuk (also called Unalaska), the oldest, settled in
1760-1775, has a custom house, a Russian-Greek Church, and a
Methodist Mission and orphanage, and is the headquarters for
a considerable fleet of United States revenue cutters which
patrol the sealing grounds of the Pribilofs; adjacent is Dutch
Harbor (so named, it is said, because a Dutch vessel was the
first to enter it), which is an important port for Bering Sea
commerce. The volcano Makushin (5691 ft.) is visible from
Iliuliuk, and the volcanic islets Bogoslof and Grewingk, which
rose from the sea in 1796 and 1883 respectively, lie about 30
m. W. of the bay. The latter is still active; in 1906 a new
cone rose between the two earlier islets, and in 1907 still
another: these were nearly demolished by an explosive eruption
on the 1st of September 1907. The population of Unalaska
Island in 1900 was 575 Aleuts and 66 whites. The Commander
Islands group near the Asiatic coast is geographically,
but since the acquisition of the Russian possessions in
America not politically, a part of the Aleutian system.

In 1741 the Russian government sent out Vitus Bering, a
Dane, and Alexei Chirikov, a Russian, in the ships ``Saint
Peter'' and ``Saint Paul'' on a voyage of discovery in
the Northern Pacific. After the ships were separated by a
storm, Chirikov discovered several eastern islands of the
Aleutian group, and Bering discovered several of the western
islands, finally being wrecked and losing his life on the
island of the Commander group that now bears his name.
The survivors of Bering's party reached Kamchatka in a boat
constructed from the wreckage of their ship, and reported
that the islands were rich in fur-bearing animals. Siberian
fur hunters at once flocked to the Commander Islands and
gradually moved eastward across the Aleutian Islands to the
mainland. In this manner Russia gained a foothold on the
north-western coast of North America. The Aleutian Islands
consequently belonged to Russia, until that country in 1867
transferred to the United States all its possessions in
America. During his third and last voyage, in 1778, Captain
James Cook surveyed the eastern portion of the Aleutian
archipelago, accurately determined the position of some of
the more important islands and corrected many errors of former
navigators. Some preliminary surveys have been made by the United
States government with a view to establishing a naval station
on the island Kiska, in the western part of the Aleutian Chain.

ALEXANDER (ALEXANDER OF BATTENBERG) (1857-1893), first
prince of Bulgaria, was the second son of Prince Alexander
of Hesse and the Rhine by his morganatic marriage with
Julia, countess von Hauke. The title of princess of
Battenberg, derived from an old residence of the grand-dukes
of Hesse, was conferred, with the prefix Durchlaucht or
``Serene Highness,'' on the countess and her descendants in
1858. Prince Alexander, who was born on the 5th of April
1857, was nephew of the tsar Alexander II., who had married
a sister of Prince Alexander of Hesse; his mother, a daughter
of Count Moritz von Hauke, had been lady-in-waiting to the
tsaritsa. In his boyhood and early youth he was frequently
at St Petersburg, and he accompanied his uncle, who was
much attached to him, during the Bulgarian campaign of
1877. When Bulgaria under the Berlin Treaty was constituted
an autonomous principality under the suzerainty of Turkey, the
tsar recommended his nephew to the Bulgarians as a candidate
for the newly created throne, and Prince Alexander was elected
prince of Bulgaria by unanimous vote of the Grand Sobranye
(April 29, 1879). He was at that time serving as a lieutenant
in the Prussian life-guards at Potsdam. Before proceeding
to Bulgaria, Prince Alexander paid visits to the tsar at
Livadia, to the courts of the great powers and to the sultan;
he was then conveyed on a Russian warship to Varna, and after
taking the oath to the new constitution at Tirnova (July
8, 1879) he repaired to Sofia, being everywhere greeted with
immense enthusiasm by the people. (For the political history
of Prince Alexander's reign, see BULGARIA.) Without any
previous training in the art of government, the young prince
from the outset found himself confronted with difficulties
which would have tried the sagacity of an experienced ruler.
On the one hand he was exposed to numberless humiliations on
the part of the representatives of official Russia, who made
it clear to him that he was expected to play the part of a
roi faineant; on the other he was compelled to make terms
with the Bulgarian politicians, who, intoxicated with newly won
liberty, prosecuted their quarrels with a crude violence which
threatened to subvert his authority and to plunge the nation in
anarchy. After attempting to govern under these conditions
for nearly two years, the prince, with the consent of the tsar
Alexander III., assumed absolute power (May 9, 1881), and a
suspension of the ultra-democratic constitution for a period
of seven years was voted by a specially convened assembly
(July 13). The experiment, however, proved unsuccessful; the
Bulgarian Liberal and Radical politicians were infuriated, and
the real power fell into the hands of two Russian generals,
Sobolev and Kaulbars, who had been specially despatched from St
Petersburg. The prince, after vainly endeavouring to obtain
the recall of the generals, restored the constitution with the
concurrence of all the Bulgarian political parties (September
18, 1883). A serious breach with Russia followed, which was
widened by the part which the prince subsequently played in
encouraging the national aspirations of the Bulgarians. The
revolution of Philippopolis (September 18, 1885), which brought
about the union of Eastern Rumelia with Bulgaria, was carried
out with his consent, and he at once assumed the government of
the revolted province. In the anxious year which followed, the
prince gave evidence of considerable military and diplomatic
ability. He rallied the Bulgarian army, now deprived of
its Russian officers, to resist the Servian invasion, and
after a brilliant victory at Slivnitza (November 19) pursued
King Milan into Servian territory as far as Pirot, which he
captured (November 27). Although Servia was protected from the
consequences of defeat by the intervention of Austria, Prince
Alexander's success sealed the union with Eastern Rumelia,
and after long negotiations he was nominated governor-general
of that province for five years by the sultan (April 5,
1886). This arrangement, however, cost him much of his
popularity in Bulgaria, while discontent prevailed among a
certain number of his officers, who considered themselves
slighted in the distribution of rewards at the close of the
campaign. A military conspiracy was formed, and on the night
of the 20th of August the prince was seized in the palace at
Sofia, and compelled to sign his abdication; he was then
hurried to the Danube at Rakhovo, transported on his yacht to
Reni, and handed over to Russian authorities, by whom he was
allowed to proceed to Lemberg. He soon, however, returned to
Bulgaria, owing to the success of the counter- revolution led
by Stamboloff, which overthrew the provisional government set
up by the Russian party at Sofia. But his position had become
untenable, partly owing to an ill-considered telegram which
he addressed to the tsar on his return; partly in consequence
of the attitude of Prince Bismarck, who, in conjunction
with the Russian and Austrian governments, forbade him to
punish the leaders of the military conspiracy. He therefore
issued a manifesto resigning the throne, and left Bulgaria
on the 8th of September 1886. He now retired into private
life. A few years later he married Fraulein Loisinger, an
actress, and assumed the style of Count Hartenau (February 6,
1889). The last years of his life were spent principally at
Gratz, where he held a local command in the Austrian army.
Here, after a short illness, he died on the 23rd of October
1893. His remains were brought to Sofia, where they received
a public funeral, and were eventually deposited in a mausoleum
erected in his memory. Prince Alexander possessed much
charm and amiability of manner; he was tall, dignified and
strikingly handsome. His capabilities as a soldier have been
generally recognized by competent authorities. As a ruler
he committed some errors, but his youth and inexperience and
the extreme difficulty of his position must be taken into
consideration. He was not without aptitude for diplomacy,
and his intuitive insight and perception of character
sometimes enabled him to outwit the crafty politicians by
whom he was surrounded. His principal fault was a want
of tenacity and resolution; his tendency to unguarded



Online LibraryProject GutenbergThe Project Gutenberg Encyclopedia Volume 1 of 28 → online text (page 193 of 332)