and I was stupefied to find that some seventy-five per cent, of their
original Latin sentences are absolutely wrong. Yet they are supposed
to know all about grammar, syntax, philology, the <' classics,"
'^Caesar," etc. I What argument could be stronger to prove their
incompetence to teach Latin, and, at the same time, that the language,
in order to be imparted to others, must be known by the teachers to
read, write and speak? This is what we are ui^ing all over the world
with governments (France, Italy, Mexico, etc., France has already sent
out a commission to investigate, and Italy will also soon) , universities
and professors, and I am glad to say, that our agitation is bearing fruit
Let me congratulate you on Mr. Winchester's article, which, if you
allow, I shall reprint in Prseco Latinus as soon as the Nordhoff letter is
finished, and I shall credit same to you. I have mailed copies of Praeco
and Tuscuium, to show you that I am practically carrying out in
Palaestra, Tusculum and Prseco, what great minds have been suggesting
for centuries, and which Mr. Winchester but confirms. With my comr
pliments and best wishes, I am
Yours very respectfully.
SOME REMARKS ON GRAMMAR.
JOHN B. WEATHERS, WASHINGTON, D. C
FOR more than thirty years I have been a student of Fnglish
grammar, and during at least four-fifths of this time, I have
carried on an independent investigation of the subject that I might be
able to teach it intelligently. It has been an interesting work, although,
at tiroes, I have almost lost faith in the infallibility of Lindley Murray
and his long line of literary descendants. Investigation has made me
skeptical, — not as to the beauty and power and utility of our language,
but rather of the ability and courage of our authors to break away from
fatal customs and give us a reasonable, consistent grammar of the
English language. There are a few things in this science, upon which
authors generally agree. The nomenclature and classification are the
same, or similar, in most text-books. It is generally agreed that there
are eight well defined parts of speech, and that they should be called
noun, pronoun, adjective, verb, adverb, preposition, conjunction and
interjection. And most authors further agree in attributing to certain
parts of speech certain properties or accidents : to the noun, — number,
gender, pereon, case; and to the verb, — voice, mode, tense, number
But while there is this customary acquiescence as to the general out-
line, much is found in text- books on grammar, that is not scientific. It
occurs to me that an author must be consistent with himself and with
scientific definition, to entitle him to respectful consideration. In
mathematics and the sciences, the slightest disagreement or contradic-
504 EDUCATION, [April,
tioti, discredits the author and produces cofifusion amongst his folknr-
ers. This should be wholly true of grammar. Its definitions should
define. Its principles should be immutable, so far as is possible wi<b
a living language. Case is either an inherent property of noarn smA
pronouns, or it is a relation ; not both. Infinitives and participles at<e
verbs or not verbs. Clauses are sentences or not sentences ; not either
At my elbow are more than a score of modem text-books on the waJb-
ject of English grammar. Each by a different author, and eaoh diAer-
ing from its fellow. Some of these authors teach that *' a clause is a
subordinate proposition," and follow this up by saying that '^ a complex
sentence consists of a principal clause, some part of which is modified
by one or more subordinate clauses." Now, taking these twodeflnidoiui
together, the student is taught that there are such monsters in our own
pure English as a principoU stibordinate proposition, and a subordinaie
subordincUe proposition ; and that a clause, used as the subject of a
proposition, is a modifier. One author distinctly instructs the student
to call the principal proposition of a complex sentence, the <^ principal
clause " ; and yet a few pages further on in the same text-book, Ihe
author says : '' The term da^ise should not be applied to the principal
proposition in a sentence."
A^ain, these grammars tell me that case is a property of the noun
and the pronoun, and proceed to inflect these parts of speech to show
how the various cases are formed. They dwell upon the personal pro-
nouns as permitting the best illustration of the property known as case ;
and the student is thoroughly drilled in the inflection of these words,
independent of the sentence. But when syntax is reached the authors
seem to forget their earlier precepts. The student is now taught that
the subject of a proposition may be a word, a phrase, or a clause, and
this is followed by the comprehensive and confusing rule that << the
subject of a proposition is in the nominative case." The property of
case, which at an earlier date was restricted to the noun and the pro-
noun, has now by this autocratic rule been conferred upon a large class
of miscellaneous things, and the honest seeker for scientiflc truth, is
unceremoniously left to grope and distrust.
These two illustrations of incongruities that abound in text-books on
English grammar are perhaps sufl9cient to indicate that we who try to
teach this interesting branch are not insensible to these perplexing
UNIVERSmr STATISTICS AND MOVEMENTS.
According to the ofiScial report for 1894-95, the University of Paris
numbered 11,895 students, distributed as follows: law, 4,158, an
increase of 190 over the previous year; medicine, 5,445; science, 444,
besides 148 hearers or non-matriculates; letters, 1,700. In the medical
faculty there were 1,046 foreigners, of whom 167 were women; in sci-
ence, 69 foreigners, of whom eight were women; and in letters, 160, (tff
whom 61 were women. The library of the law faculty was increased
tSfHL] FOBEIOir NOTES. 98K
by 2,076 volomes during the year ; the daily average naniber of readers
in the same was 500, and the circulation 1 20,000 volumes.
In the faculty of science, 212 students were entered in the special
conne of physics, chemistry and natural science, established November,
1894, as preparatory to the study of medicine. The faculty secured
<lariQg the year a new laboratory of bacteriology.
The movement for securing the admission of American students to
French universities on terms as liberal as those offered in Germany, is
attracting wide attention. The idea has been discussed ever since the
iDtemational Congress held in connection with the Paris Exposition of
1889. It was left for Prof. Henry Furber of Chicago, to turn this
interest into practical endeavor. By a memorial on the subject
presented to the Ministiy of Public Instruction in May last, he brought
the matter to issue. A Franco- American committee was speedily
formed to accomplish the purposes set forth in the memorial. This
committee, which includes the most distinguished members of the Uni-
versity, has been in constant correspondence with an American advisory
•committee under the presidency of Prof. Simon Newcomb. The decree
just issued by the ^* Superior Council of Public Instruction," modifying
the conditions for obtaining the degree of licenci4 in science is the first
fruits of these Joint efforts. The new regulations will enable am
American student to enter the faculty of science on the basis of his
American diploma ; after this everything depends upon his own ability.
He may crowd his studies into one year if he is able to pass the three
required examinations, or he may prolong them at his will ; the licence
won, he may secure the coveted degree of Doctor on presentation of a
worthy thesis. Similar arrangements in the faculties of letters and of
law will probably follow in time, the facilities offered to Americans In
the faculties of medicine are already ample.
In this connection it is interesting to note the attendance of American
students at German universities. In 1891-92, there were registered
27,486 students in the twenty-two German universities. The foreign
•tudents numbered 1,814, of whom, 361 were citizens of the United
The question of the admission of women to degrees seemed a few
weeks since very near settlement at the University of Cambridge. A
memorial was put in circulation, praying that the Council of the Senate
would nominate a syndicate «^ to consider on what conditions and with
what restrictions, if any, women should be admitted to degrees in the
University.'' This memorial has already been signed by 1,950 mem-
bers of the Senate, over 200 of the signatories being residents. Of
thirty-six professors who are not on the Council of the Senate, twenty-
one have signed, and there is reason to believe that a majority of the
Council will be found to be favorable to the petition. The decision of
Oxford, adverse to a similar petition as just announced, is likely to
increase opposing influences at Cambridge.
The movement at Oxford necessarily followed somewhat different
lines. At Cambridge, the whole Senate resident and non-resident, votes
In the fint instance. «^The 147 members of Congregation who have
•igned the Oxford Memorial," says the EducatUmal Times^ «« are few
JW6 EDUCATION. [April^
in number compared with the Cambridge Memorialists from the Senate
who are reckoned by hundreds, but the Oxford men are members of a
icomparatively small body of residents, who must vote upon the matter
before the non-residents are consulted." " Oxford, which was first in
the field, has provided the friends of the movement with evidence as to-
the disadvantage to professional women of the present system, and the
probable effect on women's education of opening the degree. Cam-
bridge is showing what enlightened men and women throughout the
country desire to see done for women students.'' The present status
of women students at the two universities is explained as follows in the
Journal of Education (London) : *' At Cambridge, every student who
enters for the examinations is resident either at Newnham or Girton ;
and the privilege of admission to a Tripos is by statute expi^ssly
accorded and limited to these two colleges. At Oxford there are three
colleges (or halls) — Somerville, Lady Margaret and St. Hugh's — and
there are also a number of students (living at home, with friends, in
lodgings, or in other minor halls) who are organized into a single body
known as the home students. But, besides all these, there are the non-
resident students, scattered all over the country, who are equally admit-
ted to the university examinations. Thus, Cambridge admits only
residents, and recognizes the women's . colleges ; Oxford admits any
student, wherever she resides, and of the resident students has no
ofidcial knowledge whatever.
Again, Cambridge admits only to the Triposes — that is, to the Hon-
ours examinations ; at Oxford, every examination (qaalifying for the
B. A.), whether Pass or Honours, is open to women. Thirdly, at Cam-
bridge the only Honour schools (Triposes) open to women are those
which the University provides for men ; at Oxford, there is, beside the
University schools, a Modern Language Honour Examination open to
Lastly, at Oxford the only students for whom admission to the B. A.
is asked are those who follow the same course, under the same condi-
tions, as would (if they were men) entitle them to graduate ; while at
Cambridge, women who are candidates for the Tripos are allowed to
substitute other (non-classical) preliminaries for the Little-go ; and one
of the most difficult questions which the University will have to decide
will be just this — whether this privilege will still be allowed to candi-
dates for the B. A., or whether women shall be admitted only on the
same terms as men. On this point the two colleges are divided : Gir-
ton has always insisted on its students pursuing an identical course with
the men ; Newnham has always allowed them the option of the alterna-
tive Preliminary, which does not require classics.
Whether the promoters of the Cambridge B. A. for women will agree
on any compromise between their two sections does not yet appear :
they may perhaps leave their internal differences to be settled by the
votes of the Senate. At Oxford the question is simply degree or no
degree ; for nobody contemplates or desires the granting of a degree to
women on different terms from those on which it is granted to . men.
But, at any rate, the strong support already enlisted at Cambridge for
a degree (on some conditions) to women, is a substantial encourage^
18W.] FOREIGN NOTES. 60t
ment to the Oxf oi^ movement. At both aniversities it is apparent that
opinion was more ripe for a change than was at all expected by manyv
eyen of those who most earnestly desired it in the interests of educa-
GREEK IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS.
The Journal of EducaJtion (London) notes that Prof. Dr. Bahnsch
of Dantzig, solves the question of Greek or no Greek in schools in a
novel way. He proposes to substitute for instruction in the Greek Ian*
guage the study of Greek literature by means of translations. He
argues that under the present system the end which the gymnasium sets
before itself is not reached ; the boys do not learn at school to under-
stand the chief classical Greek authors ; nay, even the masters are often
found wanting. The idea is not original with the Professor, as it is the
system authorized by official decree for the modern course of the French
lyc^e. It is true this course is carefully distinguished from the classical
course of the lyc^e in which Greek is a required study, but it is intended
that students in the modern course shall not be ignorant respecting the
historic antecedents of the philosophic, and aesthetic spirit of our age.
SOCIAL PROBLEMS IN EDUCATION.
The medical inspection of schools is a service whose necessity is well
recognized in several European cities. Among the m^ny good results
from an efficient inspection by competent physicians, not the least is the
discovery of impaired senses, as sight or hearing, especially among the
children of the poor, imperfect hearing in particular is likely- to go
unsuspected in this class, and yet it is found to be the cause of many
cases of supposed mental deficiency.
Reichard, who tested 1,055 children in St. Petersburg, found
twenty-two per cent, with poor hearing ; Weill found thirty per cent, in
Stnttgard; Bezold, 20.75 per cent, at Munich; Gelle found in. Paris
the same propoition as Reichard in St. Petersburg. On an average
about one- fourth of the pupils of a school have some trouble in hearing,
and almost without exception, those so afflicted are backward in their
classes. As a rule, more boys than girls are affected in this way, the
proportion being about three to two. It is evidently of great importance
that the fact should be known in each case and the child so placed as
to hear all that the teacher says. Many cases are already on record
where apparently hopeless stupidity has been entirely overcome by sim-
ply seating the child where he could hear distinctly. In Paris, teachers
are instructed how to test the hearing of pupils and to make all neces-
sary adjustments for those whose acuteness is below the normal.
Similar care is exercised with respect to sight. Defects in this sense
are however less likely to escape notice than in hearing.
The '*Ligue Francaise de 1' enseignement,*' a private society which
owes its existence to the zeal of .Jean Mace, has not relaxed its ardor
and its practical efforts since the death of its founder. The society car-
ries on a double work. It concerns itself, on the one side with peda-
gogi<Mil doctrine, seeking by conferences and publications to enlighten
teachers and the public in general as to the principles and practices
60B EDUCATION. [AprB,
that should prevail in popalai* education. On the other hand^ it has the
practical purpose of supplementing public agencies by private effbcts
directed particularly to the interests of youths who have passed the
school age. The report just published of the fifteenth national oon*
gress of the league, which was held at Bordeaux, September last, is a
treasury of information and suggestion as to pressing social problems.
Among these we note the means of preparing the young for industrial
life and insuring them the opportunity for work ; t^e education of girls,
particularly of the average girl, and tiie maintenance of courses of
instruction for adults. The importance of the society is attested by the
distinguished names on its roll and the interest which its congresses
excite. The meeting at Bordeaux was presided over by M. Bourgeois,
formerly Minister of Public Instruction and later, Prime Minister; the
President of the Republic sent a congratulatory telegram, which was
read at the banquet. a. t. s.
AMONG THE BOOKS.
To aocommodate readers who may wish it, the pahllshers of Bducation wiU Mnd, post
paid on the receipt of price, any boolc reviewed in these columns.
L. Prang & Co. delight many hearts with the variety, beauty and appropriate-
ness of their Easter cards and booklets. Among the lovely cards this spring are
lilies of different kinds, violets, passion flowers, daisies and other flowers, also
illuminated cards full of rich suggestion. These will adorn and brighten many
homes and cheer and gladden not a few trustful, pious or aching hearts. The
booklets are very lovely. The Message of the Lilies, by Bessie Gray — "The
queenly gracious lilies, in their stately scented rows *^ ^— is as sweet in text as it is
beautiful in illustration. Two others of almost equal loveliness, prepared by tfie
same author, are Morning Glory and Flower Beautiful. Three other charming
booklets are Easter Passion Flower, Lily-Bells and Violets and Flowers o* the
Spring. The last sets before us apple blossoms, daffodils, violets, primroses and
daisies. We feel grateful to the firm for all that they are dohig to cultivate the
artistic taste and gladden the hearts of all good people.
The New York State Library (Albany) has just issued its sixth annual compara-
tive summary and index of state legislation, covering the laws passed in 1805 by
thirty-seven states and two territories. Each law is briefly described or summa-
rized and classified under its proper subject-head, with a full alphabetic index to the
4847 entries. This number of the bulletin makes a volume of 310 pages. It is
mailed by the state library at the nominal charge of 36 cents.
Lb Gbndre db Monsieur Poiribr, by Augier et Sandeau, is a comedy in four
acts, and has been edited with introduction and notes by Benjamin W. Wells,
Ph. D. This comedy is considered to be Augier^s masterpiece and gives an
insight into character which is not often seen in dramas. The editor has written a
very readable introduction in which he gives the history of the play and its arga-
ment The notes are rather too full and copious but they are scholarly and inter*
esting. It will prove to be a good book for classes in French. Boston : D. C.
Heath & Co.
A series of Germanla Texts intended for advanced students who wish to make a
thorough study of German literature is being issued in the form of monthly pam-
phlets, at 10 cents each, edited by A. W. Spanhoofd. American Book Company.
1396.] AMONG THE BOOKS. 5M
An Introduction to thb Study of Ambrican Litbraturb, by Brander Mat-
thews, A. M. , LL. B. This book has a mission. In a clear and concise way it tefls
the young reader what to read and how to read it The brief biographies of fifteen
gseat representative American authors are excellent. American Book Company.
Obsbrvation Blanks in Physics, Air, Liquids and Hbat, by William C. A.
Hammel, Professor of Physics, Maryland State Normal School, contains blanks
for fifty-four experiments, with brief directions for performing each and with
spaces for noting observations and inferences. Each page has illustrations show-
lAg parts of the apparatus needed. The whole, bound in book form, will prove
very convenient to the student of the subjects treated. New York : American
Book Company. 30 cents.
Aldbn's Living Topics Magazine and Cyclopedia is an excellent new idea.
It is intended to be supplementary to all encyclopaedias and by weekly publication
in magazine form will bring up to date information on various live topics about
which every intelligent person wishes to keep posted. From time to time bound
volumes will appear. Volume I. is at hand and covers from Abbas to Boyesen.
We note the facts of the Armenian troubles up to November, *95, and the notifica-
tion of Ballington Booth^s recall in January, 1806. New York : John B. Alden, 10
and 12 Vandewater street. 50 cents.
A Country Girl, by Lillian Cornell, is a fresh, bright, interesting story. The
characters are lifelike. The reader^s attention is engaged in the first chapter and
retained to the end. The story is wholesome if not deep. It will while away the
hours of a summer day very pleasantly. New York : The Irving Company, Pub-
We have received Numbers 1 to 7 of tlie books of Spencerian Penmanship,
Vertical Edition, from the American Book Company, New York. In a progressive
way they present the principles of this new method of writing.
In the Eclectic Series of English Classics, The Tragedy of Hamlet, and The
LiFB of Nelson, by Southey, are published in convenient form for school use.
Hhb price of these two volumes is 25 and 40 cents, respectively. American Book
Old Stories of the East, by James Baldwin, reproduces in a purely literary
form some of the best stories that have come down to us chiefly through the
medium of the Hebrew Scriptures. The book is a step in the right direction. It is
excellent for supplementary reading. American Book Company. 45 cents.
The Man Who Became a Savagb, by W. T. Homaday, author of ** Two
Years in the Jungle,'* reminds one of Kipling's Jungle Stories. The author has
distinguished himself as traveller, naturalist, journalist, and now scores a brilliant
success as novelist in a style distinctly modem and highly edifying. Behind the
vivid pictures of life, partly real and partly imaginary, in this volume, we have a
great deal of keen humor and forceful satire on modem society. The book is
interesting as a story and worthy of a large reading as a study of the defects of
civilization. This book was first published as a serial in the Buffalo Illustrated
Express. Peter Paul Book Company, Buffalo, N. Y. $1.60.
Analytic Questions on the Art of Shakespeare, by L. A. Sherman, is the
title of a pamphlet published at 12 1-2 cents by J. H. Miller, Lincoln, Nebraska.
It is well fitted to stimulate an interest in Shakesi>earian studies.
5)L0 EDUCATION. [Aprll^
Studies in Education, Scibnob, Art, Hibtoby, by B. A. Hinsdale, Ph. D.,
LL. D., is a collection of papers on educatioiial themes most of which have been
read before the National Educational Aaaociation and other bodies, and are now
^thered into a convenient voliime for permanent, preservation. They are able
and suggestive discussions of live topics in this great field of human endeavor
which has had such a marvellous development in the past twenty-five years. Their
clear, logical and trenchant style marks the author as a natural leader in his chosen
field. All others working along the same lines will welcome this volume. . New
York and Chicago : Werner School Book Company.
The First German Book, by M. J. Martin, A. M., belongs to the Werner
Modem Language Series, and by the inductive method, by easy stages and with
the aid of pleasing illustrations, introduces the beginner to the study of German.
The Werner Book Company.
Studies in Theolooic Definition Underlying the Apostles* and Nicenb
Creeds, by Frederic Palmer, Rector of Christ Church, Andover, Mass. Mr.
Palmer has done a real service to thoughtful young people who are seeking to get
a clear vision of the ** reason of the hope that is in them." He is a remarkably
clear, clean-cut, logical thinker, and has the gift of a lucid style that places the
results of his thinking within easy reach of other minds. This book answers the
objections of those who assert that we cannot know anything with certainty about
God, the hereafter, spiritual life and immortality. The author shows that the